Free Essay

Cpu Block

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By dtrinino001
Words 308
Pages 2
NT1110 Mon Night
CPU Block Diagram cache cache
Controller
Controller
ALU
ALU
ALU
ALU

Front side Bus

Backside busbaba Backside Bus

Controller * Controller manages the basic functions of the CPU, as well controlled communication between the motherboard and other functions of the CPU * Communication between the Controller and the ALU is the Internal bus 32 bit wide data bus * Communication between the cache and the ALU and the Controller is the backside bus * Cache uses SRAM static ram, it’s faster but more expensive and it holds memory without being refresh. * There are three types of Cache L1, L2, and L3. * L1 cache is on the processor chip. * L2 cache is inside the processor housing but not on the processor chip. * L3 cache is inside the processor housing but further away from the processor chip * ALU Logical Unit: After you enter data through the input device it is stored in the primary storage unit. The actual processing of the data and instruction are performed by Arithmetic Logical Unit. The major operations performed by the ALU are addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, logic and comparison. Data is transferred to ALU from storage unit when required. After processing the output is returned back to storage unit for further processing or getting stored * CONTROLLED UNIT Control Unit, which acts like the supervisor seeing that things are done in proper fashion. Control Unit is responsible FOR Cordinating various operations using time signal. The control unit determines the sequence in which computer programs and instructions are. Things like processing of programs stored in the main memory, interpretation of the instructions and issuing of signals for other units of the computer to execute them. It also acts as a switch board operator when several users access the computer simultaneously. Thereby it coordinates the activities of computer’s peripheral equipment as they perform the input and output.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Cpu + Alu

...  CPU’s and ALU’s Table of content Page 1 Introduction Page 2 CPU Page 3 CPU Pictures Page 4 ALU Page 5 ALU Picture Page 6   Introduction CPU Many people consider the CPU (Central Processing Unit) to be the brains of the computer. This is not true because, for the most part, the CPU cannot keep data stored inside it like a human brain. It is used to process much of the information needed by the computer, just like our brain thinks and processes information and gives orders to our other body parts. ALU Stands for (Arithmetic Logic Unit). An ALU is an integrated circuit within a CPU that performs arithmetic and logic operations. Arithmetic instructions include addition, subtraction, and shifting operations, while logic instructions include AND, OR, XOR, and NOT operations.   CPU (Central Processing Unit) CPU (Central Processing Unit) - otherwise known as a processor - is an electronic circuit that can execute computer programs. Both the miniaturization and standardization of CPUs have increased their presence far beyond the limited application of dedicated computing machines. Modern microprocessors appear in everything from automobiles to mobile phones. The clock rate is one of the main characteristics of the CPU when performance is concerned. Clock rate is the fundamental rate in cycles per second (measured in hertz, kilohertz, megahertz or gigahertz) for the frequency of the clock in any synchronous......

Words: 653 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Cpu Analysis

...The CPU is a very important part of any computer. This part of the computer fetches the data, performs operations to the data and stores the data (the fetch execute cycle). The Workshop PC has an “AMD Athlon 64x2 4400+” processor these processors were first implemented into machines in 2005 meaning it has a possibility of being up to 6 years old. This processor has 2 cores meaning that the processor can receive 2 data strings at once rather than individually receiving them. Having a dual core processor is better than just a single core due to the fact that it can handle more data at once. But there are also newer quad core processors which would be much better than this processor. This processor has a core speed of 2294.4 MHZ this seems to be a reasonable speed for a processor to run at. It also has a multiplier of 11.5 having a multiplier of 11.5 means that there will be 11.5 cycles for every external clock cycle. The processor has a bus speed of 199.5MHz, the bus speed refers to how much data can travel across the bus at any one specific time. The speed of the bus can drastically affect the computers performance as the bus is essential for the transfer of data. The processor requires 1.350v of power to run it, this is relatively high compared to a lot of modern CPU’s that are available. The AMD Athlon has cache L1 data and L1 Inst of 2 x 64Kbytes and has L2 of 2 x 512Kbytes. The amount of cache memory is important as the cache memory stores data from the most used memory......

