Free Essay

Cold Environments

In: Science

Submitted By williamweston31
Words 7946
Pages 32
COLD ENVIRONMENTS

All Definitions: * Quaternary Period: the latest period in geological time spanning the last 2 million years. It is sub-divided into the Pleistocene epoch (the most recent ice age) and Holocene epoch (the post-glacial period of last 10000 years). * Glacial: a period of time when masses of ice develop and advance into lower altitudes due to a sustained decline in temperature. Extensive continental ice sheets form during such periods. * Interglacial: a period of time, such as the present day, when ice still covers part of the Earth’s surface but has retreated to the polar regions. * Accumulation: the net gain in an ice mass. The sources of accumulation are direct snowfall and avalanching from higher slopes. * Sublimation: a transition from the solid state to gas with no intermediate liquid stage. * Ablation: the process of wastage of snow or ice, especially by melting. * Steady State: when the amounts of accumulation and ablation are equal over the course of a year. As a result, the snout of the glacier will remain stationary. * Surge: a short-lived phase of accelerated glacier flow. * Pressure Melting Point (PMP): the temperature at which ice under pressure will melt. * Extensional Flow: also known as extending flow, this is the extension and related thinning of glacier ice in those zones where velocity increases. * Compressional Flow: also known as compressing flow, this is the type of glacier flow whereby a reduction in velocity leads to an increase in thickness of a glacier. * Weathering: the breakdown of rocks in situ (in their original location, without them being moved away). This produces finer particles that can then be moved by agents of erosion such as wind and running water.
The Global Distribution of Cold Environments:
Ice Ages: * Begin as a result of global climatic changes. * During the Quaternary period, which began just over 2 million years ago, the ice began to spread from the polar ice caps. At its greatest extent the ice covered nearly a third of the Earth’s surface and only 18,000 years ago it covered the UK from the Bristol Channel across Norfolk.
Climatic Influences: * Reasons for climatic fluctuations are thought to include: * Changes in the Earth’s position in space, its orbit and tilt. * Variations in sunspot activity changing the amount of solar radiation received. * Changes in amount of volcanic dust affecting the amount of radiation trapped by the atmosphere. * Trapping of carbon dioxide by the oceans reducing the total amount in the atmosphere and thus cooling the planet. * Variations in ocean currents.
Glaciers as Systems: * Glaciers are masses of ice which are continually changing and may be seen as an open system with inputs which add to the mass, and outputs which decrease the mass. * Near the source, inputs generally exceed outputs and this is known as the zone of accumulation. This is due to: * High altitudes have more precipitation (the orographic effect), mainly in the form of snow. * New snow is highly reflective, absorbing less heat and therefore melting less. * Stronger winds at higher altitudes cause snow to be blown into hollows and basins to that it accumulates. * As temperature is low, sublimation and other losses are low, and meltwater is likely to refreeze. * The zone of ablation is found at lower altitudes where inputs exceed outputs. * The dividing line between the two zones is called the firn (or equilibrium) line. Gravity moves ice continually down to this line. * The difference between total accumulation and total ablation for the whole of the glacier over one year is called the glacial budget or net balance. * This is calculated for the balance year which runs from autumn to autumn which is when summer ablation will have reduced the total ice mass to a minimum. There is a positive winter and negative summer balance. * When the amounts of accumulation and ablation are equal, the glacier is in a steady state.
Glacier Ice Formation: * The climate deteriorates over a period of years. * More precipitation falls as snow in winter. * Shorter, less intense summers lead to a reduced degree of snow melting. * If climate continues to deteriorate, snow will remain all year. * This will form a permanent snowline. * As the climate deteriorates further, the snowline moves downhill.
Conversion of Snow to Ice: * Snow falls as flakes – open feathery structures – trapping air as they accumulate (alimentation). * Continued accumulation leads to compression of the upper layers of the snow. * Lower layers turn to nevé or firn – compressed snow but not ice. * Nevé is now denser and soon turns to ice pellets. * Further compaction causes the grains of firn to re-crystallise and it turns bluish. * It takes roughly 25-40 years to form solid glacial ice in temperate latitudes
What Factors Influence Distribution of Ice Cover? * Latitude: * At higher latitudes, much less of the sun’s rays hit the ground. * This means that much less solar energy is received per unit area near the poles than nearer the equator. Due to this, average temperatures are much lower. * Altitude: * Annual temperatures are lower at higher elevation. * This is because, as the altitude increases, lower atmospheric pressure causes air to expand its volume, lose energy and decrease in temperature. * This process is known as adiabatic temperature decline. * An example of equatorial ice is Kilimanjaro in Kenya. * Relief: * In steep, high relief areas and mountains, it is less likely that glaciers can build up as there is less low-angle ground to hold snow and allow accumulation. * Aspect: * North-facing slopes are shadier in the Northern Hemisphere due to there being less insolation. They are therefore more conductive to snow accumulation. * The warm south-westerly prevailing wind is also a factor and will have less effect on north or north-east facing slopes. * The snow-bearing winds tend to blow in from the north and will therefore hit north facing slopes.
Glacial Surges: * Where snowfall is exceptionally heavy or there is much rainfall, the glacier may react quickly and surge forward * Flow rates of over 1000m a year or more are seen in large ice streams in Antarctica and outlet glaciers in Greenland.
Glacier Size and Shape: * Niche Glaciers are small patches of glacier found on upland slopes. Most prevalent on north-facing slopes in the northern hemisphere and have no effect on topography. * Corrie Glaciers are small ice masses on mountain slopes which gradually erode armchair shaped hollows. If they develop too large for the hollow, they spill over the lip to feed a valley glacier. * Valley Glaciers are larger masses of ice that flow from icefields or a corrie and usually follow preglacial river valleys, developing steep sides as they erode their course. * Piedmont Glaciers are large lobes of ice formed when the glaciers spread out. They may merge on reaching lowland areas and escape the confines of their valleys. * Ice Caps are huge, flattened, dome-shaped masses of ice that develop on high plateaus. When over 50000km squared in area they are known as ice sheets.
Warm- and Cold-based Glaciers: * Cold-based (polar) glaciers occur in polar latitudes where the temperature of the snowfall is far below freezing and the glacier remains at well below freezing point. Ice remains frozen to the bedrock and as a result there is very little ice movement and thus limited erosion. * Warm-based (temperate) glaciers include most glaciers outside of Antarctica and the northern Greenland ice caps. Water is present throughout the ice mass and acts as a lubricant. This allows for much greater movement.
Ice Movement:
Internal Flow or Internal Deformation: * This is the movement within the glacier ice resulting from the stresses applied by the force of gravity. * Where ice crystals orientate themselves in the direction of the glacier’s overall movement, they may slide past each other. * Such movements often result in the formation of crevasses within and at the surface of the ice.
Basal Slippage: * This is the sliding effect of a glacier over the bedrock by either regelation slip or creep. * Regelation slip operates most effectively with smaller obstacles while creep is the process that mainly overcomes larger protuberances. * On the upglacier side of an obstacle, the increasing pressure in the lower ice causes pressure melting locally. The meltwater permits slippage of the ice over the obstacle but then refreezes in the lower-pressure conditions on the downglacier side of the obstacle. * The thin layer of ice where this happens is called the regelation layer. * Creep may occur where there is little or no regelation slip. It refers to the plastic deformation that occurs within the ice when its course is impeded by larger obstacles. Larger obstacles greatly increase the stress in the ice and cause it to become more plastic in behaviour so that it creeps or flows around the obstacle.
Extensional and Compressional Flow: * Velocity steadily increases in the accumulation zone as the firn line approaches, as downvalley ice is consistently pulling away from upvalley ice. Such a condition is called extensional flow. * Below the line, velocities fall as the ice from the upper valley is continually pushing against downvalley ice. This is compressional flow. * Sudden breaks in velocity such as at icefalls give rise to extreme extending flow and large transverse and longitudinal crevasses are generated, creating a landscape of sharp-crested angular blocks called seracs.
Rotational Flow: * This movement is characteristic of corries where the ice slides down into an armchair-shaped hollow about a central point of rotation.
Influences on Rate of Movement: * Snow and ice masses do not generally move downslope until the thickness exceeds 60m. * Steep glaciers flow faster than gently graded ones and thus are usually thinner. * Movement is faster over an impermeable surface compared with a permeable surface in temperate zones as basal meltwater is retained, which aids slippage. * The amount of precipitation and ablation are significant factors. * The greatest velocity is usually at the firn line, as velocity is directly related to thickness. * The centre of the glacier, which the ice is thickest, moves more rapidly than the margins, where friction plays a considerable role in reducing speed.

