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Civil War Spain

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La España del siglo XVIII: la guerra de sucesión y el sistema de Utrecht. |

A finales del siglo XVII, la muerte de Carlos II sin descendencia fue el detonante de una Guerra de Sucesión a nivel europeo. Carlos había dejado a Felipe d'Anjou como heredero, pero debido a que también guardaba parentesco con los Habsburgo, el archiduque Carlos reclamó sus derechos al trono. Consecuentemente, un conflicto que en un principio habría correspondido a España resolverlo, implicó a potencias como Inglaterra, Francia y Austria debido a que Inglaterra se veía amenazada si Francia y España acababan compartiendo monarca.
Dentro de España también se produjo una división. Por un lado, Aragón, Cataluña, Valencia y Granada se pusieron a favor de Carlos, mientras que los demás territorios apoyaron al candidato francés. De esta forma, decimos la guerra tuvo dos vertientes, por un lado la guerra civil dentro de España y, por otro, el conflicto internacional.
Como ya se ha mencionado, Inglaterra y Holanda se pusieron a favor del archiduque Carlos ya que Felipe V en el trono español suponía la hegemonía de Francia y peligraba el que ambos reinos se unieran. Dentro de España, los territorios se pusieron de lado de uno u otro monarca debido al sistema de gobierno que representaba cada uno. Mientras que Felipe V provenía de la corte francesa que seguía un modelo centralista, el archiduque venía de un territorio en el cual se gobernaba a través del pactismo. Por ello reinos como el de Aragón que siempre habían tenido un sistema pactista se pusieron del lado de éste último, mientras que Castilla favorecía al francés.
Al llegar Felipe V en 1701 y ser nombrado rey, se firmó el Tratado de la Haya en que Austria, Inglaterra, Holanda, Portugal y Saboya se aliaban a favor del archiduque Carlos. En 1704 Carlos llegó hasta Extremadura desde Lisboa y ocupó Barcelona, donde fue proclamado rey. Consiguieron entrar en Madrid en 1706, pero Felipe la recuperó. En 1710 volvió a entrar, pero de nuevo Felipe la recuperó y venció en Brihuega y Villaviciosa.
Ese mismo año se da por finalizada la guerra. El conflicto terminó debido a que el hermano de Carlos murió, quedando vacante el título de emperador austríaco, de forma que el archiduque perdió interés. Asimismo, Inglaterra y Holanda vieron la amenaza de España y Austria con un mismo monarca. Finalmente, en 1713 se firmó la paz en el Tratado de Utrecht, aunque en España Cataluña mantuvo la resistencia al nuevo rey. Esto provocó que las tropas de Felipe entraran en 1714 muy violentamente y que se les suprimiesen los fueros y sus instituciones particulares.
Sin embargo, el Tratado supuso pérdidas para España ya que Inglaterra impuso varias condiciones. Le fueron cedidos a Austria los territorios italianos que aún pertenecían a España, a Saboya Sicilia y a Gran Bretaña el enclave gibraltareño y Menorca. Además, se otorgó permios a Inglaterra para un Navío de 500 toneladas al año para comerciar con América y el Asiento de Negros (vender esclavos negros en América). Por último, se reconocía a Felipe como rey español siempre que renunciase a la Corona francesa mientras fuera rey español. Nombre | Curso 2º Bach Sección A Nº | Nº Epígrafe10.2. | TítuloLa España del siglo XVIII: cambio dinástico. Los primeros borbones. |

