Free Essay

Degree of Freedom

In: Science

Submitted By RahmanNoor
Words 847
Pages 4
There are two primary applications of the term Degrees of Freedom (DOF).
1) Denote

the number and parameters of displacements and/or rotations available within a given task space.

Degrees of Freedom in a Three Dimensional (3-D) Space

In a Two Dimensional (2-D) space (like a table-top or the floor) there are three Degrees of Freedom. These include displacement along the X and Yaxes, plus rotation. In a Three Dimensional (3-D) space there are six degrees of freedom. These consist of displacement along three perpendicular axes (X, Y and Z), and rotation about those same axes. DOF in 3D space are generally identified using the following nautical terms: Displacements Heave: Moving up and down Surge: Moving forward and backward Sway: Moving left and right Rotations Yaw: Turning left and right flight Roll: Tilting side to side Pitch: Tilting forward and backward> 2) Denote

the number and parameters of displacements and/or rotations that a body or mechanism is able to execute.
Holonomic mechanisms are able to perform controlled movement through every available DOF within its particular task space.

Non-holonomic mechanisms are capable of fewer controlled DOF than are actually available within its task space. Redundant mechanisms can execute more controllable DOF than are actually available within its task space.

Contents
[hide]

1 Mobility In 2-D Space

o

1.1 Holonomic Motion

2 An Arm In 3-D Space 3 Related Links

[edit]

Mobility In 2-D Space

Degrees of Freedom of arobot that utilizes Differential Steering

Degrees of Freedomof a robot that utilizesAckerman Steering

A mobile robot that utilizes Ackerman (car-like) steering can theoretically reach any point and achieve any orientation within its 2-D task space, although it might have to carry out several and varied maneuvers to do so. This is due to the fact that this type of robot is only capable of executing a single displacement (forward/backward) and a single rotation (steering angle). This fact also means that this type of robot is capable of only two controlled DOF which is one fewer DOF than are available in its two dimensional task space. It therefore isnon-holonomic.

A robot capable of Differential or Skid Steering would be able to move more directly from one point and orientation to a different point and orientation within the same 2-D task space. However it would still only be able to execute a single displacement (forward/backward) and a single rotation (turn, pivot or spin). Thus it can execute only two controlled DOF which again is one fewer than are available in its task space. So it too is non-holonomic.

A typical BEAM walker would also be non-holonomic because BEAM walkers can generally execute only a single displacement (forward/backward) and a single rotation (turning).

[edit]Holonomic Motion

Degrees of Freedom of a robotthat utilizes Kiwi Drive

Degrees of Freedom of a robotthat utilizes a 4 Wheel Omni-Drive

An example of a holonomic robot would be one that is equipped with three independently driven Mecanum wheels or omni-wheels, mounted in a triangular configuration. This is generally called a Kiwi Drive. A robot that utilizes Kiwi Drive can simultaneously execute controlled motion through both the X and Y axes, and rotational movement.

Holonomic Wheeled Robot Video #1 Holonomic Wheeled Robot Video #2 Holonomic Wheeled Robot Video #3

There are multi-legged walking robots (typically hexapods) that can execute displacement in both the X and Y axes, and rotation. These walkers are holonomic, but are not BEAM robots.

Holonomic Hexapod Video #1: Holonomic Hexapod Video #2: [edit]

An Arm In 3-D Space

Layout of a Robotic Arm with Seven Degrees of Freedom

A normal human arm is redundant ( and therefore holonomic ) in that it has seven DOF. The shoulder gives pitch,yaw and roll. The elbow allows for pitch. The wrist allows for pitch and yaw. And the elbow and wrist together allow for Roll. Only three DOF are needed to move the hand to any particular point within a given three dimensional space, but having a greater the number of controlled DOF enables human beings to grasp items in that space from a variety of different angles and directions.

Robot arms are typically categorized by the number of controlled DOF they can execute. This number is equal to the sum of the DOF of each of a robot arm’s individual joints. Generally these will be either Hinge joints or Pivot joints, both of which are only capable of rotation about a single-axis. Therefore a robot arm that has seven individual Hinge joints or Pivot joints would be classified as a 7 DOF arm. In some cases, complex joints capable of performing more than a single type of movement are used instead of the simpler hinge joints and pivot joints. Doing this increases the number of DOF that a robot arm would be able to execute, while keeping the number of actual joints to a minimum.

