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Cyber Security: Computer Hacking Abstract
Computer hacking incidences have dramatically increased over the years. However, the current federal laws, such as the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, have performed dismally in deterring potential cyber hackers. This paper explains that there are a very small percentage of computer hackers who are ever caught and prosecuted. This is the case since most companies, which are victimized by computer hackers, opt to hide the issue from the public and relevant authorities to maintain their position in the market. This paper explains the factors which encourage hacking by basing its arguments on formal psychological theories and informal observation. The review also explains the difference between malicious hackers and those who do it with good intentions. Business organizations today are hiring ethical hackers for the purpose of protecting themselves from the malicious ones. This paper also addresses police strategies for combating cyber hacking and also gives a comprehensive approach to reduce teenage hacking proclivity at an early stage. In countering this issue, law enforcement should apply previously done researches together with the current ones for maximum results. Keywords: computer hacking, business organizations, ethical hackers, law enforcement

Introduction Computer hacking refers to the modification of both computer software and hardware with the sole purpose of achieving personal objectives that are not part of the creator’s original purpose. Individuals engaging in computer hacking go by the title hackers. Most hackers consider their work a form of art; hence enjoy learning more about computers and how they work (GEEK, 2013). Hacking computer networks is normally done through network programming or other scripts. These programs get to maneuver data that is passing through a certain network connection. This is done in a manner made to get more information on how the target system works. Pre-packaged scripts are available in the internet for anyone to use. Hackers with high levels of skills learn more about the scripts and modify them in a manner that helps them develop new and advanced methods of hacking (Mitchell, 2014). Origins of Hacking M.I.T engineers initially made the concept of hacking popular. This was in the 1950s and the 1960s. At first, the so called hacks carried out by the hackers were done for the purpose of having fun, learning, and technical experiments that were harmless. Later on, outside M.I.T, other individuals started using the term for pursuits that were not honorable. Before the popularity of the internet, some hackers used to experiment using methods that could modify telephones. This enabled them make long distance calls free, which is obviously illegal. With the increasing popularity in the internet and computer networking, data networks became the most targeted by hackers for hacking (Mitchell, 2014). Some individuals view hacking as a means of solving problems in real life. These are known as ethical hackers. For them, these skills offer them an opportunity to showcase their abilities, and not to harm others. Some corporations are known to employ people with these skills as an essential fraction of the technical support team in the company. They are useful in detecting flaws that are in the security system of the company leading to their quick and early repair. Some of these hackers end up achieving a lot in life (GEEK, 2013). For instance, Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie two former hackers were the creators of the UNIX operating system. The developer of Napster, Shawn Fanning, is another famous hacker who has been able to make major achievements outside hacking of computers. As a matter of fact, hacking has joined some of the curriculums in schools today. This is because businesses and even the government are seeking cyber skills, probably for protection purposes. In a country like Switzerland, cyber security students undertake hacking since it is a legitimate course. Students get educated on ways of infiltrating mobile networks and internet in class on wireless electronic warfare. Companies hire these experts with the aim of countering risks posed by hackers to their networks and products (Winters, Webb, & Rahn, 2014). However, despite having hackers with only good intentions, there are those who have malicious intentions of attacking the internet and a wide range of computer networks. This poses a big danger to the security of peoples’ identities. That is why individuals are advised to always shred their personal documents, be careful of bystanders when using ATM machines, and also to protect their laptops and computers since they are the basic forms of paying bills, sharing information, shopping online, and paying bills (Mitchell, 2014). These hackers are known to steal from organizations and companies millions of dollars. Not only do they get away with the money, but also steal crucial information that is personal to the company. This includes information on the business customers which includes their account numbers, credit numbers, and even social security numbers. With this kind of information, these people have all they need to target the customers using their unique skills hence more losses and costly consequences for the victims. Hackers undertaking harmless activities are normally called crackers. Despite many efforts of trying to eradicate the problem at hand, most corporations that fall victim to computer hackers never report the incident. According to studies carried out in the previous years, reports regarding hacking intrusions make up only 30percent. The rest choose to keep quiet because they normally believe that it will protect their image. However, for many