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Database

In: Business and Management

Submitted By FHAICAL
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1.1 Define the following terms: data, database, DBMS, database system, database catalog, program-data independence, user view, DBA, end user, canned transaction, deductive database system, persistent object, meta-data, and transaction-processing application.

• Data merupakan satu satuan informasi yang akan diolah dimana sebelum diolah dikumpulkan di dalam suatu file database. Pengumpulan data dilakukan secara sistematis menurut struktur file database.
• Database merupakan kumpulan data yang terkait satu sama lain. Atau sekumpulan data yang terintegrasi yang diorganisasi untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pemakai untuk keperluan organisasi.
• Dalam database pastinya mengenal istilah DBMS (Databse Management System) yang mana merupakan suatu koleksi dari program yang mana pengguna bisa mengcreate dan memaintain suatu database. Dalam DBMS terdiri atas proses-proses yang harus dilakuka nyaitu defining, constructing, manipulating dan sharing. Komponen-komponen DBMS yaitu terdiri atas hardware, software, data, prosedur, people. Fungsi dari defining yaitu DBMS harus dapat mengolah pendefinisian data. Fungsi dari manipulating DBMS harus dapat menangani permintaan-permintaan dari pemakai untuk mengakses data. Fungsi dari constructing yaitu DBMS harus mengontrol proses pengiriman data ke penyimpanan medium. Fungsi dari sharing yaitu database memperbolehkan banyak orang dan program untuk mengakses database.
• Meta data: informasi terstruktur yang bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan, menjelaskan, menemukan atau menjadikan informasi mudah ditemukan atau lebih singkatnya seperti dictionary / database catalog.
• Database catalog : terdiri atas meta data yang mana definisi dari databse objects seperti table, visual table.
• Database system : bersatunya database dan DBMS software.
• Program data independence : suatu struktur dari data files yang dikirim di DBMS catalog secara terpisah dari access programs.
• Definisi view adalah hasil (result) dari sebuah query terhadap relasi-relasi dasar. Hasil (view) ini tdak disimpan dalam database. Sebuah view adalah sebuah jendela dinamik, dalam artian bahwa ia mencerminkan semua update yang dilakukan terhadap database. Disamping pemakaiannya di dalam skema external, view juga dapat menyembunyikan beberapa data. Apabila user mengakses database melalui view, mereka tidak dpat melihat atau memanipulasi hidden data, dengan demikian data akan disecure.
• DBA (Database Administrators) : bertanggungjawab untuk proses authorisasi akses ke database, koordinasi, pemantauan penggunaannya, serta memperoleh software dan sumberdaya hardware yang diperlukan. DBA bertanggungjawab untuk masalah seperti keamanan pelanggaran dan waktu respon sistem yang buruk. Dalam organisasi yang besar, DBA dibantu oleh staff-staff yang melakukan fungsi-fungsi ini.
• End users adalah orang-orang yang pekerjaannya membutuhkan akses ke database untuk query, memperbaharui, dan menghasilkan laporan. End users dibag menjadi 4 kategori yaitu casual end users, naive or parametric end users, sphisticated end users, standaloneusers.
• Canned Transaction : tipe standar dari query dan update yang sering digunakan oleh naive atau parametric end users untuk meneruskan query dan mengupdate database.
• Deductive database system : memiliki kemampuan mendefinisikan rule deduksi untuk menginfer informasi baru. Misal menentukan siswa dalam masa percobaan. Ini dideklarasikan sebagai rule. Pada DBMS tradisional, kode program prosedural seperti ini secara eksplisit perlu ditulis. Teteapi jika rule diubah, yang tepat diubah adalah rule deduksi yang dideklarasikan daripada mengkoding prosedur programnya. Sistem database aktif akan menyediakan rule yang aktif yang dapat secara otomatis mengisialisasi aksi.
• Persistent object : dapat diakses dalam cara yang sama sebagai object sementara. Sasaran utama dari persisten adalah memandu programmer untuk bekrja dengan object persistent dengan cara yang dimungkinkan sama dengan object sementara secara normal.
• Transaction processing application : sistem informasi yang terkomputerisasi yang dikembangkan untuk memproses data-data dalam jumlah besar untuk transaksi bisnis rutin seperti daftar gaji dan inventarisasi.