More information on various kinds of simple and complex joints can be found at: Types Of Joint…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Freedom

...Lillian Haywood Philosophy 3101 December 6, 2012 Freedom In My Opinion The word freedom has little meaning to anyone if we don't have a common definition. Freedom is the state of being free or at liberty rather than in confinement or under physical restraint or the power to determine action without restraint. In my opinion freedom starts with a principle of self-control or self ownership. We have legal control over our body and mind. The concept of freedom refers to a certain type of political empowerment which means, a free society is one with an equal distribution of our legal rights and in which each and every person has as much legal rights as possible. In a free society, one person cannot have so many rights that all other people could not logically have the same amount of legal rights. Can you imagine if the world was like this, there would be more chaos thatn we already have in the world. An example is, freedom doesn't include the legal right to enslave someone else because freedom includes the legal right not to be enslaved. Also, freedom does not include the legal right to non-defensively punch someone in the face against their will because freedom includes the right to not be offensively punched. I believe that's battery and assault in the law enforcement world. The principle of self-control lets us easily realize why freedom includes the legal right to self-defense. Freedom includes self-defense because empowering people with......

Words: 485 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Freedom

...Freedom People today agree that freedom is a very important and that it should be part of their lives, but what does it mean to have freedom? Some would say it is the ability to do whatever you want as long as you do not break the law or hurt someone else, but others would say it is being able to do whatever you please without having any consequences. Many authors in the past wrote about this topic and what their definition of freedom was. Their writings inspired many people to think what freedom really meant and take action for freedom. A few of these authors were John Winthrop, Benjamin Franklin, and Ralph Emerson. John Winthrop categorized freedom into two categories, Natural Liberty and Civil Liberty. Benjamin Franklin was more interested in the economic side of freedom by being able to choose any job to become financially successful and having to do things for himself. Ralph Emerson’s definition of freedom was for people to think for themselves and do what they think is right. Just to worry about themselves instead of worrying about other people’s opinion and what others are doing. They all had different views of freedom and what it means to be free, but deep down they were similar in which people want the freedom to choose and be who they want to be without being punished or bound. John Winthrop’s definition of Natural Liberty is being able to do whatever people wanted and just relying on their instincts just like an animal would. “By this, man, as he stands in......

Words: 1370 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Freedom

...Freedom is an essential part of the good life. One cannot be living a good life if he/she is not free to do what he/she wants. However, with freedom comes the moral understanding of what can and cannot be done by the individual. If one is supposed to be living without boundaries then having the boundaries of morality stop unjust acts, this brings to itself what can and cannot be done by the individual. Thus, this brings an overall contradiction to the word freedom. Rousseau wrote, “Man is born free, and yet everywhere he is in chains”. We can distinguish between two types of freedom: 1. Intrinsic freedom, or our natural free will with which we are born. 2. Extrinsic freedom, that freedom for which we must fight for. Freedom is difficult to define due to the negative concept of being a reaction against something. This is known as negative freedom, a reaction against or as freedom from some undesirable position, power or rule. There is also what is known as positive freedom, which is the freedom to do or have. Behind all of our superficial aspects there is some pure inner self that, acting out of it, constitutes the true nature of freedom. Sartre says that pure freedom is consciousness itself. A freedom that is free from determination by all other influences and which allows one to act in a number of different ways. This freedom, as described by Sartre is challenged by the Principle of Universal Causality. This principle states that every event has its......

Words: 570 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Freedom

...the fundamental aspect of governance remains the “freedom” for all. The cry and search for freedom has lead to countless revolutions, multiple uprisings, civil conflicts, and consistent advocacy to for people to be free. Citizens cry for freedom include freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, freedom of speech, freedom to elect their own leaders, and a political system that provides equal rights and justice for all. Other advocacy for freedom include equitable distribution of national wealth, good governance, access to basic welfare, food and shelter, education, among others. In the quest to ensure that governments around the world provide these and many other kinds of freedom to its citizens, the Freedom in the World survey plays the fundamental rule of conducting research, analysis and evaluation of various political systems around the world. The Freedom in the World conduct annual survey which is directing towards evaluating political governance, their provision of political rights to their citizens and also the extent to which individual and collective citizens have access to their civil liberties freely without intimidation or fear. The Freedom in world conducts Press Freedom survey that has been in existence since 1972. They have since then been producing annual reports that analyze several forms of freedom and political restrictions. Some of those aspects of freedom that are analyzed in the survey include: Freedom of the press (that examines that kinds of laws......

