Premium Essay

Chromatography

In: Science

Submitted By shobhapradeep
Words 302
Pages 2
Q1. What is the method of multiplying micro- organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined media under controlled laboratory conditions called?
A. Culturing

Q2. a population of cells or multicellular organisms growing in the absence of other species or types.
A. pure (or axenic) culture

Q3. what is used For the purpose of gelling the microbial culture
A. Agar

Q4. A cheap substitute for agar used for the isolation and maintenance of thermophiles. A. guar gum,

Q5. bacterial culture ideal for preparation of an antimicrobial assay A. liquid culture

Q6. Common liquid culture nutrient medium used A. liquid broth

Q7. Another normal media used in bacteriology A. nutrient agar

Q8. A standard carbon source added to nutrient medium
A. glucose

Q9. nitrogen is often provided
A. peptones

Q 10. What technique must be used to reduce the likelihood of bacterial contamination?
A. Aseptic techniques

Q11.Procedure by which Bacteria may be introduced to the media
A.innoculation

Q12. Culture media is sterilised in
A. an autoclave

Q13. Solid culture media in a Petri dish is known as .
A. agar plate

Q14. What is added to culture medium to make nucleic acid and certain types of lipids
A.Phosphorus

Q15. inoculum is transferred using
A. loop

Q16. method for transferring micro-organisms onto an agar plate is
A. streak plate technique.
Q17. used in industrial fermentation where a commercial product is being made.
A. Pure cultures

Q18. Medium that contains one or more ingredients that prevent the growth of certain micro-organisms but not others.
A.Selective medium

Q19.example of a selective medium
A.mannitol salt agar

Q20. Name a selective medium that contains bile salts. A. MacConkey agar

Q. medium is designed to show visible differences between micro-organisms such as different…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Purification of Organic Compounds

...3. INTRODUCTION Organic compounds are isolated either from natural sources or from reactions mixtures. These compounds are seldom pure and are usually contaminated with small amounts of other similar compounds, which are found to exist together or formed during the reaction. In order to characterize them, it is important to purify them. 4. PROCESSES FOR PURIFICATION 1. Crystallization 2. Sublimation 3. Distillation 4. Chromatography 5. Differential Extraction 6. Qualitative Analysis 5. 1. CRYSTALLIZATION Aim To separate a solid compound in pure and geometrical form. Principle A saturated solution of the impure substance in a suitable solvent is made at a temperature higher than the room temperature. On cooling this solution, the substance reappears in the form of well shaped crystals. Process Purification by crystallization involves the following steps: Choice of solvent Preparation of solution Filtration of the solution Separating the crystals Drying of crystals Example Crystallisation of Phthalic acid 6. 2. SUBLIMATION Aim To separate volatile solids, which pass directly into vapour state on heating from a non-volatile solid. Principle A mixture of solid substances, such as camphor, benzoic acid, ammonium chloride, iodine etc., containing non-volatile substances, when heated, change directly into vapour without passing through the liquid state. Process 7. Fig :-Sublimation 8. 3. DISTILLATION Aim To separate a solution of a solid in a liquid and for separating a......

Words: 853 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Gas Chromatography

...Objective: Analyzing three of the fraction samples from the previous lab: “Separation, Extraction, Fractional Distillation & Gas Chromatography” to determine the contents purity Equations: Area of peak=1/2HxW % composition= (Area of peak/Total area of peak(s)) x 100 Properties: Diethyl ether 1,2-dimethoxy ethane Formula C4H10O3 ClCO(CH2)8COCl Melting Point −116.3 °C -58°C Boiling Point 62 - 64 °C 82 - 83°C Density 1.005 g/cm3 1.121 Physical Properties Clear, colorless liquidSweet, ether-like odor Clear, colorless liquidSharp, ether-like odor Hazards Extremely flammableIrritant Flammable liquid and vaporMay cause irritation to skin Procedure: 1. Use a syringe to obtain 0.5uL of fraction 1 2. Insert syringe as far as possible into the Gas Chromatography (GC) 3. Quickly press plunger to release fraction sample into GC 4. Press “Start” on the integrator 5. Remove syringe 6. At the end of process, approximately 3 minutes, press “Stop” on integrator 7. Press “shift” and “enter” keys to feed paper through integrator 8. Clean syringe with cleaning solvent 9. Repeat steps 1-8 using the other fraction samples 10. Determine the percent composition to each of the fractions Data & Results: Glass Beads: Run Time (min) Area (%) Fraction 1 Ether 0.7 70 1,2-dimethoxyethane 1.2 30 Fraction 6 Ether n/a n/a 1,2-dimethoxyethane 1.1 100 Fraction 10 Ether n/a n/a ......