years, even after making reports, most of the hackers are never caught. This is because the technology behind the internet offers hurdles in tracing of the intrusions back to the executors by the law enforcement (Chang, 2004). This, therefore, means that most of the hackers have minimal chances of being caught and being prosecuted. Objectives Computer hacking is a problem that is increasing in the society today at a high rate. Problem is, most people do not how to protect themselves against the problem hence easy targets of hacking incidents. This review on the matter is to enable them gain more knowledge about computer hacking and actions being taken to ensure everyone is protected. Most people have their personal details posted and saved on several company databases. If this information is cracked, personal data can be stolen and these people can be victimized without their knowledge (IDA, 2007). Even so, there is not much individuals can do in regards to this considering the fact that it happens from time to time. Organizations and individuals should know that these hackers need to have their identities protected. Before mounting attacks on corporations, they build backdoors and trojans so as to get an intermediate base. A trojan is a program carrying dangerous payload but actually looks innocent. Just like viruses, it can be disguised as an executable program mostly a game. The payload it bears is normally a backdoor program. Backdoor programs give hackers access to people’s computers anytime it is connected to the internet. This is very thorough in accessing every file and facility on one’s computer (Media, 2000). It is, therefore, important for people and corporations to avoid having backdoor programs inside their computers. People should not be fully reliant on secure procedures as a means of stopping hackers. These individuals might just fire programs randomly over the internet to see if they stick. If they get in, the hackers get a confirmation message that a certain computer has been colonized. If this happens, one will notice his or her machine behaving in an unusual manner as if someone else is using a remote keyboard to control the computer. In such situations, the individual should manually unplug the line to cut off the connection. They should then ensure they get top virus protection program for their computer. The next time they connect their computer to the internet, they should ensure that it is perfectly clean (IDA, 2007). However, personal attacks are not as common as those on organizations. This has made network managers lose sleep over the issue for years.
Previous Studies on Computer Hacking Despite hackers being a threat to organizations and even public office, the issue seems to have not caught the attention of many. Hacking intrusions are even a threat to the government and instead of it fully combating this it mainly focuses on physical warfare (Chang, 2004). The outlook of hacking activities is a clear tragedy in the making that does not seem to have any signs of permanently ending. This is probably because minimal research and studies have been carried out on the hacking community and its culture. Prior research works done have been mainly focusing on the image of those executing the crime. The image of these individuals has changed over the years from harmless nerds to vicious techno-criminals. Even though this image portrayal is true, what the studies have not been showing is the extent of harm these people can cause. This is a weakness in the previous studies done. The studies should have focused more on the impacts of hacking intrusions and ways in which this could be handled. Hackers out there do their best everyday to harm any system possible. Even national security documents are at a risk of being intruded (Chang, 2004). If this happens, the perpetrators gain access to information that is classified. However, giving individuals a peek to the hackers’ world is a positive thing from the previously recorded studies. It has been a foundation for the present researchers on how the hackers tend to behave. This piece of information is a useful place to start from in exploring more about the hackers and their ways. One of the studies ever carried out includes the Rand Study of Criminal Investigation. The RAND Corporation in the 1970s carried out a nationwide research on criminal investigations by the department of law enforcement. The research came up with four conclusions. For one, after the reporting of a case, investigations that follow were not effective. This would be the case in scenarios where victims were incapable of identifying the offenders. The second conclusion was that there is a major difference in investigative organization, staffing, training, procedures, and workloads. This normally leads to ineffective investigative processes. The third conclusion is that law enforcement departments may have collected large amounts of evidence, but still fail to process it in an effective manner. Lastly, those carrying out the investigations fail to document all of the essential evidentiary facts that will probably help prosecutors win because of the strong evidence (Hinduja, 2007). Another study is the PERF study on the investigation of robbery and burglary. One of the main findings in this research was that both patrol officers and detectives make equal contributions in solving crimes. People in both positions should not rely too much on the victim’s piece of information, but rather explore other leads given by others that have experienced similar incidents. Everyone responsible for carrying out the investigations must always show cooperation and share information so as to have positive results (Hinduja, 2007). These, by far, are the closest studies from the past that can be helpful in solving cyber-crimes, computer hacking