Words: 1022 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Freedom

...Freedom does not mean license, but the wisdom to choose what is right for oneself ‘Freedom’, be it from fellow humans, prevalent customs, way of life or society, is a word that symbolises man’s intrinsic nature and individuality. It is a feeling that has been experienced and expounded differently by different people: freedom- the ultimate goal of thousands of revolutions, the ideal that inflamed the minds of myriads of nameless, faceless people and their illustrious leaders. Battles for freedom everywhere are coeval with the beginning of hierarchy and civilisation. They are being fought all the time, albeit on different scales. And in all these struggles or movements, the definition of ‘freedom’ is almost always different. This is essentially so since freedom, being a psychological factor is not the same for different people. But, invariably, all these definitions have to undergo the test of time and the scrutiny of history. So, on one hand there are movements for freedom or liberty which have united people and on the other hand there are those movements which have succeeded only in tearing up the social fabric and leave the people high and dry. Thus, freedom is best defined by this time tested statement: “freedom does not mean license, but the wisdom to choose what is right for oneself.” So freedom can never be intrusive that it encroaches upon the rights of others. As Lincoln famously declared in 1859, “Those who deny freedom to others deserve it not for themselves”.......

Words: 331 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Freedom

...mean license, but the wisdom to choose what is right for oneself ‘Freedom’, be it from fellow humans, prevalent customs, way of life or society, is a word that symbolises man’s intrinsic nature and individuality. It is a feeling that has been experienced and expounded differently by different people: freedom- the ultimate goal of thousands of revolutions, the ideal that inflamed the minds of myriads of nameless, faceless people and their illustrious leaders. Battles for freedom everywhere are coeval with the beginning of hierarchy and civilisation. They are being fought all the time, albeit on different scales. And in all these struggles or movements, the definition of ‘freedom’ is almost always different. This is essentially so since freedom, being a psychological factor is not the same for different people. But, invariably, all these definitions have to undergo the test of time and the scrutiny of history. So, on one hand there are movements for freedom or liberty which have united people and on the other hand there are those movements which have succeeded only in tearing up the social fabric and leave the people high and dry. Thus, freedom is best defined by this time tested statement: “freedom does not mean license, but the wisdom to choose what is right for oneself.” So freedom can never be intrusive that it encroaches upon the rights of others. As Lincoln famously declared in 1859, “Those who deny freedom to others deserve it not for themselves”. There are two sides......

Words: 501 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Freedom

...have come to think about their future. This essay aims to evaluate the American Dream and its inside and outside threats and how the rich people have more faith in this dream then the poor. Every nation has an idea or a story to live by. A story that tells the reason behind its existence and the philosophy of this existence. In moments of crisis the citizens of a nation -no matter how big or small that nation is - always go back trying to remember why the nation was founded and how did it succeed? America is no different than this. This nation was born on the ideas of freedom, prosperity for all and equality. Perhaps there is no people who have succeeded in exporting their country’s idea and philosophy to the outside world as much as the Americans’ success in exporting -the idea of America- to the world. The American Dream is something that resembles the political ideology, its essence is the faith in freedom that will enable people to achieve their goals by working hard. As a result, the term American Dream has mesmerized and inspired both the Americans and the world , because they believe that it eliminates the role of social class, race, color or religion the person belongs to in determining his/her future....