Tras la Guerra de Sucesión (1701-1713), se instaura en España definitivamente la dinastía de los borbones, que se ha mantenido hasta nuestros días. Esta nueva dinastía trajo consigo una serie de reformas que asemejaban el gobierno de España con el que había entonces en Francia (una monarquía absolutista centralista). Para ello, los borbones centralizaron la administración, incrementaron su poder sobre la Iglesia e intervinieron en la economía del Estado.
El primer rey Borbón fue Felipe V, quien al llegar estaba aconsejado por su abuelo Luis XIV que gobernaba en Francia. El objetivo principal de su gobierno fue imponer un sistema igual que el propio de Francia. Sus consejeros más conocidos fueron el embajador Amelot, el financiero Orry y su segunda esposa Isabel de Farnesio. En 1724 abdicó en su hijo Luis I, pero tuvo que retomar el trono cuando éste murió apenas un mes después de ser coronado rey.
La principal medida que llevó a cabo fue la implantación de los Decretos de Nueva Planta. Estos suponían un cambio en la organización territorial y la abolición de los fueros particulares de cada territorio (especialmente aquellos que estuvieron a favor del archiduque Carlos en la guerra). La pretensión de todo esto era unificar todo el gobierno y eliminar las distintas instituciones, centralizando el poder en el monarca. Sin embargo, Navarra conservó sus propias cortes en agradecimiento a su apoyo. Esta reforma supone el comienzo del fin del modelo polisinodial de los Austrias. Además, Felipe V impuso la Ley Sálica que impedía gobernar a las mujeres.
Felipe VI es considerado el segundo Borbón, ya que su hermano Luis apenas reinó. Al igual que los últimos Austrias, aunque no con os mismos resultados, se sirvió de la ayuda de una serie de burócratas que pasaron a llamarse secretarios. Entre ellos destacaron José de Carvajal y el marqués de la Ensenada. Este último, llevó a cabo la reforma fiscal que pretendía eliminar los distintos impuestos e imponer uno único. Para ello se creó el Catastro, una fuente que hoy día sirve para conocer la economía y sociedad de la época.

Nombre | Curso 2º Bach Sección A Nº | Nº Epígrafe10.3. | TítuloLa España del siglo XVIII: reformas en la organización del Estado. La monarquía centralista. |

Tras la firma del Tratado de Utrecht en 1713, se instaura definitivamente la dinastía Borbónica en España en la figura de Felipe V. El gobierno de estos nuevos monarcas se corresponde con un modelo centralista basado en: el absolutismo, la centralización y uniformidad administrativa y el control de la Iglesia (también llevaron a cabo reformas en el ejército y la armada).
La monarquía absolutista se basaba en que el rey es el Estado y su poder proviene tiene origen divino. Por ello, el rey puede hacer todas las reformas que considere apropiadas (fiscales, como el catastro; estructurales, secretarías...). Además, los Borbones quisieron eliminar todo privilegio local, para lo cual eliminaron las instituciones propias de cada territorio, como la Generalitat catalana. Para ello se aplicaron los Decretos de Nueva Planta desde 1707 hasta 1719, que aumentaban los poderes del Consejo castellano y eliminaban las instituciones locales. Surgió la figura de los secretarios, que acabaron siendo imprescindibles para una buena gestión de gobierno. Se produjo también una nueva división administrativa de los territorios en provincias. Con ello surgieron dos nuevas figuras: los intendentes y os capitanes generales. A ello se le suman las reformas en el ejército. Se crearon nuevas formas de reclutamiento (voluntarios, levas para vagos y la quinta para los pueblos españoles). Se crea así un ejército profesional y fijo. Además se construyeron nuevos astilleros y arsenales para aumentar el poder del ejército.
El rey aumentó su poder sobre la Iglesia a través del Concordato que firmó en 1753, en el cual se imponía el regalismo. Esto suponía que el rey tiene autoridad en todo aspecto, excepto en el plenamente doctrinal, de tal forma que se le concede poder para asignar los cargos de la Iglesia. Esto le aseguraba el control político y económico.
Finalmente, los Borbones llevan a cabo reformas económicas con el objetivo de incrementar la finanzas. Se hizo un plan para eliminar los distintos impuestos que existían y crear una única contribución con el objetivo de mejorar la eficiencia. Para ello, se tuvo que hacer un buen recuento de las propiedades y la población, lo cual recibe el nombre de Catastro. Asimismo, se inauguran Reales Fábricas con talleres sin impuestos para aumentar la exportación. Entre estas manufacturas destacan los tapices, vidrios, tabaco... El marqués de la Ensenada impulsó también las obras púbicas para fomentar el comercio.…...

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