inclusive. As general as it seems to the crime world, the research work done was also used in handling computer crimes. The results of both studies are quite helpful in solving computer hacking incidents since these cases mostly fail in the investigative processes hence making it difficult for prosecutions. However, they are too general and law enforcement departments might not look their way in solving computer hacking incidents. Fusing Previous Studies with Current One’s Despite the different approaches in carrying out research work on computing hacking, it is possible for past knowledge to be used together with the current one in the future. What both of these studies have in common is the will to figure out ways of properly carrying out investigation processes, and how to conduct and manage them. At the end of the day everyone wants the culprits behind bars, rather than enjoying their freedom in some other countries while spending money that is not theirs in the first place. With proper research works done, it will be easy to handle such cases in this time and era. Investigation practices have been refined and modified over the years. This is considering the unique changes in political, economic, social, and scientific domains. The authorities have infused science into investigations, where science was previously considered an art (Hinduja, 2007). Just like the current investigative practices, criminals have also infused science together with their old criminal activities. Law enforcement departments need to tailor increasing amounts of efforts in identifying, assisting in, and, apprehending the perpetrators for successful prosecution processes. For them to come up with an effective strategy, it is vital to educate themselves using past research in the investigations department. However, computer crimes did not get much attention in the past compared with the well known traditional crimes. This is probably because they do not elicit similar reactions from the public as well as the political system (Hinduja, 2007). It is, therefore, essential for future studies on computer hacking and the general cyber-crimes to use previously done studies that hold significant pieces of information. They can be modified further and used together with what people know today for the purpose of neutralizing the exceeding computer hacking crimes. Laws against Computer Hacking Computer crimes are quite a number and thus the law has been trying to combat this situation by imposing certain laws. In these laws, there are some which can apply specifically to computer hacking. There are two of these laws, as shown below. Electronic Communication Privacy Act This act aimed at fitting new crimes into the laws that were already in existence. The first title of this act was made to accommodate both oral and electronic communications. This act warns against intentional interception of oral, wire, or electronic communication. If one discloses or uses contents of the intercepted information, the act is responsible for punishing the individual (Chang, 2004). While the second title dealt with the stored communications act. This punishes anybody who intentionally accesses a facility that uses electronic communication services without formal authorization. This can only apply if the target being attacked is an electronic communication service. An example of such a service includes an email server. The negative thing about this law is that personal computers are not classifies as part of electronic services hence no protection given at a personal level against hacking by the act (Chang, 2004). Computer Fraud and Abuse Act This law is considered to be the most comprehensive one directed towards criminal conducts related to computers. This law was formed for the purpose of bringing to justice those who access and cause harm computer systems and files without being given authority. The first section warns against accessing a computer and transferring classified information without permission to do so. The second part prohibits accessing and taking information from a financial institution, agency, or department of the United States government. Section three makes it a crime to intentionally gain access of nonpublic computers of agencies or departments of the United States. Section four is a warning to those who knowingly access protected computers with the aim of defrauding the owner. Lastly, the fifth section is said to be the key provision against hacking (Chang, 2004). Reasons why there are Minimal Computer Hacking Prosecutions Computer hackers use numerous tools in breaching the security of computer systems. For their sense of pride, hackers freely share the methods and tools they learn and develop in executing the deed. These tools help the perpetrators conceal their tracks to levels that law enforcers cannot track them down (Chang, 2004). As stated earlier, only 10percent of successful hackings are ever reported. Even when reported, only few of the cases reach the prosecution stage. Below is a deeper explanation as to why these cases are never successfully prosecuted. Technical Failures The federal laws discussed above tend to be effective only when the computer hackers are apprehended. However, they are not able to catch the perpetrators because they are always covering their tracks in ways that the law enforcement cannot catch up with them. For one tracing difficulties hinder the capturing of these outlaws. All computers used in internet connections have an Internet Protocol address (IP). Just like an address to a specific home, the IP address is significant as it identifies a specific computer (Chang, 2004). Since the main aim of computer hackers is to make it difficult for them being caught by masking their activities, they use intermediate computers, utilize proxy servers that are