Words: 335 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Freedom

...the white people. Blacks did not have the respect they deserved and the right to speak freely. Martin Luther King, however, choose to speak his mind. He spoke to the public about how everyone should be equal. He chose to be a leader and an advocator of freedom. The consequences of his actions were obvious, even to him. However, he had the freedom to choose what he wanted to do with his life, even under the restrictions of society. Black people restricted the popular rapper, Eminem. He was resticted because of his skin color, because rapping was a "black mans sport." Eminem was discouraged by the crowed, who were all black. However, even discouraged by the crowd, Eminem did not want to live in the poor condition he grew up in. He chose to live a better life by rapping for living. Even though discouraged by many, Eminem today is one of the most popular rappers in the world. Surely, this shows that he was not bound by any force that inhibited his choice in life. The lives of Martin Luther King and Eminem are only two examples that clearly illustrates the fact that people are not restricted by rules of society. Schooling, organized religion, discrimination, and other social restrictions do not restrict people. People have freedom to break rules and live the way they want. As a Chinese proverb says, "the sky is the limit."...

Words: 351 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Freedom

...Therefore, freedom is not absolute. In the West where personal freedom is held in the highest esteem, there are still definable limits. Freedom of speech, in the words of an American jurist, does not include the freedom to yell “Fire!” in a crowded theatre, unless of course there is a fire. America has enshrined in its constitution the Bill of Rights with the specific purpose of protecting the civil liberties of its citizens. Among its provisions are the freedoms of speech, religion, and peaceful assembly, together with the rights of due process. These statutes notwithstanding, they did not protect Japanese Americans from being forcefully relocated and incarcerated during World War II, and more recently, the detention of thousands of Arab-Americans following the 9/11 attacks. Today the injustices perpetrated on those Japanese-Americans are widely acknowledged, but significantly, the Supreme Court decision affirming the legality of that mass detention has yet to be overturned. There will always be limits to freedom; the pertinent question is where those lines are drawn and the role they play in the ordinary lives of the citizens. Limits on human freedom can be viewed likewise. In America there are definite limits but they are more like the moat; the citizens are hardly aware of them. They are not intrusive. Executive powers to establish military tribunals for example, are definite boundaries and gross infringements on the citizens’ freedom. Similarly Canada has its War......

Words: 912 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Freedom

...What is freedom? Is it an absolute right? We are born to become free. Freedom is defined from different aspects ,and according to different cultures, freedom varies from culture to another. Some define freedom as a natural right, the human being is born with. Everyone wants to be free and independent from others. Freedom is the right to do what one wants, live where he wants, eat what he wants, learns what he wants, and chooses the religion in which he believes, without ignoring or harming other rights. How can we live free? From my point of view, we can live free by respecting other’s rights to live free too. We cannot ignore the rights of people with whom we live in the society. We cannot simply do what we want and ignore others. We must take other people rights into consideration. The idea behind freedom is to be respectful and useful to our society. Freedom is important to everyone. If someone is derived from this innate right, he will definitely feel as if he is not a respectful human being. When freedom is guaranteed, I can think freely, go where i want, say my opinion without fear from people who would not like my opinion. Freedom of opinion is among the most important branches of freedom .In some societies where freedom of opinion is not guaranteed by the authority, the creativity of mind is killed and buried. Society is the largest and biggest loser from this lack of creativity. Someone once said, Freedom of opinion will never result in animosity among people if they...

Words: 887 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Degree or Not

...Writing an Argument Latasha Randle MGT/521 February 6, 2012 Dr. Marie J. Abram Writing an Argument A Masters of Business Administration (MBA) is a post graduate degree which focuses on Business Communication. The program focuses on providing its attendees with business knowledge, leadership abilities, networking opportunities, and career advancement. Although the intent of the program is understood, one must weigh the advantages and disadvantages when determining if pursuing an MBA is the right choice. Oftentimes, obtaining a degree is only seen in a positive light. However, there can be some hidden negative impacts to seeking a MBA. There are several factors I personally had to consider when deciding to enroll in an MBA program. The MBA program is recognized as the most sought-after postgraduate degree program (VanderMey, 2011). According to the Graduate Management Admission Council, the average starting salary ranges from $61,000 to $78,000 annually for recent MBA graduates (VanderMey, 2011). The thought of obtaining a highly sought-after degree and the earning potential were my first true reasons for desiring to be in the MBA program. On the contrary, the job market is currently in a downward spiral. This means that with an MBA degree, there is a likelihood of remaining underemployed or unemployed. According to recent statistics, college graduates are facing the highest unemployment rates in more than two decades (VanderMey, 2011). Another objection to earning...

