Premium Essay

Critical Thinking-Argumentation

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By Kirthana
Words 919
Pages 4
[pic]

PCR0025
Critical Thinking
All Foundation

ONLINE NOTES

Topic 3: Argumentation

• Argument is a claim put forward and defended with reasons. • Arguments are composed of: 1. Premises 2. Conclusion

• Statement: A sentence that can sensibly be regarded as either true or false. • 2 things about statements: 1. A sentence may be used to express more than one statement. 2. Not all sentences are statements. 3. Consider the CONTEXT in which particular expression is used.

Identifying Premises and Conclusions

1. Premise indicators • Since, for, seeing that, in view of the fact that, because, given that, being that, as, as indicated by.

2. Conclusion indicators • Therefore, hence, so, it follows that, that is why, wherefore, as a result, suggests that, thus, consequently, accordingly, for this reason, which shows that, implies that, we may infer that, proves that.

• 2 types of arguments: 1. Simple 2. Complex

• 5 types of nonarguments: 1. Reports 2. Unsupported statements of belief and opinion 3. Conditional statements 4. Illustrations 5. Explanations

Reports • To convey information about a subject, not to offer reasons why one statement should be accepted on the basis of others.

Unsupported statements of belief/opinion • No claim that these statements follow from or imply any other statements.

Conditional statements • “if-then” statements.

Illustrations • Intended to provide examples of a claim rather than to prove or support the claim.

Explanations • Try to show why something is the case, not to prove that it is the case.

Evaluating Arguments

• 2 questions: 1. Are the premises true? 2. Can the premises provide “good…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Critical Thinking

...Critical Thinking MGT350 July 2, 2012 Critical Thinking Critical thinking is applying, analyzing, and evaluating all the information gathered by your observations, experience, reasoning, and communication, as a guide to belief and action (The Critical Thinking Community, 1987). Strong-sense critical thinkers are not easily tricked by argumentation and intellectual trickery. A characteristic of critical thinkers is their consistent pursuit of the fair and the just. They are always ethical and willing to listen to arguments of ideas that they do not necessarily hold. They will change their views when faced with better reasoning (Paul & Elder, 2006). Within my careers I have had to use critical thinking quite often, especially in the firefighter/EMT field. The one specific incident that I recall where I used my critical thinking was an aid call that came into my crew at 2:00 a.m. of a 40+ year old man that was having heart problems. I was the one in charge of my three man crew that evening, and we responded to the call immediately. While at the house and examining the patient, we found him to be conscious and alert, but having chest pains. His wife wanted him transported to the hospital, but the patient was adamant that he did not want to go. After taking all of his vitals and speaking with the patient and his wife, it was my opinion that it was in his best interest to be seen at the hospital. The patient kept resisting, but after two hours of......

Words: 723 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Critical Thinking

...Teaching Critical Thinking with Electronic Discussion Steven A. Greenlaw and Stephen B. DeLoach Abstract: One of the products of a liberal undergraduate education is the ability to think critically. In practice, critical thinking is a skill that economics students are supposed to master as they complete their studies. However, exactly what critical thinking means is generally not well defined. Building on the literature on critical thinking, the authors examine how electronic discussion can be used effectively to teach this skill. Because of the multiplicity of views expressed, the asynchronous nature of the technology, and the inherent positive spillovers that are created, electronic discussion appears to provide a natural framework for teaching critical thinking. Key words: class discussion, critical thinking, distance learning, electronic discussion JEL code; A2 One of the products of a liberal undergraduate education is the ability to think critically. This should be particularly true for economics students who. after all, are ostensibly taught the discipline's version of critical thinking—the economic way of thinking. It is ironic then, that relatively little has been published on effective strategies for teaching critical thinking in economics.' This is not an original criticism. In his seminal article on research in pedagogy, Fels (1969) identified critical thinking as an area ripe for teaching and exploration by economists, Fels's critique, "rarely is a concerted......

Words: 9266 - Pages: 38

Premium Essay

Critical Thinking

...Critical Thinking and Its Applications Many lessons are learned in life. Some lessons are instructions on how to be polite, how much of a tip should be given for different services, and how to be professional. Another lesson not often taught in the workplace or at home, are the hows and whys of critical thinking. Critical thinking is an important skill and can be described as the careful and deliberate determination to accept, reject, or suspend judgment about a claim. In this, critical thinking is the process of evaluating what people say and write in determining whether to believe their statements or not. This paper will provide a concise definition of critical thinking, and examples from personal experiences in the workplace (Cengage Learning, 2008). William Graham Sumner (1906) defined critical thinkers in the following way, they “cannot be stampeded… are slow to believe … can hold things as possible or probable in all degrees, without certainty and without pain … can wait for evidence and weigh evidence … can resist appeals to their dearest prejudices.” (Paul, R. and Elder L., 2006) In simpler terms, critical thinking is the mental processes of discernment, analysis and evaluation. It includes possible processes of reflecting upon a tangible or intangible item in order to form a solid judgment that reconciles scientific evidence with common sense (Wikipedia, 2008). Some characteristics of critical thinkers are: being intellectually humble; knowing what ones ......