1.2 What four main types of actions involve databases? Briefly discuss each.

• Ada 4 types action involve database yaitu hierarchical systems, network model based systems, inverted file systems dan database system. Hierarchical system yaitu sistem yang mana membahas tentag urutan atau aturan dari tingkatan absraksi menjadi seperti struktur pohon. Hirarki membentuk sesuatu pada beberapa aturan yang khusus atau berdasarkan peringkat (misal kompleksitas dan tanggungjawab). Network model based systems sebuah model database yang dipahami sebagai cara yang fleksibel mewakili objek dan hubungan mereka. Fitur yang membedakan adalah bahwa skema dipandang sebagai grafik dimana objek jenis node dan jenis hubungan adalah busur, tidak terbatas untuk menjadi sebuah hirarki. Inverted file systems adalah suatu file yang disimpan dalam suatu urutan tertentu, tetapi suatu indeks yang menyertainya memungkinkan catatan – catatan dari file itu dipilih dalam urutan yang berbeda. Inverted file dirancang untuk memecahkan jenis masalah berupa permintaan manajer atas laporan yang mendaftarkan hanya catatan – catatan tertentu dalam suatu file. Inverted file index seperti itu, juga sering disebut indeks sekunder.
Database sytems dirancang untuk mengelola informasi berat. Pengelolaan data melibatkan mendefinisikan struktur dari peyimpanan proses dan menyediakan mekanisme untuk manipulasi informasi. Selain itu database systems harus menjamin keamanan inormasi yang telah tersimpan, meskipun ada sistem yang crash atau upaya akses yang tidak sah.

1.3 Discuss the main characteristics of the database approach and how it differs from traditional file systems.

• Self describing nature of a database system : sistem database tidak hanya berisi database itu sendiri tetapi definisi atau deskripsi yang lengkap dari struktur dan constraint database. Definisi ini disimpan dalam katalog sistem, yang berisi informasi tentang struktur setiap file, tipe dan format penyimpanan dari item data, dan constrant yang beragam dari data. Informasi ini disimpan dalam katalog ini disebut meta-data. Dalam proses file tradisional, definisi data menjadi bagian dari program aplikasi, sehingga program-program ini hanya dapat bekerja dengan hanya satu database khusus yang strukturnya dideklarasikan dalam program aplikasi.
• Insulation between program and data, and data abstraction : dalam proses file secara tradisional, perubahan struktur file akan megubah semua program yang mengakses file tersebut. Program akses DBMS tidak membutuhkan perubahan dalam banyak kasus. Struktur dari file data disimpan dalam katalog DBMS secara terpisah dari program pegakses. Ini disebut program data indepedence. Pada pendekatan database, struktur dan organisasi dari masing-masing file disimpan dalam katalog. User database melihat representasi conceptual file, dan DBMS mengekstrak rincian peyimpanan file dari katalog.
• Support of multiple of the data : sebuah view merupakan sub net dari database atau dapat berisi data virtual yang berasal dari file database tetapi tidak disimpan secara eksplisit. DBMS yang multiuser dimana aplikasinya bervariasi perlu fasilitas ini. Beberapa user tdak perlu mengetahui apakah data yang diview-nya disimpan atau tidak.
• Sharing of data and multiuser transaction processing : multiuser DBMS berarti banyak user dapat mengakses database pada saat yang sama. Ini penting jika data untuk multiple applications akan diintegrasi dan dimantain dalam sebuah database tunggal. DBMS memerlukan software kontrol konkurensi yang memastikan beberapa user yang mengupdate data yang sama berlaku sesuai kontrolnya sehingga hasil yang diupdate benar.