Words: 853 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Tipos de Cpu

...Nombre: Iliana velazquez Moreno Grupo: 1°A CPU Central Procesing Unit. Es la parte inteligente del sistema. Interpreta las instrucciones del programa de usuario y consulta el estado de las entradas. Dependiendo de dichos estados y del programa, ordena la activación de las salidas deseadas. Tipos de CPU Socket: Van directamente a la placa base y van provistas de un ventilador directamente conectado a él. SLOT Tienen una caja que almacena el CPU y el ventilador va conectado a esta caja. Se trata de cada una de los alojamientos que tiene la placa madre en donde se insertan las tarjetas de expansión. Todas las ranuras están conectadas entre si . Tipos de Monitores: *MDA . Monocrom Dispaly Adapter .Monitores monocromáticos (solo ofrecían Textos) . Características: .Resolución 720_350 Pixeles .Soporte de Texto monocromático .No soporta gráficos ni colores. .La tarjeta gráfica cuenta con una memoria de video de 4kb .Soporta subrayado, negritas, cursiva, normal, invisibilidad para textos. Monitor CGA Color Graphics Adapter Fueron comercializados a partir de 1981 Cuando se desarrolla la primera tarjeta gráfica. Caracteristicas: .Resolución 160_200, 320x200, 640x200 pixeles .Soporte de gráfico a color .Diseñado principalmente para juego de computadoras . La tarjeta gráfica contenía 16kb de memoria de video *EGA .Enhanced Graphics Adapter Creado en 1984, incorporando una mayor amplitud de Colores y resolución. Características .Resolución......

Words: 876 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Cpu Storage

...The most common types of CPU’s on the market today are manufactured by Intel Advanced Micro Devices (AMD). Intel is the largest global supplier of microprocessors for the x86 architecture (PCs), and AMD is the second largest. AMD concentrates primarily on CPU’s, chipsets, and other microprocessors, but Intel delves into many other markets including networking technologies, motherboards, and much more. It is important to know some of the processors that each manufacturer develops so that you can different differentiate between the various types of PCs you can see in the field. The Pentium microprocessor is the CPU (central processing unit) for what are now possibly the widest-selling personal computers. Unlike previous CPUs that Intel made, the 486DX and Pentium chips included a floating-point unit (FPU) also know as a math coprocessor. Previous Intel CPUs did all their arithmetic using integers; programs that used floating-point numbers (non-integers like 2.5 or 3.14) needed to tell the chip how (for example) to divide them using integer arithmetic. The 486DX and Pentium chips have these instructions built into the chip, in their FPUs. This makes them much faster for intense numerical calculations, more complex, and more expensive. The problem for Intel is that all Pentiums manufactured until sometime this fall had errors in the on-chip FPU instructions for division. This caused the Pentium's FPU to incorrectly divide certain floating-point numbers. A mathematics professor by...

Words: 352 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Cpu Scheduling

...CPU SCHEDULINGCPU scheduling in UNIX is designed to benefit interactive processes. Processes are given small CPU time slices by a priority algorithm that reduces to round-robin scheduling for CPU-bound jobs.The scheduler on UNIX system belongs to the general class of operating system schedulers known as round robin with multilevel feedback which means that the kernel allocates the CPU time to a process for small time slice, preempts a process that exceeds its time slice and feed it back into one of several priority queues. A process may need much iteration through the "feedback loop" before it finishes. When kernel does a context switch and restores the context of a process. The process resumes execution from the point where it had been suspended.Each process table entry contains a priority field. There is a process table for each process which contains a priority field for process scheduling. The priority of a process is lower if they have recently used the CPU and vice versa.The more CPU time a process accumulates, the lower (more positive) its priority becomes, and vice versa, so there is negative feedback in CPU scheduling and it is difficult for a single process to take all the CPU time. Process aging is employed to prevent starvation.Older UNIX systems used a 1-second quantum for the round- robin scheduling. 4.33SD reschedules processes every 0.1 second and recomputed priorities every second. The round-robin scheduling is accomplished by the -time-out mechanism, which......

