Premium Essay

Closing the Achievement Gap

In: Social Issues

Submitted By eclark
Words 725
Pages 3
10 Strategic Points – Module 7
Evelyn Clark | Ten Strategic Points | Comments or Feedback | Broad Topic Area | A Quantitative study to explore research relevant to Relationships between professional development of teachers, student achievement, principal leadership, and student economic status influence closing the achievement gap in Upper Midwest urban schools. | | Lit Review | Professional Development * Professional development standards established in 2011 to develop new policies and practices (Borko, 2012). * The intensity and duration of the professional development indicates the amount of change in classroom practices (Garet et al., 2007).Teacher Knowledge for Improvement * Professional development improves teacher quality by changing teacher practices (Wenglinski, 2002) * Professional development is most effective when designed using actual school data (Borko, 2008;
Ingvarson et.al, 2005). * Implementing professional knowledge, based on how schools succeed and effective teaching, is inevitable (Edmonds, 1979). * Through Professional Development programs, school districts maintain highly qualified employees that have skills to improve student achievement (Evan, 2009).Economic Status and Student Achievement * Student achievement begins before children enter school. A child’s home environment, economic status, emotional and social development, health, and cultural identity are related to achievement (Cunningham, 2012).Educational Leadership * Research by Smith and Andrews (1989) strengthened the importance of the principal’s role in creating conditions for effective schools and keys to success. Similar research findings were supported by Lipham (1984). * Because principals lack prerequisite leadership skills Goodlad (1984), schools are unable to solve problems leading to teacher and student success. Hopes for effective schools…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Closing the Achievement Gap

...models, or initiatives all claiming to be panacea to heal all the educational achievement woes that exist in society. With the nation’s situation being as it is there is a litany of issues on which to focus concerning academic achievement, or lack thereof. One area of academic achievement gaps in particular continues to plague American education that is the obvious disparity between Black students and White students. According to the National Assessment or Educational Progress (NAEP, 2010), “Achievement gaps occur when one group of students outperforms another group and the difference in average scores for the two groups is statistically significant.” The problem with achievement gaps is that they are subject to “The Matthew Effect.” The "Matthew Effect" is an expression made popular by Keith Stanovich. According to Stanovich (1999, p.247), a psychologist whose claim to fame is reading research, The "Matthew Effect" refers to the idea that in reading (as in other areas of life), the rich get richer and the poor get poorer. This is also true in other areas of academic achievement. If intense intervention strategies are not implemented early and consistently, those students who arrive to school in kindergarten already at a deficit will only fall further behind, thus “The Matthew Effect” meaning that the achievement gap becomes wider over time. What can leaders in education do to close the achievement gap between Black students and White students? The key is to “catch......

Words: 4328 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Closing the Gap in Homeownership Rates

...Closing the Gap in Homeownership Rates: How Fannie Mae and Lender-Partners Can Close the Gap Sullivan University MGT 510 Executive Summary This proposal addresses the gap in homeownership rates between whites and minorities. According to the United States Census Bureau, 67.9 percent of the population in the United States are homeowners. However, while 71.8% of Whites are homeowners, only 47.3% of African Americans and 48.2% of Hispanics are homeowners. This large gap in homeownership rates can be contributed to discrimination by lenders and minorities’ misconceptions about the lending process. To overcome these issues, lenders need to eliminate discrimination and reach out to minorities. Ultimately, lenders who discriminate are going to hurt their own bottom lines since minorities represent a large market that has the high potential for growth. Introduction: Homeownership is the “American Dream” Housing has often been referred to as the #1 creator of wealth in the United States. It has been called, (1) the leading consumer product, (2) the leading consumer investment, and (3) a leading economic driver. Homeownership, in short, is the “American Dream.” It creates wealth. If you purchase a home today, with appreciation and through upkeep, it will be more valuable in the future. That appreciation provides homeowners with opportunities to create wealth. ......

Words: 1837 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

The Achievement Gap

...The Achievement Gap How would you feel knowing your children won’t be able to have a good education because you are a minority or just because you don’t have enough money? The achievement gap is a difference in academics between different races and even in different social statuses. The major differences in the Achievement Gap are in the different grade levels, test scores and dropout rates between different ethnic groups The Achievement Gap affects a lot of people because they drop out before they develop adequate reading, writing, and mathematical skills. The Achievement Gap is a serious problem that affects Latinos and African-Americans because it reduces their educational opportunities and there are low expectations for those students; however groups like Harvest Prep are trying to close it. For Latinos and African- Americans, the Achievement Gap reduces their educational opportunities. One way the Achievement Gap reduces their educational opportunities is that “Only 1 in 50 Latinos and 1 in 100 African American 17-year-olds can read and gain information from specialized text—such as the science section in the newspaper compared to about 1 in 12 whites.” (Bottoms) This is saying that it is much more difficult for African- Americans and Latinos to understand some texts, but reading is only part of the struggle for minorities because they don’t get help when they are little they just get passed on to the next grade for someone else to deal with them. Another way......