Words: 1426 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Critical Thinking

...Critical Thinking Shirl McRee MGT/350 November 2, 2010 Brandon Johnson Critical Thinking What is critical thinking? This term has many meanings to everyone on the globe. To some people it is the meaning of positive thinking and to many others it is the process of thinking clearly and concisely without bias or prejudice. “Critical thinking is a rich concept that has been developing throughout the past 2500 years.  The term "critical thinking" has its roots in the mid-late 20th century.  We offer here overlapping definitions, together which form a substantive, transdisciplinary conception of critical thinking” (Criticalthinking.org, 2009). What is Critical Thinking? “Critical thinking is here assumed to be reasonable reflective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do. This rough overall definition is, we believe, in accord with the way the term is generally used these days. Under this interpretation, critical thinking is relevant not only to the formation and checking of beliefs, but also to deciding upon and evaluating actions. It involves creative activities such as formulating hypotheses, plans, and counterexamples; planning experiments; and seeing alternatives. Furthermore critical thinking is reflective -- and reasonable” (Criticalthinking.net, 2010). Critical thinking is a way of life for most people. They have no bias judgments, no prejudices that are even talked about on a daily basis, or even seen. They live a life of thinking...

Words: 743 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Critical Thinking

...Critical Thinking and Decision-making Ronald Williams Jr MGT/350 Mar-29-2010 Henry Kelley Critical Thinking and Decision-making To understand the relationship and role critical thinking plays in decision-making, people must first understand the meaning of the terms decision-making, and critical thinking. Illustrating the vast and always changing circumstances around an organization or decision maker, decision-making is not [an assembly line operation, it is messy, chaotic, and a twisted, unshapely, halting flow] (McCall & Kaplan, 1990). Meaning the decision-making process is constantly changing because of the influence of the rapidly changing internal and external factors on the decision maker. To conceptualize critical thinking, look at it as an active process of critical and creative inquiry, an active cognitive approach, and rational assessment of information. This process is, “Based on an understanding and awareness of logical analysis that permit a rational evaluation of arguments” (Sanders & Wiseman, 1994, para. 4). Knowing that decision-making is an ever changing process, with a multitude of influencing factors, and critical thinking is a process influenced by reasoning and logical evaluation of facts, circumstances, and events. Applying the critical thinking process to the decisions made every day will improve, clarify, and target the decisions made to the problem or issue, ultimately improving the ability to make better decisions,......

Words: 868 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Critical Thinking

...Critical Thinking and Making Intelligent Decisions Critical thinking, simply put, is the ability to think objectively about an idea, with awareness to biases and other distortions to perception, and come to a logical and intelligent decision. The ability to analyze the thinking process and understand how people think, or how one’s own thought process works, is an important factor for thinking critically. Not only is critical thinking an asset in daily life, but also particularly beneficial to the workplace. Analyzing other people’s perceptions in addition to one’s own perception is of utmost importance to a successful business. The benefits to critical thinking far surpass any information acquired by an individual, for without the ability to think objectively about the information; the information is futile. The emphasis on critical thinking can assist the decision-making process by understanding the way in which people assess problems and analyze solutions to those problems. Critical thinking is about learning how to think rather than what to think (Schaferson, 1991). By recognizing the way one’s own thought process influences decision-making, an individual embraces critical thinking. Acknowledgment of personal biases and other forms of distortions to perception are not only important to the decision-making process but to self-awareness by the decision-maker. Subconscious biases are common among most people, but by having empathy for others and viewing the situation......

Words: 727 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Critical Thinking

...Critical Thinking Essay Critical thinking is a process where the person involved will truly investigate every aspect of a decision or topic to form a conclusion. “Critical thinking is self-directed, self-discipline, self-monitored and self-corrective thinking.” (Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2013) “Critical thinking also includes the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking. Some skills that critical thinkers have are understanding the logical connections between ideas, solve problems systematically and identify the relevance and importance of ideas.” (Lau and Chan 2004-2014) It has also been said by The Foundation for Critical Thinking that people who think critically will live rationally, reasonably and emphatically. Critical thinking is a learned skill and is an extremely rare quality for people to have. to master critical thinking skills it takes a lot of training. Some ways to become a better critical thinker would be; reshape your character, do not be so quick to judge, and practicing a problem a day and get in touch with your feelings. Critical thinking skills are necessary for jobs with leadership roles; for example, a teacher. As a teacher, they are expected to make decisions, solve problems and guide others into doing the right thing. Teachers who make informed decisions based on research and beliefs tend to avoid thinking and acting on misinformation. As a teacher, they are also faced with challenges with diversity so they have to......