Words: 534 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Types of Chromatography

...Types of Chromatography Adsorption Chromatography Adsorption chromatography is probably one of the oldest types of chromatography around. It utilizes a mobile liquid or gaseous phase that is adsorbed onto the surface of a stationary solid phase. The equilibriation between the mobile and stationary phase accounts for the separation of different solutes. Partition Chromatography This form of chromatography is based on a thin film formed on the surface of a solid support by a liquid stationary phase. Solute equilibriates between the mobile phase and the stationary liquid. Ion Exchange Chromatography In this type of chromatography, the use of a resin (the stationary solid phase) is used to covalently attach anions or cations onto it. Solute ions of the opposite charge in the mobile liquid phase are attracted to the resin by electrostatic forces. Molecular Exclusion Chromatography Also known as gel permeation or gel filtration, this type of chromatography lacks an attractive interaction between the stationary phase and solute. The liquid or gaseous phase passes through a porous gel which separates the molecules according to its size. The pores are normally small and exclude the larger solute molecules, but allows smaller molecules to enter the gel, causing them to flow through a larger volume. This causes the larger molecules to pass through the column at a faster rate than the smaller ones. Affinity Chromatography This is the most selective type of chromatography......

Words: 2078 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Chromotography

...Chlorophyll Chromatography Subject Area: Chemistry Grade Level: Middle School Chemistry Lesson Title: Chlorophyll Chromatography National Science Education Standards: Science as Inquiry: 5–8 • Properties and Changes of Properties: 5–8 Suggested Prior Knowledge: concepts of solutions, mixtures, separation of mixtures, solubility Purpose: To give students an understanding of paper chromatography and to allow students to separate a mixture of pigments extracted from leaves. Key Vocabulary: absorbent—material used in chromatography that will attract and absorb the compounds being separated chlorophyll—one of many pigments used by plants to absorb energy from sunlight in the process of photosynthesis chromatography—method used to separate a mixture of compounds based on differing solubilities of the compounds in the solvent being used eluent (solvent)—material used in chromatography which carries the compounds to be separated through the absorbent photosynthesis—process by which plants convert energy from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide gas into sugar solute—substance dissolved in a solution solution—homogeneous mixture of two or more substances solvent—substance dissolving the solute in a solution Objectives: 1. Students will be able to design and carry out an investigation to separate the pigments from a leaf by paper chromatography. 2. Students will identify a mixture by separating......

Words: 1387 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Chromatography

...Paper and Column Chromatography Report Guidelines 1. (1) – Distance from origin compound (2) –Distance from origin to solvent front (3) –Retention factors of known an unknown (4) –polarity of side chain (5)-relative size | Tyro | Ser | Leu | Lys | Tryp | Asp | Glyc | Ala | unknown | (1) | 4.74 cm | 3.93 cm | 6.67 cm | 3.34 cm | 5.85 cm | 3.32 cm | 3.86 cm | 4.12 cm | 3.79 cm | (2) | 8.72 cm | 8.88 cm | 8.72 cm | 8.71 cm | 8.76 cm | 8.54 cm | 8.71 cm | 8.70 cm | 8.87 cm | (3) | 0.544 cm | 0.443 cm | 0.765 cm | 0.383 cm | 0.668 cm | 0.384 cm | 0.443 cm | 0.474 cm | 0.427 cm | (4) | polar | polar | Non polar | Mediumpolar | polar | polar | Nonpolar | Non polar | Medium polar | (5) | 13 | 7 | 9 | 10 | 17 | 9 | 5 | 6 | 10 | 2. Code: CHI, The conclusion of the unknown substance is that it is Lysine. The reasoning is based primarily off of the paper chromatography experiment. 3. In paper chromatography, the stationary phase is a very uniform absorbent paper. The mobile phase is a suitable liquid solvent or mixture of solvents. But, the stationary phase is more polar because the paper is not actually polar at all, compared to, probably, water as the mobile phase. 4. 5. 6. Tryptophan, Tyrosine, and Lysine. Listed from largest to smallest they all are polar, with the smallest, Lysine, having a medium polarity. 7. 8. 9. references: http://www.macalester.edu/~kuwata/Classes/2001-02/Chem%2011/Revised%20Amino%20Acids%20(9%201%2001).pdf http://www...