Words: 2136 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Block 10

...DOSSIER DE SPONSORING Le collectif METAL'OS – Cercle des esprits Alternatifs présente Métal’Os #2 I) Collectif Le block 10 a été créé en 2011 à l’initiative de deux rappeurs marocain déjà investis dans le milieu la (flow man,hoofer). Son but : faire découvrir, , professionnaliser ,améliorer la performance scénique des rappeurs . L’équipe de block 10 veut proposer une « scéne » permettant de les sortir de l’ombre, servie par une équipe disposant des compétences qu’il faut. L’équipe . Flow man: organisateur, programateur. hoofer: organisateur, animateur m-doc: responsable web ,dj flip : inscription des rappeurs hamide tidrini : photographie otmane : technicien de son zak latouri: designer benevoles : zineb barah ,simo amchat, diouri driss,samado maitoule. II) Report Concert de lancement – fiche technique Date : 20 novembre Horaires : 16h – 21h Lieu : Salle 36 du Boultek Programmation : shayfeen,si simo,ghostproject Public : 150 entrées payantes (entre 15 et 30 ans) Partenaires : EAC L’Boulvart, . Photos : Le Collectif Métal’Os depuis avril : photos Sortie du deuxième logo "Métal'ossa" logo 120 T shirts vendus 530 fans sur la page Facebook III) Présentation du nouveau concert / Pourquoi / Budget FICHE TECHNIQUE DU CONCERT soirée block10 #2 Date: 17 dec 2011 Lieu: Salle 36 du Boultek (EAC L’Boulvart, Technopark de Casablanca) Concert à partir de 16h Public attendu: 150 personnes environ Programmation:......

Words: 640 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Block Exemptions

...EC motor vehicle block exemption reform: are you ready for the new regime? By Susanne Zuehlke and Gianni De Stefano Reprinted from European Competition Law Review Issue 3, 2010 Sweet & Maxwell 100 Avenue Road Swiss Cottage London NW3 3PF (Law Publishers) ZUEHLKE AND DE STEFANO: EC MOTOR VEHICLE BLOCK EXEMPTION REFORM: [2010] E.C.L.R. 93 EC motor vehicle block exemption reform: are you ready for the new regime? Susanne Zuehlke and Gianni De Stefano* Block exemptions; Concerted practices; EC law; Motor industry; Vertical agreements The motor vehicle sector, in particular the distribution of passenger cars, commercial vehicles, spare parts and repair services, is subject to a specific block exemption, Regulation 1400/2002 (the motor vehicle block exemption), which is due to expire on May 31, 2010.1 Following a review launched in mid-2007, the European Commission (the Commission) adopted a Communication on July 22, 2009 to set out the basic policy orientations for the future legal framework that should apply to motor vehicle distribution and aftersales services agreements after the expiry of the motor vehicle block exemption. Currently, the motor vehicle sector is subject to a specific competition law regime which deviates from the general rules applicable to supply and distribution agreements. In particular, the motor vehicle block exemption provides for rules that are stricter than those provided in the general vertical block exemption, Regulation 2790/1999...

Words: 4355 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Cpu Analysis

...• CPU Organization • Speed • Advances in Processing Speed • Cache • ZIF • Heat • Real Life Problems • A+ Expectations This video clip explains everything you need to know about the CPU and troubleshooting heat problems. Also included is a review of what knowledge is expected to pass the A+ Exam. VIDEO 1.05 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS CPU ORGANIZATION • Two major CPUS 1. Intel 2. AMD • System Bus • Frontside Bus • Controller • ALU • Internal Bus • Cache • Backside Bus SPEED • Processor 1. Usually measured in GHz • System Bus 1. Usually measured in MHz • Multiplier 1. Ratio between processor and system bus 2. System bus speed x multiplier = processor speed Advances in Processing Speed • Multiprocessing 1. The ability to perform multiple functions simultaneously. • Multiple Processors • Dual Core Processors CACHE • SRAM 1. Static RAM 2. Faster, but more expensive 3. Holds memory without being “refreshed” • DRAM 1. Dynamic RAM 2. Memory must be “refreshed” • L1 Cache 1. On the processor chip • L2 Cache 2. Inside the processor housing 3. Not on the processor chip • L3 Cache 1. Inside the processor housing 2. Further away from the processor chip SOCKETS • LGA 775 1. Intel Pentium 4 and Celron • Socket 754 1. AMD- Athlon, Sempron, Opteron ZIF • Zero Insertion Force 1. Lever used to gently lock CPU into socket without damaging it. HEAT • Optimal Temperature 1. 90-110 F 2. 32-43 C • Check system temperature in CMOS • Thermal......