1.4. What are the responsibilities of the DBA and the database designers?

• DBA : Dalam lingkungan database, sumber utama adalah database itu sendiri dan sumber kedua adalah DBMS dengan softwarenya. Pengaturan sumber ini dilakukan oleh seorang DBA (Database Administrator). DBA bertanggungjawab atas otorisasi akses data ke database, mengkoordinir dan memonitor penggunaannya dan mendapatkan sumber hardware dan software yang dibutuhkannya. DBA bertanggungjawab atas masalah-masalah seperti pelanggaran keamanan atau waktu respon sistem yanb buruk. Dalam organisasi yang lebih besar, DBA dibantu oleh seorang staff yang menyelesaikan fungsi-fungsi ini.
• Database Designer : Bertanggungjawab atas identifikasi yang disimpan dalam database dan pemilihan struktur yang sesuai untuk mewakili dan menyimpan data ini. Tugas-tugas ini perlu dilakukan sebelum database yang sebenarnya diimplementasikan dan berisi data. Selain itu juga bertanggungjawab untuk mengkomunikasikan semua user databse untuk memahami kebutuhannya, dan mencapai desain yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan user. Database designer secara khusus berinteraksi dengan setiap kelompok user dan membangun view ari database yang sesuai dengan data dan memproses kebutuhan kelompok tersebut. View ini kemudian dianalisis dan diintegrasikan dengan view dari kelompok user yang lain. Desain databaseakhir mampu mendukug kebutuhan dari semua kelompok user.

1.5. What are the different types of database end users? Discuss the main activities of each

• Casual end user : mengakses database, tetapi mereka membutuhkan informasi yang berbeda setiap saat. Mereka menggunakan bahasa query database yang canggih untuk menspesifikasikan permintaan dan mereka adalah manager tingkat tinggi atau menengah
• Naive atau parametric end user : fungsi pekerjaan utama mereka adlah berkisar pada query dan update database, menggunakan tipe standar dari query dan update yang disebut canned transaction yang perlu diprogram dan diuji secara hati-hati
• Sophisticated end users : mencakup ahli teknik, ilmuwan, analisis bisnis, dan lainnya yang terbiasa dengan fasilitas dari DBMS untuk mengimplementasikan aplikasi sesuai kebutuhannya
• Stand-alone end users : memaintain database personal dengan menggunakan paket program yang sudah jadi yang menyediakan menu yang easy user dan interface

1.6. Discuss the capabilities that should be provided by a DBMS.

• DBA : Orang / group yang bertanggung jawab mengimplementasikan sistem database di dalam suatu organisasi. DBA memiliki seluruh hak istimewa sistem yang diperbolehkan oleh DBMS dan dpat memberikan dan mencabut tingkatan akses berupa hak istimewa untuk dan dari user lain
• End user : Orang yang berada didepan workstasion dan berinteraksi secara langsung dengan sistem. Mereka mungkin perlu memberinjawaban terhadap permohonan dari orang-orang di luar organisasi, menemukan jawaban secara cepat terhadap pertanyaan dari manajemen tingkat atas, atau menghasilkan laporansecara periodik. Dalam beberapa kasus end user dapat diizinkan untuk mengubah data di dalam sistem, sebagai contoh informasi alamat atau pesanan. End user lainnya, misalnya yang bertindak sebagai help desk hanya membutuhkan hak istimewa untuk melihat data, tidak perlu mengubahnya
• Programmer Aplikasi berinteraksi dengan database melalui cara yang berbeda. Mereka mengakses data dari program yang ditulis dalam bahasa pemrograman tingkat tinggi seperti Visual Basic atau C++. Programmer aplikasi mendesain sistem-sistem seperti sistem gaji (payroll), inventori, dan penagihan (billing) yang secara normal perlu mengakses dan mengubah data