anonymous, or delete log files. Societal Failures Most hackers never get caught since corporations never report intrusive hacking activities to the law enforcers. In other scenarios, cases presented to the law enforcers and prosecutors result in low prosecution rates. Failure to Report Competitive Advantage Concerns One of the reasons why organizations fail to present their cases to relevant authorities is normally because of competitive concerns. They fear that their competitions would this piece information against them. This would drive customers away at a very fast rate since no one wants to be associated with a hacked company for fear of it happening again. Another reason that makes them withhold this information is because law enforcement move at a slow rate in solving such cases which would be bad for business (Chang, 2004). The federal agents may also result to freezing their accounts which will give their opponents in the industry an opportunity to outmaneuver them. Negative Publicity Concerns If companies report computer intrusions they believe that it can end up damaging their name. To these companies, malicious hackers cannot inflict as much pain as the one that can be inflicted by a tainted name. Being known to have a weak security causes far more damage than anything else (Chang, 2004). They therefore opt to solve their problems within the company instead of going public about the issue. Lack of Knowledge by Victims According to a survey by CSI/FBI in 2003, about 53percent of people interviewed did not have a clue on the possibility of reporting such cases. Given the low prosecution rates of hackers, the reality that people do not know that they can report this sort of cases is not surprising at all. Failure to Prosecute As shown below, there are several reasons why prosecutors are unable to handle computer hacking cases. Lack of Knowledge in Hacking Cases The authority is struggling with these cases mainly because technology is intricate and hard to understand. At the end of the day, all they have on the table is an immense amount of evidence and lack of understanding by prosecutors and the police. This ends up in unnecessary investigations, detainment, and court delays. Difficulty in Solving Computer Crime Most reported cases end up being dismissed since there normally is no supporting evidence. Corporations that have been victims of hacking do not know what they should do after the incidents for the preservation of evidence. They still keep on using the hacked computers hence overwriting traces that can be used in tracking the hacker. Failures in Federal Laws The laws responsible in the persecution of computer hackers seem to fail in executing their purpose. The accused representatives find a lot of loopholes in the laws, hence use them to their advantage. Steps for Solving Computer Hacking Incidents There are several steps that the law enforcement department should take for successful solving of these cases. Everyone has a responsibility to handle so as to ensure that criminals are prosecuted for violating people’s privacy and taking what does not belong to them. The First Responding Officer As stated in the RAND research, the role of the first respondent officer to the crime scene is very crucial. Their presence grants them the pleasure of having information that can be used as the initial lead in solving the case at hand. In computer hacking crimes, these police officers must be extra careful since most of the evidence in such crimes is not tangible. They should ensure that stored data in a system is not deleted or modified either accidentally or intentionally. Even shutting down the computer might tamper evidence that could have been useful in the solving and prosecution process (Hinduja, 2007). It is, therefore quite essential for police officers to have more knowledge on how to handle such situations by getting trained effectively. The Investigator’s Role The investigator’s role in computer hacking crimes is much more essential in arrest rates and clearance than information presented to them by the responding officer, witnesses, or victims. Because of the veiled nature of techniques associated with computer hacking incidents, a lot of effort will be expended so as to identify, interpret clues, evidentiary facts, gather data, and follow leads with the aim of making cases that will be compelling against the suspects (Hinduja, 2007). Information, Instrumentation, and Interviewing These are known to be the three components that constitute criminal investigations. Even with the changing technique and technology, these aspects remain persistent over time making them worthy of delineation. Information revolves around the gathering, organization, and interpretation of data that is linked and related to the case. Instrumentation refers to the specific techniques (like forensic science) used by investigators to solve crimes. Interviewing refers to the process of soliciting and extracting information lawfully from individuals who know circumstances of a given crime to some level (Hinduja, 2007). These three basics are significant in solving crimes, computer hacking ones inclusive. Doing it all right is what matters most despite the complexity of the crime. Hackers Shorten Their Intrusions Cybercrime has developed to define the criminal setting of the 21st century. However, research on these crimes has been focusing on the crime and ways of countering the issue rather than concentrating on the perpetrator character in such attacks. According to studies done in regards to this matter, a warning flag upon entry notably shortens the duration the intruder stays on a system that has been attacked. The research also shows that slow network speed together with a warning message hurries the hacker’s disappearance from the system (Roberts, 2014). It is