Glacial Processes and Landscape Development:
Glacial Weathering and Erosion: * Physical weathering processes dominate e.g. freeze-thaw. * Little biological or chemical weathering is evident in glacial environments as both work best at high temperatures.
Processes of Glacial Erosion: * Abrasion: angular material is embedded in the glacier as it rubs against the valley sides and flood, gradually wearing it away. The scratching and scraping action may leave striations (elongated grooves) as well as generally smooth, gently sloping landforms. * Plucking: occurs where the ice freezes onto rock outcrops, after which ice movement pulls away masses of rock. The pressure of overlying ice generated by frictional contact may cause partial melting of ice on the upstream side of obstructions, and then the removal of pressure on the downside causes regelation (refreezing) helping attach material. It is generally previously loosened material that is removed. Jagged-features landscapes are formed. * Rotational Movement: is the downhill movement of ice pivoting around a central point of rotation. Corries are created by this rotational scouring of depressions and this process is most effective where temperatures fluctuate around 0C (as with plucking) to allow freeze thaw to operate, particularly in areas of jointed rocks where weaknesses may be exploited.
Landforms Produced By Glacial Erosion:
Corries:
Description: * Armchair Shaped Hollow * Found in glaciated upland areas * Steep back wall – can lead to Arête or Pyramidal peak formation * Over deepened basin with rock lip made of moraine * Often contains a small lake called a Tarn * Usually faces between North and East in the Northern hemisphere * Evidence of frost shattering on back wall in the form of scree. May be striations too * Examples are Easedale tarn at Easedale or Red Tarn at Hellvellyn
Formation:
Pre-glacially: * Climate worsens and becomes subarctic, below 0C with constant frost and heavy snow. * Snow collects in hollows of NE facing slopes. The depth of snow increases over winter. * In summer it melts and meltwater seeps into ‘nooks and crannies’ leading to freeze thaw action. The rubble created is removed by solifluction or meltwater streams. * This process is repeated many times and the hollow soon deepens. (process is nivation)
Glacially:
* Temperature is now permanently under 0C and snow mass is constant. * The snow, under pressure, compacts into firn and then into ice (over time). * Meltwater and scree fall from the backwall (and above it) onto the glacier (carried englacially). Some falls into the Bergeschrund crevasse. The meltwater seeps into cracks in the backwall and scree eventually reaches the corrie base via rotational slip. * The already frost-shattered back walls are easily shattered further and plucked. * Debris reaches the base through rotational slip and when rocks reach the zone of ablation they are, after being weakened by pressure, embedded into the ice. They then abrade the base and may form striations. * There is evidence of creep near the rock lip where ice becomes plastic to ‘climb’ over the lip. Once the lip is breached moraine is deposited.
Postglacially:
* Ice melts leaving a hollow containing a small lake. * There is still evidence of winter freeze-thaw from the scree on the back wall. * There may be fluvial erosion due to the meltwater streams flowing from the tarn. *
Arêtes:
* When two or more corries erode back towards each other from opposing sides, they produce a thin and knife edged ridge between them. * E.G. Striding edge above Red Tarn in the Lake District (850m) * E.G. the Minarets – Sierra Nevada, California (3735m high, 338m prominence)
Pyramidal Peaks: * Where three or more corries erode back toward each other or 3-4 arêtes radiating from a central point. * A very steep, sharp mountain peak. * It often has near-vertical sides. * E.G the Matterhorn in Zermatt, Italy/Switzerland. (4478m) * E.G. Mont Blanc in Chamonix, Eastern France (4810m)
Glacial Troughs:
Description:
* Flat valley and steep sides – parabolic shaped * Fairly straight sides and fairly flat floor * 1-50km long * 0.5-3km wide * Characterised by truncated spurs e.g. Blencathra spurs (4) * Hanging Valleys are left perched above the truncated spurs – may be V or U shaped. * The valley floor has been overdeepened * You may find a misfit stream (Easedale beck) or ribbon lake (Windermere) within * Screes may have formed in postglacial times making it look less steep-sided * The valleys are fairly straight * Examples: * Lauterbrunnen valley in Switzerland * Buttermere in the Lake District * Easedale in the Lake District * Nant Ffrancon in Wales * In long profile, there is a basin and step formation; * The basin is made up of less resistant rock * The step is more resistant rock
Formation:
* Ice came from: * A highland field – tongues of ice spilled out down valleys * Corries – ice flowed over the lip down steep sides into river valleys * Ice accumulated at the head of the valley itself and steepened the back wall forming a trough end * Ice action steepened, widened and straightened pre-existing river valleys changing long and cross profiles. * Plucking – ice loosens, picks up and removes masses of rock varying in size. Most effective in areas with well jointed rocks or permeable rocks where water produced by pressure melting percolates into cracks in the bedrock then freezes and shatters the rock. * Abrasion – using the material entrained in the ice from plucking, the glacier will smooth the truncated spurs and will overdeepen the valley floor. * Pressure Release – when a certain thickness of the bedrock is removed it is replaced by ice which is 1/3 the density of rock and so causes the uppermost layers of the rock to separate along the sheet joints. This weakening in the upper bedrock allows other erosive processes to operate rapidly. * Cross profile – the valley is overdeepened by the sheer mass of ice and erosion on base. It is straightened by removal of interlocking spurs. The ice thickness and velocity are greatest over the central part of the valley floor so erosion is greatest and deepest in the center. * Long profile: * A distinct trough end due to accumulation of ice at head of valley * Irregular long profile due to extending and compressing flow * Basins on the valley floor associated with greater erosion caused by compressing flow where a tributary glacier provides additional ice so the enlarged glacier can achieve greater downcutting (or an area deeply weathered prior to glaciations, or a band or less resistant rock or due to constriction of valley walls) * Often find a ribbon lake in the basin – glacial flow is compressional, the ice gains a rotational movement causing enhanced abrasion and deepening of the rock basin. * Steps on the valley floor marked by the position of a more resistant band are the zone of extending flow – the ice is stretched, thins and so erodes less.
Roche Moutonnees: * Are masses of more resistant rock that have smooth, rounded upvalley (stoss) slopes formed by abrasion. The Lee or downvalley sides are steep and jagged, which reflects the plucking action that formed them. Abrasion on the upvalley side may have left striations as pieces of rock debris within the ice were dragged across the surface under great pressure. * Like striations, they lie parallel to the flow of ice. * They vary in size from 3x8m (easedale) to 300x30m. * E.g. Easedale in the Lake District and Cairngorms in Scotland