Words: 431 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Critical Thinking

...following: Define critical thinking. Critical thinking is defined as making reasoned judgments that are logical and well thought out. It is a way of thinking in which you don't accept all arguments and conclusions you are exposed to but rather have an attitude involving questioning such arguments and conclusions. Critical thinking can be divided into three core skills: Curiosity- The desire to learn more information. Skepticism- Having a healthy questioning attitude about new information. Humanity- The ability to admit that your ideas or opinions are wrong, when faced with new convincing evidence. * Discuss how the following terms relate to critical thinking: bias, issues, arguments, and relativism * Bias: A bias is based on emotional distortional cognition and decision making due to emotional reasoning. Being bias blocks a person from critically thinking on making decisions. * Issues: A question, when critically thinking a person has to ask a series of questions to come up with the rite solution. * Arguments: Arguments are closely related to critical thinking because arguments is the reasoning behind critical thinking arguments is a key component to critically thinking. * Relativism: Has no absolute truth or validity, having only relative, subjective value according to differences in perception and consideration. * Describe a decision or argument you recently made which was influenced by bias Reviewing Ch. 1 of Critical Thinking, share what......

Words: 531 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Critical Thinking

...Abstract This paper explores critical thinking skills and teaching them in an educational setting. Teaching critical thinking is highly debatable. Many feel as though it is not a necessary skill that needs to be learned and others feel as though it is not a skill that can be taught. In this paper I will discuss what critical thinking is and ways it can be taught in an educational setting. Teaching Critical Thinking Skills in Schools For many years critical thinking has been an important issue in education. Following the 1948 Convention of the American Psychological Association, Benjamin Bloom, an American educational psychologist, took control over the development of the goals of the educational process. The goals of the educational process included knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Ever since, the debate over critical thinking has been a hot one (Schneider, 2002). What is critical thinking? Well throughout the past decade the definition of critical thinking has somewhat changed and there are numerous definitions to define it. According to Paul Chance, “critical thinking is the ability to analyze facts, generate and organize ideas, defend opinions, make comparisons, draw inferences, evaluate arguments and solve problems” (Chance, 1986). According to Tama Carrol critical thinking is, “a way of reasoning that demands adequate support for one’s beliefs and an unwillingness to be persuaded unless support is......

Words: 1318 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Critical Thinking

...Critical Thinking Critical Thinking The concept of critical thinking explains a process that involves utilising various interrelated skills to integrate, analyse and carefully evaluate what peoples read and hear from some sources. Therefore, critical thinking requires a determination of whether we should accept, reject or suspend judgement regarding a claim to acting in a certain way (Massey, 2015).This essay analyses steps to critical thinking, how emotions affect decisions making and critical thinking in professional and societal responsibilities. Critical thinking include knowledge, comprehension, application, synthesis and evaluation. In critical thinking, knowledge includes the most fundamental level of information. In this step, the individual identifies what the source of the knowledge says, the topic and issue. The next step is comprehension. The step involves having a comprehensive understanding of the idea. A critical thinker should, have an understanding of what is seen and read. The understanding gained by the critical thinkers is important in order to obtain new knowledge by reflecting on what is known. The ability of the individual to form own interpretation and to express it through writing to give it a new significance measures the level of individuals understanding. The application requires the person to know what they have read, heard from the source. Further individuals should have knowledge of how to apply the same......

Words: 545 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Critical Thinking

...The Manager as a critical thinker Amos Agatovure University of Maryland University College Section 9047 October 16, 2015. Professor Martha Young Introduction Critical thinking is a term used most often by people and sometimes really don’t think about it what means and why questions are asked in a setting ways or why setting phrases are asked how and why? According to the University of Maryland University College (UMUC) Crit-Think-Audio, critical thinking model helps in the analyzation and finding solution to complex organizational problems that affect decision making ability of managers. By definition, critical thinking means making reasoned judgement that are logical and well thought-out. That is, a way of thinking that you don’t just accept all argument and conclusions, but rather you have an attitude by questioning every notion which raises the question of how and why? According to the UMUC Crit-Think-Audio, people who asked questions on how get a job and the people that ask question why be there bosses. However, this paper is for the analyzation of the Cliffside Holding Company of Massapequa (CHCM) Memo, and also, using the critical thinking model as described in the textbook, asking the right questions and applying the several steps as reveled by Browne and Keeley (Browne & Keeley, 2015, to measure up the argument described in the CHCM memo. The critical thinking model was prepared and applied in a memo by CHCM...