Words: 943 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Freedom

...Freedom 1 We do have freedom in this country but we simply choose to ignore it. We live in a democracy, the most just kind of government, where we the people hold supreme power. It is an institution that is a culmination of revolutions, wars, philosophies and heroes. It is the greatest and proudest government in the world. One reason for this is that Americans have a right citizens of Iraq and China and North Korea only dreamed they could have. It took one of the greatest military epics in history for our Founding Fathers to receive this right. It took the marching of thousands for women to achieve this right. It took 400 years of abuse for blacks to finally to win this right. It is the highest and purest form of freedom of speech and as Americans it is our single most powerful instrument of self government. It is the American vote and in this Presidential election it is a right 250 million chose to ignore. Take for example the elderly in this country. It has been well documented that 2 senior citizens above 60 have the highest voter turn-out of any age group in this country. Both Presidential candidates this year have appealed strongly for medical reforms with this group especially in mind. For Politicians this is the group that can make or break their election hopes. They will do whatever it takes......

Words: 558 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Freedom

...Thesis: Unless the Rights of the first Amendment Freedom of Speech is Explained it can be used well and improperly. There are many ways it can be used and cannot. If it is wrongly used you will be prosecuted. What is Freedom of speech * A.The framers of the constitution guaranteed freedom of speech and expression to the citizens of the United States with the First Amendment, which reads, in part, "Congress shall make no law … abridging the freedom of speech B.Freedon Of Speech is the first Amendment in the bill of rights How can the right of Freedom of Speech be misused * A.Using freedom of speech to get back at someone or anything personal can be damaging, and in some cases, you may even be sued for slander or libel. In most countries there is a limit to freedom of speech, and hate speech is outside the limit. B.Freedom of speech is a right and also a privelage. C. This was written primarily for countries which have a freedom of speech. Some countries don't have a Freedom of Speech law. A. The First Amendment says that people have the right to speak freely without government interference. B. The First Amendment prohibits government from establishing a religion and protects each person's right to practice (or not practice) any faith without government interference. C. The First Amendment says that people have the right to gather in public to march, protest, demonstrate, carry signs and otherwise express their views in a nonviolent way. It also means people......

Words: 269 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Freedom

...centuries the word "freedom" has been a topic of debate, and for good reason. There are so many different views of what freedom truly means and what influences it has on our daily lives. According to the American Heritage College Dictionary the word freedom means "The Condition of being free of constraints. To me, the word freedom is being able to achieve anything you want to. It is being able to change your surrounding environment how you want it to be. Many questions have been asked about whether we are truly free of constraints or if everything is predetermined by events that have already transpired. Some believe that it is indeed true that we are not free, that nothing happens freely, and that nothing happens by chance, everything is determined to happen precisely as it does down to the smallest detail. If this statement is true then we are not free, we live a life of predetermined events. In this paper I will discuss many topics regarding freedom including the idea of predetermined events, the use of consequences, and a look back in history at freedom and how it has c... ... middle of paper ... ...ll I am able to choose what I want and change to who I want to be. Living in the United States also plays a big role in my freedom. The United States differs from all other nations. The right to freedom is a gift that is taken for granted. The right of freedom is a gift that no one can take away, a gift that is unseen, but invaluable. Your right to freedom may not be......

Words: 300 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Freedom

...Northcentral" . Thus any student accepting the challenge and has chosen to study at Northcentral can rest assured their degree will be well-respected by not only potential employers but other colleges and universities alike. Values Values is what sets no only one individual apart from the next but also one institution apart from the other. Coupled with the mission and vision statements Northcertral's values statement set them apart and ahead of their competition in the competitive education market. The values statement is divided into four parts: Innovation, diversity, excellence, and Accountability each just as important as the next. Innovation Technology is ever-evolving and it is essential any college or university looking at long term goals understand this point. It is not enough to build a current and outstanding library system. One must also look into the future and plan for the changes that must be made to keep current with this new technology. Just because one has the latest and greatest this week does not ensure they will have the same next week. Innovation should be particularly important for the student because unless their college is as forward thinking as Northcentral the college may fall into a technology pit they may not be able to climb out of and may have to close their door. This would spell doom for the marketability of their hard earned degree. Diversity It is important to treat all people with dignity and respect. Northcentral......

Words: 1279 - Pages: 6