Crag and Tail: * Consists of a larger mass of resistant rock or crag and gently sloping tail of less resistant rock and/or sediment on one side. * E.G. in Edinburgh. Castle sits on hard basaltic rock, the Royal Mile runs down softer sedimentary rocks.
Striations:
* When glaciers move across exposures of rock, angular debris embedded within the ice may leave parallel scratches or grooves called striations.
Glacial Deposition: * Subdivided into: * Till – all material deposited directly by the ice, largely unsorted in nature. * Fluvioglacial material – sediments deposited by meltwater streams. These usually have been sorted with coarse material nearer the original glacier snout and finer particles carried further away by meltwaters.
Till (boulder clay): * Unsorted mixture of rocks, clays and sands. * Once carried as supraglacial debris and later deposited to form moraines, it was deposited during ice movement or glacial retreat. * There is little rounding of debris and it tends to remain subangular in form.

Erratics: * Fragments of glacial debris which range in size from pebbles to large boulders. They have been carried by glacier ice before being deposited. * E.G. Big Rock in Alberta, Canada (16500 tonnes). * They are said to be ex situ. * They are usually distinguishable by their lithology – they are likely to be of a different rock type from the underlying rock and by their attitude, they do not lie in the same manner as the local strata.
Moraines:
Lateral Moraine:
Description:
* With the eventual melting or retreat of glacier, such accumulations of moraine appear as hummocky, linear embankments running along the valley sides parallel to the ice movement. * They are unsorted, unstratified, angular material in clay * Examples: * Cwm Idwal in Wales * Tasman Glacier in New Zealand * Athabasca Glacier in Canada (1.24m high, 1.5km long).
Formation:
* Derived from loose weathered rock that moves down valley sides and is gradually fed onto the glacier below. The combination of this load supply and the movement of the glacier creates lines of debris that gradually become part of the moving body of ice. * When the ice has melted/retreated material falls onto the valley sides and floor. It may slump or erode after this.
Medial Moraine:
Description:
* Often made up of only one metre or so of coarse stony debris. The material is largely supraglacial and central and so rarely gives rise to landforms in post glacial times. * They are unsorted, unstratified, angular material in clay * They mark the confluence of two glaciers vallies and lie parallel to the direction of flow. * They are less defined towards the snout. * Generally between one and 30m high and one and 20km long. Between 50-100m wide. * Examples: * Kaskawesh in Yukon, USA. 1km wide moraine, narrowing to 60m.
Formation:
* Formed when two glaciers meet. * The two lateral moraines that converge subsequently flow as one in the middle of the enlarged glacier (+explain lateral moraine formation).
Terminal Moraine (End Moraine):
Description:
* Mark the maximum advance of a glacier and the boundary between glacial and proglacial landscapes. * From a plan view, they are typically arc-shaped. * Consist of a ridge of material (or several mounds/hummocky hills) stretching across a valley. * Elongated at right angles to the direction of ice advance * Often steep-sided, particularly the ice contact side (20-30 degrees, distal slope is 10-20 degrees), and reach heights of 50-60 meters. * There is only one per glacier. * They are typically 30-60 meters high. * They are perpendicular to the valley floor and glacier direction. Sometimes it creates a dam creating a proglacial ribbon lake. * They are often crescent shaped, moulded to the form of the snout. * They are formed from unsorted, unstratified, angular material in clay. * Examples: * Cape Cod – North East USA. * Cromer Ridge, Norfolk – 8km wide, 9 meters high. * The Franz Loset glacier in NZ. Highest recorded at 430 meters.
Formation:
* When ice melts and the material it has been carrying is deposited. This is why they contain a range of unsorted material, from clay to large boulders. * Occurs when the glacier has a positive mass balance causing it to advance – boulder clay is pushed along the glacier snout and forms a pile. * The glacier retreats due to a now negative mass balance, leaving the pile of unsorted, unstratified and angular debris as a ridge. * The height is determined by how long the ice remains stationary at the maximum point. * It may be weathered by freeze thaw action or slump in post glacial times.
Recessional Moraine:
Description:
* Also forms parallel to the glacier snout (right angles to ice flow) * Proglacial areas may have more than one recessional moraine * They will be positioned between the snout and terminal moraine * Sediment it consists of tends to be unsorted, unstratified, angular and in clay * Smaller and less steep than terminal moraine as snout is less steep when retreating * Can be from 0.5-100km long, 20-500m wide and 3-50m high
Formation:
* As the glacier retreats, it is possible for a series of moraines to be formed along the valley, marking points where the retreat halted for some time – this is recessional moraine. * The halt is usually due to a climate change * (+formation exactly as terminal moraine above)
Push Moraine:
Description:
* Can be recognised by the orientation of individual pieces of rock which have been pushed upwards from their original horizontal position. * Also form parallel to the ice margin (right angles to ice flow). * Small hummocky ridges due to short-lived winter re-advance. * They often include glacio-fluvial sediment of more rounded clasts in small ridges. * Consist of unsorted, unstratified, angular material in clay * Examples: * Athabasca Glacier, Canada – 0.7-2m high (seasonal shift) * In front of the Axel Heiberg Island glacier * In the Canadian high arctic
Formation:
* If the climate cools for some time, leading to a glacial advance, previously deposited moraine may be shunted up into a mound forming push moraine. * It is not uncommon for them to be destroyed from one winter to the next due to summer melting. * They can also disappear due to an increase in snow input into the system, causing the snout to advance.
What does terminal moraine tell us about ice movement? * Where the glacier was stationary and for how long * The maximum extent of ice * Where the ice came from through material
What does recessional moraine tell us about ice movement? * That the glacier was retreating but stationary for some periods – climatic indications * The time it was still for – from height * Where the ice came from through material

Drumlins:
Description:
* Smooth oval shaped hills * Can reach 50m in height, more than 1km in length and up to 0.5km in width * Average is approx 400 by 40 * Have a steep stoss end * Have a tapered lee end * Elongated in the direction of ice advance – stoss is the upstream end * Made up of glacial debris/till – unstratified, unsorted, angular and in clay * Often found in ‘swarms’ and so have a ‘basket of eggs’ topography * Found in lowland plains such as central lowlands of Scotland – lower end of glacial vallies * Degree of elongation is usually between 2.5:1 and 4:1 * Examples: * Hellifield, The Ribble Valley – the largest is Rise Bigg Hill * New York state has over 10,000 * Much of Northern Ireland