Words: 1008 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Gender Achievement Gap

...The Gender Achievement Gap Rena Godfrey Capella University ED5540 Strategies for Eliminating the Achievement Gap Quarter & Year: Fall 2013 Email: godfreyrena@gmail.com Instructor: Marge Zuba, Ed.D. Gender Achievement Gap One of the most interesting and actively debated areas in educational research concerns the gender-based achievement gaps in math and science. Despite research efforts and statistical data backing up the notion that girls are falling behind in math and science, there still continues to be significant gender-based achievement gaps that are perpetuated by “insidious gender lessons, micro-inequities…that chip away at girls’ achievement and self-esteem” (Sadker & Sadker, 1994). Research studies shed light on significant decreases in girls’ achievement rates in math and science as early as middle school that continues to decrease into high school. Although the achievement gap in math has declined in recent years (AAUW, 1999), girls consistently score lower on the SAT and ACT than boys do, and the gap does not narrow in college. Researchers struggling to identify the origins of gender differences have examined a range of theories, including biological, environmental, cultural, and cognitive developmental approaches to gender differences. What is Gender Equity? Gender equity implies being treated equally fair for both male and female. Gender refers to the social roles of men and women, and boys and girls, as well as the......

Words: 3760 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

How to Close School Achievement Gaps

...How can we close the Achievement Gap? When we are thinking about our school system it isn’t difficult to think about different gaps, which we should reach. Gaps that we should break down to get a stronger education system, with better qualified teachers, which can lead our students to a grounded education. In the education system you can find negative stereotypes, which make the way for success for students even more difficult. Stereotypes can effect students in their personal goals but also make them feel less valued. Also, bad teachers in the school system aren’t making things better, which get protected from unions, but on the other hand teachers have no freedom. To find a way out of this dilemma between negative effected students and unsatisfied teachers who lose all kind of motivation, we should encourage students and teachers in their work away from unions, so that we can to attend our achievement gaps as soon as possible. Stereotypes are everywhere in our society, also in our schools. Although stereotypes can help students to do better in certain materials, stereotypes affect students and perpetuate and exacerbate gaps. Students who are in a negatively stereotyped group often underperform because of the pressure and worry they get in qualifying exams and aptitude tests in math, and these intensifies worries. According to Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton, the author of “ Framed!” “Notions about innate ability don’t just hinder the performance of negative......

Words: 1399 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Eliminating the Gender Achievement Gap

...Eliminating the Gender Achievement Gap ELIMINATING THE GENDER ACHIEVEMENT GAP Preconceived notions of what boys and girls can and cannot do will have negative effects on both genders. Parents who allow their sons to misbehave and say “boys will be boys” not only damage their view of themselves but it does not teach them the consequences of right and wrong. Telling a boy “big boys do not cry” may create an emotionally stunted boy. Society allows girls to express their emotions but boys must keep them inside. While society does not blink an eye when a boy aspires to becoming an auto mechanic or a girl a stay at home mom, the converse brings discomfort, ridicule, much discussion and even embarrassment for the families. Research shows women have made tremendous gains in the last few decades; however, it is still difficult for them to obtain equality. According to an article from the Institute for Women’s Policy Research, women make up almost half of all actively employed people in the work force yet; they earn, on average, 23% less than their male counterparts holding the same position (Hegewisch & Hudiburg, 2013, para.1). The pace has been so slow that if it continues at this same rate, it will take over 40 years before women will earn the same salary as men in the same positions (Hegewisch & Hudiburg, 2013, para. 2). What causes this phenomenon? Is it nature or nurture? Is it something that begins in the womb or the formative years...

Words: 2909 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

The Elementary Gender Achievement Gap

...Gender Gap 1 The Elementary Gender Achievement Gap ED5504 Gender Gap 2 Abstract The gender achievement gap has been written about, studied, and defined. This gap exists. It exists in the educational system and in the workplace. It begins in elementary school and continues through higher education. The gender gap can be attributed to many problems. These problems include cultural, socioeconomic, educator expectations, and student environment. Gender Gap 3 Gender equity happens when there is no difference in student achievement in relation to classroom teaching and school environment. Many factors play into the gender achievement gap. Cultural factors, race, and discrimination are part of...