Words: 2699 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Critical Thinking

...Critical Thinking and Decision Making Inessa Arutunyan Linda Iacoboni Anisha Lalwani Dan Sarbu MGT/350 November 7, 2011 James Chatterton Critical Thinking and Decision Making Critical thinking is thinking comprised with careful judgment. One gathers facts and evidence then analyzes the data to come to an objective conclusion. Decision-making is the process of arriving at an agreement through careful analysis without bias. When applying the process of critical thinking sound and solid decisions evolve. Several types of thinking can enhance or inhibit critical thinking when one is moving toward a decision. For example, emotional thinking or, sometimes referred to as emotional intelligence. Emotions are "a state of consciousness having to do with the arousal of feelings” (Webster’s New World Dictionary). Feelings can be pleasant or unpleasant that one can react to when in action or thinking. Intelligence is a measure of the amount a person can favorably (or unfavorably) apply sound judgment and reason to a situation while deciding their feelings to the situation (Elder, 1996). Critical thinking is the ability to advance ones thinking toward logic and the capacity to analytically reason. Emotions can cause a defect in critical thinking. Emotions are one’s internal gauge, letting one know how he or she is doing in......

Words: 1483 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Critical Thinking

...Critical Thinking The term critical thinking refers to the thought processes used to evaluate information and the practice of using such conclusions to guide behavior. The process of critical thinking is associated with accuracy, logic, depth, fairness, credibility, and intellectual clarity. The word “critical” is not used to imply negativity or pessimism. Critical thinking merely means that one must not automatically accept the validity of the information he or she is given. Someone who has strong critical thinking skills has a sense of curiosity and is interested in finding innovative solutions to problems. He or she is willing to examine previously held beliefs, opinions, or assumptions and objectively weigh them against facts—admitting when a lack of understanding or information impairs the decision making process and adjusting conclusions as needed to accommodate the introduction of new information. In this way, a person with strong critical thinking skills can be described as self-directed, self-monitored, and self-disciplined. Critical thinkers analyze situations and suspend judgment until all available data has been gathered and considered. This approach will make you more competitive in the workplace, since the ability to make logical decisions based on an analysis of all available data is an important part of success in the business environment. Throughout your college career in the Malcolm Baldrige School of Business at Post University you will be......

Words: 693 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Critical Thinking

...2 of 56 Clear Thinking, Critical Thinking, and Clear Writing Students will learn to … 1. Determine acceptable and unacceptable degrees of vagueness in language 2. Understand and identify types of ambiguity 3. Identify the problems generality causes in language 4. Use definitions to increase precision and clarity and to influence attitudes 5. Understand the types of definitions 6. Acquire skills for writing an effective argumentative essay rom August 1987 until January 2007, Alan Greenspan was chairman of the Federal Reserve Board (“the Fed”). Because any remark he made about U.S. monetary policy could cause markets all over the world to fluctuate wildly, he developed a complicated way of speaking that came to be known as “Fedspeak.” Here’s an example: It is a tricky problem to find the particular calibration in timing that would be appropriate to 2/9/2016 12:17 PM 3 of 56 stem the acceleration in risk premiums created by falling incomes without prematurely aborting the decline in the inflation-generated risk premiums.* Greenspan has admitted that such remarks were not really intended to be understood. Asked to give an example by commenting on the weather, Greenspan replied, I would generally expect that today in Washington, D.C., the probability of changes in the weather is highly uncertain. But we are monitoring the data in such a manner that we will be able to update people on changes that are important.* Page 70 2/9/2016 12:17 PM This tells us nothing about the......

Words: 15340 - Pages: 62

Premium Essay

Critical Thinking

...Critical Thinking Application Melissa Adams MGT/350 March 14, 2012 Steven Freund Critical Thinking Application As individuals, we are defined by thinking, and how we make choices is determined by our patterns of thinking and knowledge. We can develop standards for our thinking by using critical thinking. This will heighten the quality of thought. Critical thinking cannot be unstated or clear without first investigating the act of thinking itself. Surprisingly, even the ultimate geniuses in the world have problems truly understanding the thought processes of the human brain. “What goes on in your head when you have a thought...the answer must still be: we do not really know,” said author Gerald Edelman and Nobel laureate at the commencement of this millennium. We know a good deal about neuroelectrochemical processes and parts of the brain, but we still have so much to learn. We have greater knowledge of the universe’s basic principles, of our bodies, and of atoms than we do of the workings of our brains (Richard Paul, 2006). If we are unable to explain thinking in a physical sense, we are able to define it more easily as one of the brain’s activities that can possibly be communicated. Our critical thinking methods increase in quality thanks to critical thinking. Thus our competency of creating and successfully communicating our thoughts is also improved. A thought so adaptable and rich is difficult to boil down into a basic definition.......

Words: 929 - Pages: 4