Formation: * The most wide-spread theory is that Drumlins are formed when ice is melting and overloaded in a lowland area. The glacier does not need much to encourage deposition. When an obstacle such as a rock outcrop is passed material is deposited on the upstream end of the obstacle and the movement of ice and erosive power of it helps to create a smoothened lee end. * The fluvial theory, as proposed mainly by Shaw and Cox, attributes drumlin formation either to catastrophic flooding due to the release of meltwater that is believed to have accumulated beneath melting ice sheets, or to floods caused by regional uplift due to tectonic movements.
Fluvioglacial Processes and Landforms: * Are created by the meltwater from glaciers, largely through deposition but also by erosion * Discharge (predominantly in summer months) occurs through supraglacial and subglacial streams at the base of the glacier (often under a great deal of pressure in the latter case)
Outwash Plains (Sandur): * Comprised of gravels, sands and clays deposited by meltwater streams * The plains tend to sort the sediment so that coarser material, like sand, is closer to the snout, and finer clay is furthest away. (Outwash material may also be deposited on top of till following the retreat of ice.)
Varves:
* Are glacio-lacustrine sediments deposited annually in lakes at the glacial margins. * Varved clays exhibit alternating layers of darker-coloured silt on top of layers of lighter-coloured sand. * The larger-calibre materials are deposited during late spring when meltwater streams experience peak discharge and maximum load. * In the cooler autumn, when volumes of meltwater decrease, streams experience lower discharge and can only carry finer-calibre sediments so only they (darker coloured silts) are deposited. * This process repeats each year and so such bands are formed. * By counting the number of varves it is possible to obtain the age of the sediment. * Thicker or thinner varves may indicate warmer periods (more meltwater) and colder periods with less meltwater.
Braided Streams: * Seasonal variation in the discharge of meltwater streams leads to fluctuations in the sediment load being carried across the outwash plains. * Deposition of excess sediment during times of lower discharge may obstruct flow, leading to braiding of the channels as water seeks to find a more efficient way through. * An example is the River Eyra in Iceland.

Eskers:
Description:
* Sinuous ridges which mark the course of streams that once transported subglacial meltwater beneath the glacier * May run uphill (as meltwater streams can under hydrostatic pressure) * Consist of sorted silt, sand and gravel – rounded due to rivers vigorous attrition * Form at right angles to the ice front/run parallel to the ice flow * Some degree of sorting both downstream and from the centre outwards * Vegetation on the esker may differ to that nearby * Largest are in Sweden hundreds of km long, 400-700m wide and 40-50m high * Smaller ones are generally a few hundred meters long, 40-50m wide and 10-20m high * Generally develop in an intricate network rather than in isolation * Are often beaded due to stationary ice phases * They reveal major routes followed by meltwater * Slopes/sides are 5-10 degrees steep * Examples are: * Trim Eskers in Goltrim near Dublin, Ireland * Blakeney Esker, Blakeney, England (Norfolk) 3.5km long, 20m high
Formation:
* Four conditions are necessary for the formation: * Running water * High amounts of transported sediment * A change in the velocity of flow, resulting in deposition * Retreat of the ice margin to expose the esker * Beneath a glacier or ice sheet, meltwater flows through a network of tunnels, often under hydrostatic pressure. * The pressure is so great in places that the water is even forced up gentle gradients. * When the discharge is high, a lot of sediment is transported. * However, when the discharge falls at the end of the summer melt season, sediment is quickly deposited. * Then subglacial or englacial tunnels fill with sediment, which is exposed when the ice margin retreats. * There are three types of esker: * Sharp-crested eskers; debris is deposited along the sides of the channel where the flow velocity is the lowest. Preferential melting of the crest of the channel carves out the top. * Multiple-crested eskers; where the topography of the bedrock influences the location of the esker, the channel may migrate downslope. Debris is deposited as the esker moves and two or more crests are formed on the esker. * Broad-crested eskers; water will re-freeze in the channel if the energy of the water cannot keep the temperature above freezing. The channel will broaden because only the parts of the channel that are in contact with the flowing water will not freeze.
Kames:
Description: * A Kame is a mound of sorted sands and gravels deposited by meltwater * Usually layered * Max width of 50m and height of approximately 3-5m * Examples: * Cairngorms in Scotland * North Norfolk near the Blakeney esker 20-400m diameter and up to 20m high
Formation theory 1: * Along the front of a stationary or slowly receding glacier. * Streams flowing off the ice build up a small delta in the static water if an ice marginal lake * One side of the sediment remains in contact with the ice and during deglaciation the ice melts, the support is removed and the sediment slumps
Formation theory 2: * (Homes in 1947) * Pools or ponds develop on the surface or within stagnating ice as meltwater slows into depressions * The sediment builds up into a mound and as the ice around the deposit melts, the kames are lowered and deposited at the base of the ice
Kame Terraces:
Description:
* Elongated mounds of sorted sand and gravel. * Found at the sides of glaciers/former glaciers.
Formation:
* From sediment deposited by meltwater in contact with the ice margin. * Form at the sides of glaciers. * Heat from the sun warms the valley sides and melts the ice that is in contact with them. * During the summer, meltwater runs along the edge of the glacier and can form marginal lakes. * At times of low meltwater flow, material is deposited in layers, fining upwards. * In this way the marginal lakes are infilled. * The sediment is well bedded and comprises sorted and gravel * This material remains in contact with the ice until the glacier wastes downwards, leaving a terrace stranded at the side of the valley.
Kettles or Kettle Holes:
Description:
* Hollows found in sandur plains or vast till plains * Often filled with a pond or marshy ground * Between 5-100m diameter, 10-50m deep
Formation:
* As an ice sheet retreats, some blocks of ice may become detached (known as dead ice) * Often dead ice becomes embedded into the sandur plain and is covered with sediment * As the climate warms, the dead ice melts and leaves a depression in the surface * Surrounding settlement is meanwhile made unstable and collapses into the pit * May afterwards be filled by a pond or marshy ground
Periglacial Processes: * Periglacial areas are those that experience a cold climate, with intense frost action and the development of permafrost. * Today up to 25% of the Earth’s surface may be described as periglacial (both mountainous areas and areas within the Arctic circle)
Permafrost:
* Is permanently frozen ground. * Subsoil temperatures much remain below zero for two years or more for it to develop * The extent, depth and continuity of the layer varies through time according to fluctuations in climate. * During the summer, when air temperatures rise above freezing, the surface layer thaws to form an active layer up to 4m deep. * There are three main types of permafrost: * Continuous permafrost – found in the coldest regions such as the Arctic, where there is little summer thawing. It affects the soil and rock to a depth of up to 700m in parts of Canada and up to 1500m in some regions of Siberia. * Discontinuous permafrost – this is found in slightly warmer regions where freezing conditions do not penetrate to such great depths (av. 20-30m). It is called discontinuous as there are breaks in the permafrost around rivers, lakes and the sea. * Sporadic permafrost – here mean annual temperatures are around or barely below freezing point and permafrost occurs only in isolated areas
Frost Heave: * This process results from the direct formation of ice crystals or lenses in the soil. * On freezing, fine-grained soils expand unevenly upwards to form small domes. * As stones cool down faster that the surrounding soil, small amounts of moisture in the soil beneath the stones freeze and turn to ice, expanding by 9% as they do so. * By repeated freezing and thawing over time, these crystals and lenses heave stones upwards in the soil profile. * In areas where temperatures fluctuate between 0 and -4 degrees Celsius the frost heaving and thawing is able to sort material into patterned ground. * The larger stones move outwards down the very low slopes of smaller domes because of their weights. * On gentler slopes stone polygons are created, but where the ground is steeper than 6 degrees, the stones are dragged by gravity into more linear arrangements – stone stripes.
Groundwater Freezing: * Freezing of water in the upper layer of soil where permafrost is thin or discontinuous leads to the expansion of ice within the soil * This causes the overlying sediments to heave upwards into a dome-shaped feature known as a pingo: * Found on flat tundra plains * Dome shaped and isolated hills * Top may be indented or ruptured to expose an icy core or water filled hollow * Up to 50m high and 500m in diameter
East Greenland type Pingo Formation (open type): * As temperatures fall, there is progressive downward freezing of water-saturated sediments * Then, as subsurface pressure increases, it forces the ground to bulge upwards
Mackenzie type Pingo Formation (closed type): * Found in the Mackenzie delta, Canada * Develop beneath lakes that are surrounded by permafrost * The soil beneath the central part of the lake is unfrozen as it is insulated by the water * Sediments are washed into the lake, which slowly infills, continuing the insulation * Over time, the water in the sediments freezes, but some trapped unfrozen material (talik) remains beneath this. * As temperatures continue to decrease, the permafrost encroaches on this unfrozen material; as it does, the pressure is increased due to water expanding on freezing. * To relieve the pressure, the surface bulges upwards * Eventually all the water is converted to ice, forming a core of clear ice under the bulge.
For both types of Pingo: * There may come a time when the intrusion of ice and the stretching of the overlying soil causes fracturing * This leads to the collapse of the pingo as the cracks allow warmer air to penetrate the ice core of the mound, and so it begins to melt * Thus, ruptured pingos (ognips) are characterised by a collapsed centre as the ice has disappeared. * The longest known pingo lifespan is 1000 years
Ice Wedges: * Widespread in periglacial environments * Develop in areas of continuous permafrost where the soils are poorly drained * During the winter, soil temperatures drop below -15 degrees, causing the soil to contract and form cracks in the frozen ground * When temperatures rise during spring, the soil expands and moisture collects in the cracks and freezes * Freezing causes the ice to expand and prevents the crack from closing * The average dimension of a wedge ranges from 15m to 40m * Example: Long Hanborough Carrot near Oxford
Nivation:
* Occurs mainly between north- and east-facing slopes beneath patches of snow in hollows of bare rock * It is essentially frost action affecting the land beneath a blanket of snow and may involve freeze-thaw weathering as well as solifluction and meltwater. Freeze-thaw action causes the underlying rock to disintegrate. During the spring thaw, the weathered particles are moved downslope by the meltwater and by solifluction. Over a period of time this leads to corrie formation.
Solifluction:
* The effect of the summer thaw on the active layer is to release a great deal of meltwater * As the water is unable to percolate downwards (as ground is frozen), it saturates the soil, reducing the internal friction between particles, thus making it highly mobile. * The lack of substantial vegetation to fix the saturated soil means that it begins to flow even on slopes of very few degrees * The deposits it leaves behind are characterised by rounded, tongue-like features often forming terraces on the sides of valleys – solifluction lobes/terraces. * These stepped lobes may be formed beneath a turf of vegetation which is pushed forwards and rolled under (like a caterpillar truck) * Where vegetation is sparse stones heaved to the surface are pushed to the front of the advancing lobe and form a small stone bank at the front