possible to target the hacker’s responses to warning messages when the attack is taking place. Several industry regulators have come up with policies and guidelines in regards to the display of warning messages during intrusions, or cyber attacks. However, these guidelines are majorly influenced by the industry leaders’ experiences. They are, therefore, rarely designed around studies that support their efficiency. The research ends up noting that recommendations are being created on a global scale, without adequate testing that confirms their significance in numerous environments. These recommendations extensively sway the approach corporations and institutions take to fight computer hacking and cyber crime in general. If these are misguided, it results to extended implications for the reliability of their security protocols (Roberts, 2014). Discussion and Conclusion Though there exists many forms of threats and attacks in this computer era, the impacts remain the same regardless of the source. Attacks cause a slowdown of servers with worms and viruses that lower bandwidth. With these incidents increasing every day, the protection and security of information becomes more essential since society relies on this (Zanerus, 2011). However, protection does not solely refer to pieces of software, but rather people’s knowledge on the dangers of cyber crimes and advanced education on methods of prevention. Law enforcement departments will have to increase their investigation processes so as to be able to completely respond to the issue at hand. The best part is that they are not required to start from the very beginning. A foundation has been laid over the years that constituted refinement and modification of traditional investigations. They also have the advantageous research that has been assessing the efficacy and relevance of their procedures and techniques (Hinduja, 2007). In spite of hacking, generations to come should still enter the computer programming world. With the advancing technology, the world is still in need of individuals with the skill to program (Zanerus, 2011). Hackers will always be in existence and this should not hinder individuals from joining the field. Computers are used in each and every field today. It is, therefore, essential for people to work fluently with computers. Opportunities in the working environment will clearly be in computer technology. The society transforms with technology as it is constantly developing into ideas that are more sophisticated. Programmers will be the ones leading people into these drastic changes by providing the foundation of future ideas. These programmers will be able to provide a barrier between hackers and the rest of the world. It would take one computer expert to know how to stop another one. This means that more people should be encouraged to learn programming since they form a backbone to the development while still protecting the developments from malicious individuals. Until a shift in the world takes place, digital weakness remains just that: a weakness. This can even break the strongest of systems without much effort. However, if the appropriate measures are taken by the law enforcement and the government, countering this issue will not be as difficult.
References
Chang, J. (2004). Computer Hacking: Making the Case for a National Reporting Requirement. Computer Hacking, 1-42.
GEEK, W. (2013). What is Computer Hacking? Computer Hacking, p. 1.
Hinduja, S. (2007). Computer Crime Investigations in the United States:Leveraging Knowledge from the Past to Address the Future. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 1-21.
IDA. (2007, March). Be Aware, Responsible, and Secure. Security Tips, p. 1. Media, F. (2000). What Hackers Do. Hacking, p. 1.
Mitchell, B. (2014). What is a Hacker? Computing, Networking, p. 1.
Roberts, A. (2014, January 17). Warning computer hackers shortens their intrusion. Technology, p. 1.
Winters, P., Webb, A., & Rahn, C. (2014, February 13). Hacking Joins Curriculum as Businesses Seek Cyber Skills: Tech. Technology, p. 1.
Zanerus. (2011, February 28). Shades of Hackers. Technology, p. 1.…...

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...When it comes to the term “hacking” whether it is someone’s memory or RAM, everyone starts to worry about their information. What is “hacking of memory”? It is to circumvent security and break into with malicious intent. It is finding a way into your computer without your permission let alone your knowledge to gain information like banking and documents. On a larger scale it also means getting into banks and big companies like Target or more recently Sony to gain access to accounts and thus steal money/information. There is however steps to prevent this from happening with the right equipment. To know how to prevent someone from hacking into your computer you first have to know what tools they use. There are a plethora of programs that are used some being dSniff, Netcat and John the Ripper. DSniff passively monitors a network for interesting data like passwords, e-mails, files etc. Netcat is designed to be a dependable back-end that has features that include port scanning, transferring files, port listening, and worse used as a backdoor. John the Ripper is a popular password testing and breaking programs but hackers would use it for the later. For dSniff, someone would have to first have access to your computer by the user either downloading the program by accident or the hacker pushing it to you. Then the tool is activated and monitors your computer for the right information. John the Ripper is used to break into computers and external hard drives. It would not be a tool......

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Assignment 1: Computer Memory Hacking

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