Words: 2584 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Gender and the Achievement Gap

...Running Head: The Gender Achievement Gap 1 The Gender Achievement Gap Clint Overstreet 2 The No Child Left Behind Act requires that states bring students up to the "proficient" level on state tests and individual schools have to meet state “adequate yearly progress.” This mandate targets not only all “typical” students, but students from all demographics. With this factor of accountability, as well as school success, many researchers have studied the gap in educational achievement and how these gaps can be lessened. The most noted gaps in academic success include the areas of gender, socioeconomic status, race, students with disabilities, and ethnicity (2001). Gender has been one of the areas in which the notable gap in achievement has been studied. Researchers have studied this trend for many years. They attribute this discrepancy in gender achievement to a number of various factors. Possible influences in this gap include: culture, biological factors, theories in gender behavior, and school attitudes and factors (2008). The longtime concern regarding the role gender plays in academic success has been the grounds for numerous studies around the globe. Our culture has strong imbedded ideals on the role of males and females. Although, changes in these roles continue to evolve there continue to be underlying ideals and behaviors, which are often unintentional, which dictate how we view......

Words: 2042 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Achievement Gap

...The achievement gap is a very crucial issue for students all or the world today. Wagner (n.d.) focuses on two forms of the achievement gap, the first being the gap between the quality of schooling that most middle- class kids get in America and quality of schooling available for most poor and minority children.  The second gap being the global achievement gap, the gap between our teaching and public schools in the United States versus all students from countries all over the world as a part of our global knowledge economy. McKinsey (2009) gives more details and statistics based on the number of differences in the achievement of white black and Latino students.  McKinsey discusses the four different distinct achievement gaps between the United States and other nations; between black and Latino; students and white students; between students of different income levels; and between similar students schooled in different systems or regions (McKinsey 2009). McKinsey (2009) also discusses the gap between black, Latino and white students also known as the racial achievement gap.  On average, black and Latino students are roughly two to three years of learning behind white students of the same age.  A study showed alarming results that when comparing reading and math scores at the 8th grade level, 48 percent blacks, 43 percent Latino and 17 percent white were “below basic”(McKinsey 2009.   Similarly, Wagner (n.d.) and McKinsey both emphasize the global achievement gap and the......

Words: 1128 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Closing the Gap

...No Peace WiThouT Justice Closing the gap The role of non-judicial mechanisms in addressing impunity Closing the gap The role of non-judicial mechanisms in addressing impunity No Peace WiThouT Justice No Peace Without Justice Copyright 2010 © No Peace Without Justice Via di Torre Argentina 76, I-00186, Roma, Italy www.npwj.org Permission to reproduce and distribute this document is hereby granted provided that this notice is retained on all copies, that copies are not altered and that No Peace Without Justice is credited. This publication is also available at www.npwj.org. No Peace Without Justice is an international non-profit organisation founded by Emma Bonino and born of a 1993 campaign of the Transnational Radical Party that works for the protection and promotion of human rights, democracy, the rule of law and international justice. NPWJ undertakes its work within three main thematic programs: International Criminal Justice; Female Genital Mutilation; and Middle East and North Africa Democracy, including specific work on Iraq. NPWJ is a Member of the TRP Senate, a Member of the Steering Committee of the NGO Coalition for the International Criminal Court and the Italian civil society partner in the Democracy Assistance Dialogue. This publication has been produced with the assistance of the European Union. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of No Peace Without Justice and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the......

Words: 86821 - Pages: 348

Free Essay

African American Achievement Gap

...African American Achievement Gap Abstract The proposed action research study will pinpoint factors that contribute to the African American academic achievement gap. These factors impact not only the lives of families in the African American community but continues a vicious cycle of generations of poverty that hinders our country’s ability to effectively compete economically and also threatens America’s capacity to provide social equality for all. The participants in this study will comprise of parents and students of highly concentrated poverty - low academically performing African American public schools. Thirty two parents and thirty two students from eight low performing-poverty schools in the research study will be interviewed and surveyed online. Collected information and data will be researched employing qualitative and quantitative practices. Introduction There was a time when children of color were denied the hope and expectation of equal education because of racial isolation and discrimination in America’s education system. Although it’s been well over 50 years since Brown –vs.- The Board of Education which established equal education for all, today we are still faced with large racial disparities in reading and math proficiency between African American children and their thriving white contemporaries. This purpose of this study is to illustrate the connection that occurs between race and poverty with the academic achievement gap of low......