Exploitation and Development of Cold Environments:
Case Study: Tundra: Old Crow Flats:
The Vuntut Gwitchin:
What?
* A community of about 300 people * One of 19 Gwitchin villages and 7500 people spread across north Canada
Location:
* The tundra of Old Crow Flats * In the North of Yukon, Canada * 75km North of Arctic Circle * 110km South of Beaufort Sea * Richardson Mountains to the East, British and Barns ranges North and Crow mountains South and West.
Climate:
* January mean daily temperature is -35 degrees (can drop to -60) * July mean daily temperature is 15 degrees with 24h daylight (can reach 36) * Annual total mean precipitation = 200mm * Average frost-free period is approx. 50 days but fluctuates massively
Land and Relief: * Mostly polygonal peat bogs * Low relief * Approx. 300m above sea level * Covered in lakes to the south * Tussock tundra vegetation covers gentle slopes * Hills covered with; * Spruce woodland * Dwarf birch * Willow * Cotton grass * Lichens forming ground cover
Life:
* Originally lived an entirely nomadic life, hunting, trapping and collecting fruit and berries * Now settled but still follow many aspects of their tradition; largely based on the seasonal migration of the caribou herds across the tundra with further seasonal migration by some to trap muskrat * They now use rifles and snow mobiles rather than primitive weapons and dog sleds * Jobs increasingly less primary, 12 men got 2 year jobs constructing a quarry (6km away) * A crushing plant to produce gravel was also built * Now a gap in population due to working age commuters
The Porcupine Caribou Herd: * So named as they cross the porcupine river during migration * In Spring: * Migrate North to the coastal plains (1002 lands) to calve and graze on the rich pasture and shrubs exposed by snowmelt. Flat and featureless so predators are soon spotted. Sea breeze lowers amount of mosquitoes. * In Winter: * Migrate South. Animals spread out to forage for lichens etc. Snow is less deep inland so there is less scraping around for food * Hunted For: * Clothing, tentage, food, needles, spears and more. * Funnelled into a U-shaped trap using a gap in forest or using streams. * Only 4% of adults in a herd at any one year are killed – the birth rate easily compensates for this loss. The relationship is full of respect. * They provide food for up to six months for the Vuntut Gwitchin
The Threat to the Caribou from Oil Exploration: * The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is a habitat for over 250 species. * It contains areas of world-class wilderness boreal forests, dramatic peaks and tundra. * It features a complete range of Arctic and Sub-Arctic ecosystems. * Groups in favour of petroleum exploration and development are; * The oil industry * The three Alaska representatives in Congress * Many of the people of Alaska who, each year, receive money from the Alaska Permanent Fund * Those who argue that the USA’s national security depends on producing its own oil as far as possible, to avoid relying on imports from other countries * Groups against the development include; * Native Alaskans and first nation Canadians who rely on the caribou herds for their way of life and much of their food and income * The small, but growing Yukon and Alaska tourist industries * Wildlife and wilderness conservationists in Alaska, Canada and mainland USA and the rest of the world – in a recent US poll, 70% of Americans called for the permanent protection of the Arctic Refuge’s coastal plain * Some arguments against development, other than conservation related ones, are as follows; * There is only a 50% chance of discovering oil in the 1002 lands * Even oil industry estimates suggest that production from this area would only produce enough oil and gas to meet total US demand for 90 days * The strategic argument is flawed because legislation has recently been passed, supported by Alaska’s representatives in Congress to allow Alaska oil to be exported to Asia.
Oil and Gas Exploitation in Alaska:
Alaska North Slope gas pipeline project: * Until now, pressurised tankers have been used to transport gas through the Bering Straits from North Alaska * They are proposing pipeline production due to recent big new gas discoveries * The plan is to take the pipe to Alberta which is already central to the Canadian oil and gas industry and to distribute it from there into the USA
Case Study: Antarctica: * Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent, overlying the South Pole. It is situated in the Antarctica region of the southern hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14.4 million km² (5.4 million sq mi), it is the fifth-largest continent in area after Asia, Africa, North America, and South America. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice, which averages at least 1.6 kilometres (1.0 mi) in thickness. * On average, Antarctica is the coldest, driest and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents. Antarctica is considered a desert, with annual precipitation of only 200 mm (8 inches) along the coast and far less inland. There are no permanent human residents, but anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside at the various research stations scattered across the continent throughout the year. Only cold-adapted plants and animals survive there, including penguins, seals, mosses, lichen, and many types of algae. * Antarctica is the coldest place on Earth. The coldest natural temperature ever recorded on Earth was −89.2 °C at the Russian Vostok Station in Antarctica on 21 July 1983. For comparison, this is 11 °C colder than subliming dry ice. Antarctica is a frozen desert with little precipitation; the South Pole itself receives less than 10 centimeters (4 in) per year, on average. Temperatures reach a minimum of between −80 °C and −90 °C in the interior in winter and reach a maximum of between 5 °C and 15 °C near the coast in summer. Sunburn is often a health issue as the snow surface reflects almost all of the ultraviolet light falling on it. Eastern Antarctica is colder than its western counterpart because of its higher elevation. Weather fronts rarely penetrate far into the continent, leaving the center cold and dry. Despite the lack of precipitation over the central portion of the continent, ice there lasts for extended time periods. Heavy snowfalls are not uncommon on the coastal portion of the continent, where snowfalls of up to 1.22 meters in 48 hours have been recorded. * At the edge of the continent, strong katabatic winds off the polar plateau often blow at storm force. In the interior, however, wind speeds are typically moderate. During summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface during clear days at the South Pole than at the equator because of the 24 hours of sunlight each day at the Pole. There is some speculation that Antarctica is warming as a result of human CO2 emissions but this has not been proven. * Antarctica is colder than the Arctic for two reasons. First, much of the continent is more than 3 kilometers (2 mi) above sea level, and temperature decreases with elevation. Second, the Arctic Ocean covers the north polar zone: the ocean's relative warmth is transferred through the icepack and prevents temperatures in the Arctic regions from reaching the extremes typical of the land surface of Antarctica.
Tourism:
* Antarctica is an unusual tourist destination in that it is not populated, except by scientists at a small number of permanent research destinations * Polar scientists have always been concerned about tourism to the continent because they fear it will interfere with their scientific work and destroy the near-perfect environment. * On the other hand, committed tourists can be supportive of such scientific work, publicising it and helping to raise funds. * Antarctic tourism is of three types; * Camping trips for naturalists, photographers and journalists * Ship-board visits, largely by cruise ships but also by converted Russian ice breakers. Most start either in Ushuaia (Argentina) or in Port Stanley (the Falklands) * Over-flights, restarted after an interval of nearly 20 years following a fatal-for-all crash * Tourists go to Antarctica to see the glacial landscapes and the wildlife, particularly seals, whales and penguins. * They also go for the remoteness and isolation and the chance to test themselves in adverse weather conditions. * Tourists may be interested in historic sites, such as McMurdo Sound with its huts dating from the Scott and Shackleton expeditions. * Tourism is concentrated in the short southern summer period, from mid-November to March. * Ship-borne tourism in Antarctica takes the form of ‘expeditions’. This concept is reinforced by the issue of polar-style clothing. Most of the ships are comparatively small with a capacity of 50-100. * Tourists are informed of the code of conduct in terms of behaviour ashore, adherence to health and safety requirements and rules about wildlife observation. Each site may be visited only once every 2 or 3 days. * Research on the impact of tourism is being undertaken by the Scott Polar Research Institute in Cambridge at most of the high-pressure sites. So far, finding show that the Antarctic environment has been little affected: * Antarctic tourism is a well-run industry, living up to its sound record for environmental concern * Guidelines are widely accepted by operators and tourists alike but they need updating to include the environmental protocol of the UN. * Damage to vegetation is due to natural causes, such as breeding seals. Tourists are usually scrupulous in not walking on areas of fragile vegetation. * No litter is attributed to tourists; they tend to be concerned about the waste they see around the scientific research stations * Virtually no stress is caused to penguins by tourists visiting their breeding colonies. However, tern colonies seem to suffer from disturbance * Seals are largely indifferent to the presence of humans. Tourists who follow wildlife guidelines cause no impact. * Out of 200 landing sits surveyed, only 5% shower and wear and tear and need to be temporarily rested. * Despite the encouraging signs, there are some concerns: * The Antarctic ecosystem is extremely fragile – disturbances leave the imprint for a long time (footprints on moss can remain for decades). * The summer tourist season coincides with peak wildlife breeding periods. * The land-based installations and wildlife are clustered in a few ice-free locations on the continent. * The demand for fresh water is difficult to meet. * Visitor pressure is felt on cultural heritage sites such as old whaling and sealing stations and early exploration bases. * There is some evidence that over-flying by light planes and helicopters is causing some stress to breeding colonies of penguins and other birds. * The unique legal status of Antarctica makes enforcement of any code of behaviour difficult.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Environment