1.7. Discuss the differences between database systems and information retrieval systems.

• Data pada database terstruktur, sedangkan IR tidak terstruktur. Struktur dalam arti memiliki table, field, record, entity, dan lain-lain.
• File pada database clear semantic (satu kesatuan, menyeluruh), sedangkan IR tidak ada field
• Query pada database dapat dijelaskan (contoh: SQL), sedangkan IR merupakan teks bebas seperti bahasa alami, bahasa manusia sehari-hari.
• Ukuran kesamaannya pada database pasti, sedangkan IR butuh ukuran keefektifan tertentu, partial (diambil ukuran kesamaan terbaik).
• Model pada database deterministics, sedangkan IR non deterministics…...

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...Case Study: Database Development ALEXANDRA DESINORD PROFESSOR OSAMA MORAD CIS 515- STRAT PLAN FOR DBASE SYSTEMS Week 7 Assignment February 29, 2016 The more companies base their large elements of their business strategy around data, the need for IT team and executives with deep understanding of data and analytics is growing rapidly. Data changes all of the time. That is why it is essential that companies should try to stay up to par with the ever changing technology so that they can ensure that the system can withstand anything that comes about. Down below I will discuss briefly the various aspects of the SLDC and the tasks that can be completed to help solve certain common problems that exist from within. Customer data management is not high on many organizations' lists of priorities until it has to be. The term used in systems engineering, information systems and software engineering to describe a process for planning, creating, testing, and deploying an information system is called Systems development life cycle (SDLC). This term is also referred to as the application development life-cycle, which is a term used in systems engineering, information systems and software engineering to describe a process for planning, creating, testing, and deploying an information system. The task of optimizing the software development process has faced many obstacles. The main obstacle is a lack of accurate and complete data on the development process. The use of the......

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...IST 792 paper 2 Database security is a growing concern evidenced by an increase in the number of reported incidencets of loss of unauthorized exposure to sensitive data. As the amount of data collected, retained, and shared electronically expands, so does the need to understand database security. (Murray, 2010) Database security concerns the use of a broad range of information security controls to protect databases (potentially including the data, the database applications or stored functions, the database systems, the database servers and the associated network links) against compromises of their confidentiality, integrity and availability. It involves various types or categories of controls, such as technical, procedural/administrative and physical. Database security is a specialist topic within the broader realms of computer security,information security and risk management. Security risks to database systems include, for example: * Unauthorized or unintended activity or misuse by authorized database users, database administrators, or network/systems managers, or by unauthorized users or hackers (e.g. inappropriate access to sensitive data, metadata or functions within databases, or inappropriate changes to the database programs, structures or security configurations); * Malware infections causing incidents such as unauthorized access, leakage or disclosure of personal or proprietary data, deletion of or damage to the data or programs, interruption or denial......

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...DIAGRAM 3 List of Entities 3 Entity-Relationship Diagram one (1) 4 Entity-Relationship Diagram Two (2) 5 Entity-Relationship Diagram Three(3) 5 NORMALIZATION 7 Normalization Process 7 Un-normalized data 8 1st Normal Form 8 2nd Normal Form 9 3rd Normal Form 9 Normalized Tables 10 INTRODUCTION Planning a wedding is one of the most exciting and most stressful events in one’s lifetime and in Planning this there is a number of factors that need to be considered such as the guest list, venues, and suppliers. Hence on the quest to organize the scheduling and selection of activities for planning Of weddings a database System will be designed to accommodate its operation, providing a high degree of Usability and efficiency for the people using the application within the company. The database would be built in Oracle having forms that provide at least the minimum basic CRUD (Create, Read, Update, and Delete) functions and the following are the specific forms required; Basic wedding detail form, Supplier type form, Event type form, Supplier detail form, Event detail Form along with the advanced forms such as Wedding event schedule form, wedding event guest form, wedding event supplies and company work schedule summary. The system will be constructed from a number of normalized tables that will be used to construct the Forms and an entity relationship diagram will be formed showing relationships between entities and There......

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