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Comprehensive Exam Ii

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Comprehensive Exam
Section II
Kym McClimans
March 3, 2014
Donald Clark

Comprehensive Exam
Section II Districts and schools across the nation are faced with the challenge of meeting the demands of federal and state mandates. Because resistance is a major factor in reform failure, it is crucial for principals to discover why teachers resist change (National Association of Secondary School Principals, May 2009).
Identifying the Reason for Resistance Resistance to reform or change can happen for many different reasons. The most common misperception on resistance is that the education simply does not want to change. However, this is the exception, not the rule. Resistance to change can take on many different forms. According to Derya Yılmaz and Gökhan Kılıçoğlu (2013), the most common reasons for resistance are: * Interference with need fulfillment - The change will prevent economic, social, esteem or other needs fulfillment. * Selective perception - People will hear or see what they want to and disregard any information that threatens their perspective. * Habit – People react to a change or situation out of habit because it provides security and comfort. * Inconvenience or loss of freedom - People are afraid the change will restrict or limit their freedom or they will loose a measure of control. * Economic implications – People may perceive the change will reduce pay or other rewards. * Security in the past - People resist change when faced with unfamiliar methods or difficult and frustrated occasions. * Fear of the unknown – When limited or no information is given about the change, people become fearful and anxious. * Threats to power or influence – People may perceive a threat to their level or power or influence with the school. * Knowledge and skill obsolescence - People may fear that the change will render their skills obsolete. * Limited resources – People fear that the change will not be supported with adequate resources.
To ensure that reform is successful within the school setting, educations must identify the reason for resistance and then work toward a reconciliation with the resisters. Administrators and educators must reach an agreement, or at the very least a compromise, to work together for the good of the school, students, and other stakeholders. Administrators need to consider the following when working to overcome the resistance.
Address the resistance to change. Change cannot move forward with success without the support of those tasked with implementing the change. The first step to overcoming the resistance is to acknowledge it and meet it head on. Administrators who try to work around the resistance as if it does not exist will not see the level of change and implementation required throughout the school. The educator exhibiting the resistance is the member of the team that requires the most support throughout the process. By addressing the resistance, the administrator may find a simple solution to the problem.
Build trust. Trust is a key element to any successful relationship. Educators need to have trust in their administrator. They need to believe that the administrator is asking them to perform a task or implement a change that is in the best interest of the school, staff, and students. Strategies for building trust include open communication, developing a coalition to held lead the changes, avoiding manipulation, demonstrating a willingness to compromise, sharing ownership of the change, and building a reputation for integrity (Armstrong, 2011).
Create a clear change vision. Administrators must communicate a clear vision for the change. Where are we going, how are we going to get there, what actions will be required are all questions that an administrator should have answers for before approaching the staff with the reform initiative.
Ensure a strong and consistent implementation. Once the vision for change has been communicated, a strong and consistent implementation process should be adhered to. Implementation should look the same through the school. Change and reform can meet with obstacles that must be worked through. Rough spots will be encountered but the final goal must be kept in sight and worked toward diligently by all parties.
Support with follow-through. Support of staff, students, and other stakeholders in the process of change and reform is key to success. Once changes are under way, continue to use actions to build credibility and ensure the staff that change efforts are not temporary. Innovators can continue to make small, successful changes and celebrate those successes (Armstrong, 2011).
Evaluating the progress of the reform is a step that should take place throughout the entire process. A final goal or vision should be established as one of the first steps and then revisited and reviewed as the school works toward that point. Evaluation and review is not only to see if the final goal is being reached but to address unanticipated problems that arise during the process. The administrator and staff involved should work together to problem solve for specific students, grade levels, and content areas. Part of the evaluation process is looking at what works with students and explore where teachers struggle (Armstrong, 2011).
Resistance to change and reform is a common problem. It is human nature to resist change when we have become complacent with our current situation or surroundings. However, without change, we become stagnant and with the changing climate of education, stagnation is not acceptable. As administrators we need to have the leadership ability to take our staff and students into the future of education equipped with the knowledge required to compete in today’s world. We need to have the knowledge and skills to help our teachers overcome their reasons for resistance.

Armstrong, A. (2011). 4 key strategies help educators overcome resistance. Learning Forward, 14(2). Retrieved from
National Association of Secondary School Principals. (May 9, 2009). Why some teachers resist change and what principals can do about it. Retrieved from
Yilmaz, D., & Kilicoglu, G. (3013). Resistance to change and ways of reducing resistance in educational. European Journal of Research on Education, 1(1), 14-21. Retrieved from

ADMIN: Comprehensive Exam Section II and III (2013)

Directions: As a shared vision for a school is developed, educators may find considerable tension between the forces for education change/reform and those in education who are either wary of or weary of education change/reform. What strategies would you develop, put in place, and lead in communicating the vision while addressing the concerns of each of these two groups? How will you use research-based theory and philosophy in addressing the concerns of each of these two groups? How would you evaluate your progress in achieving the goals of your vision?

Top of Form | UNSATISFACTORY | BASIC | PROFICIENT | ADVANCED | Score/Level | Section II: Question 3

Stewarding a Vision (1.4) | Provides no evidence of how a shared commitment to the plan is communicated to stakeholders having opposing opinions (1.4a)

Provides no evidence of factors concerned with teaching and learning (1.4b)

Provides no evidence of how research-based theory and philosophy are used in addressing the concerns of stakeholders having opposing opinions (1.4b)

No evidence is provided of how the goals of the vision are evaluated (1.4c) | Provides limited evidence of how a shared commitment to the plan is communicated to stakeholders having opposing opinions (1.4a)

Provides limited evidence of factors concerned with teaching and learning (1.4b)

Provides limited evidence of how research-based theory and philosophy are used in addressing the concerns of stakeholders having opposing opinions (1.4b)

Limited evidence is provided of how the goals of the vision are evaluated (1.4c) | Provides sufficient evidence of how a shared commitment to the plan is communicated to stakeholders having opposing opinions (1.4a)

Sufficiently addresses factors concerned with teaching and learning (1.4b)

Provides sufficient evidence of how research-based theory and philosophy are used in addressing the concerns of stakeholders having opposing opinions (1.4b)

Sufficient evidence is provided of how the goals of the vision are evaluated (1.4c) | Provides clear and substantial evidence of how a shared commitment to the plan is communicated to stakeholders having opposing opinions (1.4a)

Clearly and substantially addresses factors concerned with teaching and learning (1.4b)

Provides clear and substantial evidence of how research-based theory and philosophy are used in addressing the concerns of stakeholders having opposing opinions (1.4b)

Clear and substantial evidence is provided of how the goals of the vision are evaluated (1.4c) | |…...

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