...Peppermint Aphids Peppermint Dishwasher Lemon House Carpet cleaner Lemon House Clean fruit Lemon House kitchen cleaner House Kitchen Sterilizer House Laundry Lemon Lemon Lavender 6 For more great resources please visit : www.ylessentialoils.com II. Natural solutions for your home (continued) House Odors House Odors / Humidifier House Odors / smelly shoes House Odors / ventilation House Paint fumes House Rats / Cockroaches / Ants House water fountain Insect moth repellent Insect repellent Kill germs Potpourri Sanitizer Stain remover Purification Diffuse Purification oil to clean the air and neutralize foul or stale odors. Place a drop of Purification oil on each end of a cotton swab and place on top of your cold water humidifier to clean the air. Put 2 drops of Purification oil on two cotton balls and place in the toes of smelly sneakers to combat odors. Put several drops of Purification oil on a cotton ball and place in air vents in the home, office, hotel room or other enclosed area. Mix one 15 ml. bottle of Peppermint oil into a gallon of paint to dispel the fumes. To deter rats, mice or cockroaches, place two drops of Peppermint oil on a cotton ball and place along the path or point of entry for these pests. Place a drop of Lavender oil in your decorative water fountain to scent the air, kill bacteria and prolong time between cleanings. Place a few drops of Lavender oil on a cotton ball and place in your linen closet to scent the......

Words: 3871 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Cold Mountain

...Cold Mountain Cold Mountain, a novel wrote by Charles Frazier, is a Civil War story, a magnificent love story between a wounded Confederate soldier – Inman who deserts and begins a lonely, dangerous journey to find the way back home, and his lover – Ada who tries to survive after her father’s death. The Cold Mountain is the destination Inman wants to arrive at, and a place where Ada transform from a city girl into a mountain woman. The story is woven around the experiences of Inman and Ada trying to rebuild their lives from the desperation and disaster of the war, all the while trying to find a way to see each other again--whilst they are so far apart. Cold Mountain opens with Inman staying in a Virginia hospital trying to recover his wound from the war. One day he speaks to a blind man he usually saw through the window of the hospital’s room. When the blind man asks Inman to “cite me one instance where you wished you were blind,” Inman doesn’t know where to begin. There are many like: Malvern Hill, Sharpsburg, Petersburg, but “Fredericksburg was a day particularly lodged in his mind.” At that time, he wishes that he himself had been blind at Fredericksburg when his regiment shot down thousands of Federal troops. He wishes that there is no war that takes many lives of soldiers, partitions families and makes him shatter by the violence he has witnessed while fighting in the Confederate army. Inman returns to the ward and opens his copy of Bartram’s Travels at random. He......

Words: 1928 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Cold War

...Research Paper on theme: U.S. - Soviet relations. Cold War. Student: Natalia Konovalova. Introduction. This paper is about U.S. - Soviet relations in Cold War period. Our purpose is to find out the causes of this war, positions of the countries which took part in it. We also will discuss the main Cold War's events. The Cold War was characterized by mutual distrust, suspicion and misunderstanding by both the United States and Soviet Union, and their allies. At times, these conditions increased the likelihood of the third world war. The United States accused the USSR of seeking to expand Communism throughout the world. The Soviets, meanwhile, charged the United States with practicing imperialism and with attempting to stop revolutionary activity in other countries. Each block's vision of the world contributed to East-West tension. The United States wanted a world of independent nations based on democratic principles. The Soviet Union, however, tried control areas it considered vital to its national interest, including much of Eastern Europe. Through the Cold War did not begin until the end of World War II, in 1945, U.S.-Soviet relations had been strained since 1917. In that year, a revolution in Russia established a Communist dictatorship there. During the 1920's and 1930's, the Soviets called for world revolution and the destruction of capitalism,......