Words: 398 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Cpu and Memory Installation

...Cpu And Memory Installation When installing the memory into the proper DIMM(dual inline memory module) slots you must make sure you have the right replacement specifications for your motherboard.You want to also remember the reason for installing memory is for more RAM(random access memory).Each motherboard requires a certain amount of memory and it wouldn’t be beneficial to add more than what is needed.However,the more memory you have installed, the faster the system.DIMMs can have chips on one side or on both sides and most address memory 64 bits a time. When you go to buy a DIMM, an ID that identifies the date the chip was manufactured will be stamped on it.Look for dates that are relatively close together and less than a year old. Try buying memory from a reliable source. “When setting up dual channeling, know that the pair of DIMMs in a channel must be equally matched in size, speed, and features, and it is recommended they come from the same manufacturer” (Andrews). If you happen to install memories with different speeds, the motherboard will run at the lesser of the two. “For a triple-channel installation, three DIMM slots must be populated with three matching DDR3 DIMMs” (Andrews).Most motherboards now are setup to allow dual channeling. Make sure to look at the motherboard documentation before installing. Most of the time the memory slots will be color coded for dual channeling. Dual channeling readies the DIMMs to receive 128 bits of information......

Words: 957 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Cpu Scheduling

...Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling        Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Thread Scheduling Multiple-Processor Scheduling Operating Systems Examples Algorithm Evaluation Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 5.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Objectives    To introduce CPU scheduling, which is the basis for multiprogrammed operating systems To describe various CPU-scheduling algorithms To discuss evaluation criteria for selecting a CPU-scheduling algorithm for a particular system Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 5.3 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Basic Concepts    Maximum CPU utilization obtained with multiprogramming CPU–I/O Burst Cycle – Process execution consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait CPU burst distribution Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 5.4 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Alternating Sequence of CPU and I/O Bursts Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 5.5 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Histogram of CPU-burst Times Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 5.6 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 CPU Scheduler   Selects from among the processes in ready queue, and allocates the CPU to one of them  Queue may be ordered in various ways Switches from running to waiting state Switches from......

Words: 3375 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Perceptual Blocks

...Perceptual blocks Sterotyping- being forced to think “traditionally” instead of thinking “outside the box”. Ex. Using a coat hanger to unlock your car door. Limiting the problem unnecessarily- explore and challenge the boundaries of the problem. Ex. Racing another person on foot to a location, while there taking main streets your running through fields and jumping fences. Saturation or information overload- too much information can be just as bad as not enough information. You can become overloaded with minute details and unable to sort out critical aspects of the problem. Ex. When trying to solve a word problem minute details can distract you from the actual problem. Emotional blocks Fear of risk taking- fear of making a mistake due to childhood teachings, being rewarded for doing right and punished for doing wrong. Ex. Not trying out for a sport team because you’re afraid of not making the team. Lack of appetite for chaos- problem solvers must learn to live with confusion. The best solution may seem contradictory. Ex. When solving math problems using equations, you just have to accept it. Judging rather than generating ideas- problems can stem from approaching problem with negative attitudes. Ex. When trying to learn how to do geometry you have a hard time because you keep telling yourself “it’s too hard” and “I can’t do it”. Lack of challenge- sometimes problem solvers don’t want to get started because they perceive the problem as being too trivial......

Words: 721 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Cpu Discription

...This part of the reading will examine the CPU, Buses, Controllers, and Main Memory. Other sections will examine input devices, output devices, and secondary memory. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Figure 2: The Central Processing Unit The computer does its primary work in a part of the machine we cannot see, a control center that converts data input to information output. This control center, called the central processing unit (CPU), is a highly complex, extensive set of electronic circuitry that executes stored program instructions. All computers, large and small, must have a central processing unit. As Figure 2 shows, the central processing unit consists of two parts: The control unit and the arithmetic/logic unit. Each part has a specific function. Before we discuss the control unit and the arithmetic/logic unit in detail, we need to consider data storage and its relationship to the central processing unit. Computers use two types of storage: Primary storage and secondary storage. The CPU interacts closely with primary storage, or main memory, referring to it for both instructions and data. For this reason this part of the reading will discuss memory in the context of the central processing unit. Technically, however, memory is not part of the CPU. Recall that a computer's memory holds data only temporarily, at the time the computer is executing a program. Secondary storage holds permanent or semi-permanent data on some external magnetic or optical medium...