Words: 3689 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Closing the Gaps in Modern Education

...Oliver Pringle Professor John Schultz Ethics 2050 22 April 2014 Closing the Gaps in Modern Education The city of Philadelphia has one of the most racially segregated school systems in the United States with the largest performance gap between black and white students nationwide. “Philadelphia’s black population, and particularly its affluent black population, lives in much poorer neighborhoods than comparable whites because they are so highly segregated by race” (Denvir). The average black elementary school student in Philadelphia is reading at the 21st percentile, while his white counterpart is reading at much higher 66th percentile. The disparity experienced within the public education of Philadelphia children is caused by rampant segregation within the school system itself. Through my own experience, as well as the writings of the renowned psychologist Franz Fanon and philosopher Paulo Freire, I have found that the solution to the public education problem begins with a narrowing of the gaps between the haves and the have-nots. The Citypaper article written by Daniel Denvir unearthed a number of unbelievable disparities between the black and white students within the Philadelphia education system. Studies indicate that “Philadelphia blacks are exposed to poverty at a rate nearly three times higher than whites. The average black person in the Philly area lives in a neighborhood with a 24.8% poverty rate, compared to just 8.4% for whites. Chicago, Cleveland, St....

Words: 2292 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Literature Review - the Achievement Gap

...Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW Literature Review Taletta J Wilson Liberty University Abstract The following traditional literature review examines the disproportionate number of young African-American males who have been placed in special education. The articles highlight factors such as cultural misunderstandings and teachers’ perceptions and attitudes towards African- American men. This literature review not only observes the misunderstandings, but it also looks at strategies and techniques that can be used to lessen the gap. Keywords: African American boys, African American males, special education, overrepresentation, disproportionate, educationally disadvantaged, cultural Literature Review Introduction: According to a recent study conducted by the Council of the Great City Schools, Black and Hispanic males constitute almost 80 percent of youth in special education programs. In addition, Black males make up 20 percent of all students in the United States classified as mentally retarded, although they are only nine percent of the student population (Barbarin 2011). Over the years, overrepresentation of African American males placed in special education programs continues to be a growing problem and it has not gone unnoticed that some of these identified minorities have been misplaced and inaccurately diagnosed. This paper reviews peer reviewed journal articles on this phenomenon. The authors attempt to explain, through qualitative and quantitative......

Words: 1243 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Summarizing Closing the Gap

...S w 910M51 CLOSING THE GAP – THE CHANGING HOME CARE ENVIRONMENT (A) Rida Elias wrote this case under the supervision of Professor Roderick E. White solely to provide material for class discussion. The authors do not intend to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of a managerial situation. The authors may have disguised certain names and other identifying information to protect confidentiality. Richard Ivey School of Business Foundation prohibits any form of reproduction, storage or transmission without its written permission. Reproduction of this material is not covered under authorization by any reproduction rights organization. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, contact Ivey Publishing, Richard Ivey School of Business Foundation, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 3K7; phone (519) 661-3208; fax (519) 661-3882; e-mail cases@ivey.uwo.ca. Copyright © 2010, Richard Ivey School of Business Foundation Version: (A) 2010-07-09 It was nearing the end of another busy day, and Connie Clerici’s last appointment had been cancelled. Clerici was glad to have some time to reflect on both her business and her personal situation before the meeting with her advisory board, scheduled for the next day, September 25, 2009. She knew the business environment of her company, Closing the Gap (CTG), continued to change, presenting opportunities and challenges. She wanted to be prepared for a productive......

Words: 5536 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Achievement Gap

...One of the major issues I have observed is the “achievement gap”. Most educators define the achievement gap as the difference in performance between low-income and minority students compared to that of their peers. Traditionally African-American students lag behind their white peers. In “The Black-White Achievement Gap, why closing it is the greatest civil rights”, former Education Secretary Rod Paige and his sister, Elaine Witty argue that education is the new civil rights. Instead of fighting for issues traditionally associated with civil rights, African American leaders should advocate for the children. Leaders can bring forth change by building public awareness and using their powers to bring necessary change. Rod Paige believes we can narrow the gap by a concerted effort of committed leadership and community involvement. Like leadership, environment also plays a significant role in narrowing the achievement gap. From 2001 – 2007 the Century Foundation tracked two sets of low-income students in Montgomery County Maryland: one group was assigned to higher-income schools and the other was not. Although the lower income students received more funding, the students assigned to the higher-income students were able to cut the achievement gap by almost a third in reading and half in math. The researcher of the study, Heather Schwartz, cited environmental reasons such as a stable set of teachers, less disruptions in the classroom, and more engaged students as reasons for......

Words: 634 - Pages: 3