Words: 7078 - Pages: 29

Premium Essay

In Cold Blood

...Crimes and Punishment Character Analysis of Perry Smith In Cold Blood, a novel written by Truman Capote in 1966, tells the story brutal 1959 murders of Herbert Clutter, a successful farmer from Holcomb, Kansas, his wife, and two of their four children. In his 1966 novel Capote relates in detail the true and horrific murders of four members of the Clutter family in 1959 Holcomb, Kansas, but more specifically focuses on the murderers, Perry Smith and Dick Hickock, and their motivation to commit such a cold blooded crime. Out of the two, Perry Smith is the most complex character who displays a natural ability to kill, but who also has been shaped to become a murderer, making a more “likable” character than his co-murderer Dick Hickock. In the first part of his novel entitled “The Last to See Them Alive”, Capote gives the reader hints that Perry Smith is indeed born a natural killer. When he was jailed in the Kansas penitentiary, “Perry described a murder, telling how simply for the hell of it," he had killed a colored man in Las Vegas - beaten him to death with a bicycle chain” (Capote 54). After hearing the story his future partner in crime Dick Hickock “became convinced that Perry was that rarity, "a natural killer" - absolutely sane, but conscienceless, and capable of dealing, with or without motive, the coldest-blooded deathblows” (Capote 55). Perry Smith certainly proved to be “that rarity” when he cold bloodedly killed with a single shot in the head Nancy, Kenyon,......

Words: 684 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Environment

...13). Asparagus in Vale of Evesham suffers in cold weather. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/hereford/worcs/8677413.stm In recent times, farmers in the Herefordshire and Worcestershire region of England have been having a hard time harvesting crops in the unusual cold spring weather. The weather in this region is being described as being very below the seasonal average. This in return is causing low productivity of asparagus crops in England. In the report from BBC news, the farmers are only producing about 15% of the crops that they should have by this time of the season. More specifically, farmers are having a hard time producing asparagus which is what the region is famous for. Many farmers are afraid that the harsh Spring weather could eventually affect their profits. The weather changes described in the report by BBC news can be one of many consequences that come along with global warming. As mentioned in lecture, the greenhouse effect is a good thing but when too much carbon dioxide gets trapped in our atmosphere then a problem arises. Extreme temperatures changes are one of the more obvious changes wrought by global warming. The trapped carbon dioxide in our atmosphere may cause an unusually cold spring or an unusually warm winter. More specifically, in this case it is an unusually cold spring which has many consequences not only on the environment but on the individuals that live in that environment. Even though a rise in temperature is a......

Words: 935 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Cold Seep

...Cold Seeps A cold seep (sometimes called a cold vent) is an area of the ocean floor where hydrogen sulfide, methane and other hydrocarbon-rich fluid seepage occurs. Cold seeps are distinct from hydrothermal vents: the former's emissions are of the same temperature as the surrounding seawater, whereas the latter's emissions are super-heated. Cold seeps constitute a biome supporting several endemic species. Cold seeps occur over fissures on the seafloor caused by tectonic activity. Oil and methane "seep" out of those fissures, are diffused by sediment, and emerge over an area several hundred meters wide. Methane (CH4) is the main component of what we commonly refer to as natural gas. In addition to being an important energy source for humans, methane also forms the basis of a cold seep ecosystem. Cold seep biota below 200 m typically exhibit much greater systematic specialization and reliance on chemoautotrophy than those from shelf depths. Deep-sea seeps sediments are highly heterogeneous. They sustain different geochemical and microbial processes that are reflected in a complex mosaic of habitats inhabited by a mixture of specialist (heterotrophic and symbiotic-associated) and background fauna. During the initial stage, when methane is relatively abundant, dense mussel beds also form near the cold seep. Mostly composed of species in the genus Bathymodiolus, these mussels do not directly consume food. Instead, they are nourished by symbiotic bacteria that also produce......

Words: 1095 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Cold War

...The Cold War (Russian: Холо́дная война́, Kholodnaya voyna) (1947–1991), was the continuing state of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition existing after World War II (1939–1945) between the Communist World – primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies – and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States and its allies. Although the primary participants' military force never officially clashed directly, they expressed the conflict through military coalitions, strategic conventional force deployments, extensive aid to states deemed vulnerable, proxy wars, espionage, propaganda, conventional and nuclear arms races, appeals to neutral nations, rivalry at sports events, and technological competitions such as the Space Race. Despite being allies against the Axis powers, the USSR and the US disagreed about political philosophy and the configuration of the post-war world while occupying most of Europe. The Soviet Union created the Eastern Bloc with the eastern European countries it occupied, annexing some and maintaining others as satellite states, some of which were later consolidated as the Warsaw Pact (1955–1991). The US and its allies used containment of communism as a main strategy, establishing alliances such as NATO to that end. The US funded the Marshall Plan to effectuate a more rapid post-War recovery of Europe, while the Soviet Union would not let most Eastern Bloc members participate. Elsewhere,......

Words: 460 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Cold War

...Cold War Cold War is a war between USA and Soviet Union during 1945 to 1980.During this war Americans used new atomic weapons. The reason for using the name ‘cold war’ due to the good and friendly relationship between USA and Soviet Union. Actually in the cold both countries not fight each other. It is war between communist countries and democratic countries during this war Soviet Union support the North Vietnam it is a communist country. But America supports the South Vietnam it was an anticommunist country. Americans fight for the safe democracy, but the Soviet Union fought for the communism. During this war USA and Soviet Union tried to hold their values and beliefs. There are so many events happened during this time, some of the events are Defeat of Germany, Returns to parliament democracy in the west, Soviet Control of Eastern Europe, The Berlin Crisis - the Climax of the Conflict between the East and the West in Europe are some of the events happened during this cold war (Cold war 1945-1960, p.1). Interviews I interviewed three of my friends to find out about the cold war and their conception about the cold war. The first person I interviewed gives me the following answers for the questions. 1. What words or phrases come to mind when you think of the term cold war. Bombs, Secrets. The trivial notion that a single button can end the world 2. Did you ever study the cold war in school? If so what are some aspects of the cold war that you remember? Yes.......

Words: 328 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Cold War

...The Cold War Soon after the WWII ends, the difference in political beliefs and policies of the two superpowers soon developed into a lot of conflicts and struggles called the Cold War. Cold War, which is the war between the United States and its allies called NATO, and the Russian and its allies called the Warsaw Pact (Soviet Union) without real military attack, was a race on how strong a country is by showing what it got in terms of supporting countries that were in state of war with other nation; in terms of nuclear weapons; In terms of science and technology (Space war); and even in terms of sport competition (Olympic). In the end, the Cold War ended by the United States and the Soviet Union themselves by the failed system of the communist. I’m the one that believed that “In the cold War the United States was the good guy who fought against the evil empire of the Soviet Union to defend freedom, democracy, and human rights around the world.” Firstly, the two countries had fundamentally different beliefs. So, how do we know who really was the good guy and who really was the evil? The first thing we need to do is to consider their different beliefs, because these factors could link to different actions such as the political and economic systems they used, including the way they dealt with the situations. The Ideology of Democracy gives freedom to all individuals to express their idea to other and agree on the majority; promote human rights and equality; and uses the......