Words: 2592 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

The Kids on the Block

...I sat at the front porch at home and I didn’t see kids playing on the block after school, or on weekends. All my neighbor’s home doors are closed and I don’t know them, or their kids. Communication between my neighbors doesn’t exist. We are strangers because our lives are too busy and we do not have time to stay outside to know each other. When I was a child we used to play ball on the street, ride our bicycles, enjoy card games, traded baseball cards, or ran races to see who was faster. I remembered running home to get money because the ice cream truck is coming or running home for help because you got hurt once brought all the neighborhood kids to your door to wait and see the results. A quarter in your hand or a new clean band aid was admired and then everyone went back to happily playing the game at hand. Now that is history and we just talk about the good times kid had when they used to play on the streets. I go to my sister house and my nephews are with all their electronic games that replaced the precious time of playing on the street with the neighbors. They are lazy, their initiative is gone, and new inventions and communications do not exist because they want to build their scores in their favorite electronic games. Playing games alone is the most common they to do; one could be happy knowing that kids will not get into trouble since they won’t be exposed to dangerous things that are happening on the street nowadays. I see the streets empty of bustling......

Words: 647 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Cpu Scheduling Algorithms Simulation

...FINAL YEAR PROJECT On DESIGNING A SIMULATOR TO IMPLEMENT A JOB SCHEDULER BASED ON DIFFERENT POPULAR CPU SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS Submitted as partial fulfillment for the award of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY Session 2014-15 In Computer Science & Engineering Under the guidance of Mr.MrinmoySen By AnanyaDas(11/CS/15, ananyadas092@gmail.com, +919681851782) AnshumanMahanty(11/CS/23, anshumanmahanty1@gmail.com, +917501169824) SayaniBanerjee(11/CS/93, sayanibanerjee.1@gmail.com, +919046422003) HALDIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, HALDIA CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the final year project (CS792) on ‘Designing a Simulator implementing job scheduler based on different popular CPU scheduling algorithms’ has been completed and submitted successfully by the project members Ananya Das (11/CS/15), Anshuman Mahanty (11/CS/23) and Sayani Banerjee (11/CS/93). ------------------------- -------------------------------- --------------------------- Mr. Tarun Kumar Ghosh Mr. Sourav Mandal, Mr. Mrinmoy Sen Head of the Department, Convenor, Asst. Prof., Project Mentor, Asst. Prof., Computer Science & Engg. Project Evaluation Committee Department of CSE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We use this opportunity to express our gratitude to everyone who has supported us through the ongoing course of this final year project. The project owes its success not......

Words: 6989 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

A Chip Off the New Block

...Case Study #3: Contract for the International Sale of Goods ------------------------------------------------- A chip off the new block Semicontronics is an Australian manufacturing company that has been in the business of semi manufactured electronics for over a decade. Semicontronics has a solid reputation for meeting customer demands for quality products on time and on budget. The majority of Semicontronics customers are international, mid-market manufacturing companies that produce generic electronics such as cell phones, digital media players and game consoles. Retail stores in foreign countries purchase the generic products and rebrand them for sale. Recently, Semicontronics has been approached by Phoneson to act as a supplier in their supply chain. Based in Japan, Phoneson is an original design electronics manufacturing company specializing in high-end mobility devices including cell phones, navigation systems and PDAs. Phoneson is impressed with Semicontronics’ reputation and wants Semicontronics to supply several components for its next release of legacy products. Phoneson has a reputation for producing best in class brands of electronics, and is recognized for cutting edge technology and aesthetic design. It has built a loyal following from electronics enthusiasts in its native Japan as well as other Asian and European electronics markets. Phoneson wants to extend its brand into the highly competitive North American market and sees standard Internet and GPS...

Words: 746 - Pages: 3