Words: 1118 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Cold War

...The cold war is one of the strangest wars ever. In this war no one was ever killed in combat, and there were no POWS. No, this war was a arms race war, and a war of influence between the two great superpowers. It still could have developed into a full fledged war. It was a very tense time in history and if a war broke out it would have been disastrous. After the second World War the world was dominated by two superpowers; the USA and the USSR. “The Cold War was a result of this division of power and of the important policy of spheres of influence. In the post WWII-era the Americans thought that the Russians were aiming to incorporate Western Europe (the US & British sphere of influence) into their sphere of influence (Eastern Europe) by supporting the communists in these countries. Their fears were enforced when a coup substituted communist for coalition rule in Prague. In this ideologically hostile environment the Cold War began. (p.15).” That showed the main reasons that the two countries could’ve gone to war for. Pretty small disputes to warrant a nuclear war. The cold war was characterised by the arms race between the two superpowers who were eager to preserve their spheres of influence. Both developed powerful weapons which were too dangerous to be used in battle, but which contributed to the feeling of security, because they acted as deterrent to battle. “These weapons could be used "politically"[as deterrent] but not......

Words: 311 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

In Cold Blood

...N I N E In Cold Blood: The Tale of the Icefish In all things of nature there is something of the marvelous. -Aristotle It was a long way just to go fishing. The us-foot converted wooden sealing boat Norveg/a put to sea out of Sandcford Harbor, Norway on September 14,1927. Its primary destination was perhaps the most remote piece of land on the planet. Tiny Bouvet Island, a speck in the vast Southern Ocean, lay more than six thousand miles from Norway, sixteen hundred miles from the tip of Africa, and more than three thousand miles from South America. In the mid-1920S, commercial invention whaling was booming. The Norwegian of factory ships allowed greater numbers of animals to be taken without relying on shore facilities. Finding new stocks of whales was a priorHCllRE 9.1 The Non'egia a/ Bouvet Island. Photo (rom F;1I1gstOg Forskning r Sydish,lVct by Bjame Aagaard, Volume "N)le Tider." Published bv Cyldelldai Norsk Foriag, Oslo. 1930. ity for the entrepreneurs 2, who went to sea, and establishing tory and w.llers was a priorit) for the countries government claims to terri- involved. The Norwegian wanted to stake a claim to this icc-covered volcanic rock with 167 168 PART IV EVOLUTION IN ACT CHAPTER ON FIGURE 9.2 DitlefRlIstad 011 the Norvegia foredeck. Photo from Fangst Og Forskning I Sydishavet h)' 13,Clme i\C1gclClrd,volume "Nye Tider." Published by Cyldendal Norsk Forlag, Oslo,......

Words: 4258 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Cold Stone

... That’s why it’s so important that a business practice prudent financial management. Cold Stone Creamery Cold Stone Creamery was founded in 1988 by Susan and Donald Sutherland. The couple liked ice cream that was neither hard-packed nor soft-serve, and opened the first Cold Stone Creamery in Tempe, in the U.S. state of Arizona. In 1995, Cold Stone opened its first franchise in Tucson, Arizona, and grew quickly through the late 1990s and early to mid-2000s. in June 2008, a Wall Street Journal article, by Richard Gibson, examined the unusually high number of Cold Stone Creamery franchises that had closed or been put up sale by their owners, many of whom had severe financial losses and emotional distress. Challenges Facing Cold Stone Creamery Franchisees The following are the financial challenges confronting Cold Stone Creamery franchisees: 1. High prices in a tough economy. It’s hard to sell enough $4.00 scoops of ice cream in a difficult economy to support the overhead of a business that has a high overhead. 2. Saturated market. Cold Stone expanded rapidly and many franchisees complain that the stores are too close together. Its competitors also expanded in the 1990s and early to mid-2000s. 3. Believing the hype. Many Cold Stone franchisees bought in when the buzz surrounding the company was the strongest. 4. Franchisor control. In regard to specific financial issues, Cold Stone Creamery franchisees have complained about the way they are required to operate...

Words: 775 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Explain Why Many Cold Environments Are Fragile and How They Can Be Cared for the Ensure Sustainability (15 Marks)

...Explain why many cold environments are fragile and how they can be cared for the ensure sustainability (15 marks) A fragile environment is an environment that is very susceptible to change at the slightest alteration in conditions. The changes can often lead to the environments endangerment or destruction. Cold environments are very fragile because they are so susceptible to changes. Slight fluctuations in average sea or air temperature can cause a large amount of melting to ice caps and glaciers destroying the environments and many animal habitats in the process. For example in Antarctica rising sea temperatures have caused a large amount of the ice sheets to melt and break off entirely. This reduces the size of the continent and the area that animals such as polar bears have to breed and hunt. The extremely cold temperatures mean that decay of substances is very slow. Litter and pollutants left by tourists and scientists have a greater effect on the environment because this decaying process takes much longer than it would with higher temperatures therefore waste remains there for longer and is ingested by animals or damages the flora of the area. Sustainability involves meeting the needs of the current generation without compromising the environment for those in the future. To ensure these cold environments are cared for sustainably expert organisations have been set up to reduce human impact. The International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators (IAATO) is an......

Words: 537 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Cold War

...The Cold War Celena Daley Kaplan University SS211: Prof. Jennifer Schmidt 03/12/2016 The Cold War began as a result of a dispute between The United States of America and The Soviet Union. Although the war was never “officially” declared, it began somewhere around 1947 and ended roughly around 1991. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, although there were major regional wars. The first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945. Throughout this period, the rivalry between the two superpowers unfolded in multiple arenas: military coalitions; ideology, psychology, and espionage; sports; military, industrial, and technological developments, including the space race; costly defense spending; a massive conventional and nuclear arms race; and many proxy wars. There was never a direct military engagement between the US and the Soviet Union, but there was half a century of military buildup as well as political battles for support around the world, including significant involvement of allied and satellite nations in proxy wars. Although the US and the Soviet Union had been allied against Nazi Germany, the two sides differed on how to reconstruct the postwar world even before the end of World War II. Over the following decades, the Cold War spread outside Europe to every region of the world, as the US sought the "containment" of communism and forged numerous......

Words: 1085 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Cold War

...head: COLD 1 The Cold War Corwin Schneider HIS 104 Professor Patrick Williams June 19, 2012 COLD 2 The Cold War Keep your Finger Off the Button! The Cold War, how did these two countries get to this point in history? While the United States and USSR should have been more grown up and learned to work out their problems, who were the major players in the Cold War and how were the two sides involved in the space race, when did the Cold War start and end, and what were the two sides arguing over. The United States was in an intense war with the USSR for five decades. It started in 1945, shortly after Communist Leader Joseph Stalin learned of the first atomic bomb the U.S. dropped on Japan August 6, 1945. “The Cold War was a strategic struggle that developed after World War II between the United States with its allies and the Soviet Union with its allies” (Bentley, J., Ziegler, H., & Streets, H. 2008 pg. 638). But, this was not an ordinary war between the two, it was a Cold War. It had more attacks of words and propaganda competing which was the better country. One reason these two superpowers never had direct military action against each other was they both possessed Nuclear Weapons. The major powers in the Cold War......

Words: 2023 - Pages: 9