Words: 290 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Soap Lab

...Abstract Chromatography is a method of separating and analyzing different mixtures of chemicals. You make separation of closely related compounds happen by allowing a mixture to seep through different absorbents such as paper or gel so that each compound is absorbed into a separate often colored layer. Introduction The objective of this preparative experiment is for students to become familiar with a technique known as Chromatography. This technique is used to take mixtures and separate small quantities of them into their component parts. There are many types of chromatographic techniques, but the ones that were used in this experiment were paper chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Paper chromatography was used to analyze food colors, where as thin layer chromatography was used to analyze amino acids. Both of these techniques have two phases, known as the stationary phase and moving phase. The stationary phase is the material used, through which the mobile phase flows. The mobile phase is usually known as the developing phase, and is a solvent or a mixture. The compounds that were synthesized for paper chromatography were 1-propanol and 1-butanol. The compounds that were synthesized for thin layer chromatography were dimethoxyethane and absolute ethanol. In the first experiment, paper chromatography was used to show the separation of food color components. This was done by using different food colorings and determining what colors were mixed in order to get......

Words: 1132 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Candy Paper

...Goal of this project is to use paper chromatography to see which dyes are used in the coatings of your favorite colored candies. Why do different compounds travel different distance on the piece of paper? How is an Rf value useful? What is chromatography used for? Candy with colored coatings- Skittles and M & M’s At least 30 strips of paper- coffee filters or chromatography paper 3 cm by 9 cm Wide-mouth jar Pencil Ruler Tape Water Toothpicks Food coloring ( red, green and blue) 1. Do your background research so that you are knowledgeable about the terms, concepts and questions above. 2. Use a pencil to lightly label which candy color or food coloring will be spotted on each paper strip. 3. Draw a pencil line 2 cm from the edge of each strip of paper. 4. Next you need to extract some dye from each candy you wish to test. Set the candy down on a clean plate in a drop of water. Leave it for a minute to allow the dye to dissolve. Remove candy, then dip a clean toothpick into the now-colored drop of water. Spot the candy dye solution onto the chromatography paper by touching the toothpick to the chromatography strip, right in the center of the origin line. Allow the spot to dry, then repeat the spotting at least three more times. You want to make sure to have enough dye on the chromatography paper so that you can see the dye components when they separate out on the paper. Make five separate strips for......

Words: 654 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Chromatography

...OF NAIROBI DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING BULUMA MARK EUGINE F18/1494/2011 GROUP 4 EXPERIMENT 6: THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY. THE OBJECTIVE OF THE EXPERIMENT. 1. To separate the unknown amino acids mixture into its various components. 2. To identify the amino acids present in the unknown amino acid mixture. THE THEORY BEHIND THE EXPERIMENT. Chromatography is a method of separating a mixture into its components, by use of heterogeneous equilibrium established during the flow of the solvent called a mobile phase through a fixed (stationary) phase. The stationary phase can be either solid or liquid, while the mobile phase can either be a liquid or a gas. Therefore, chromatography can be classified as; solid- liquid, liquid- liquid, or gas- liquid. Experimentally, chromatography can be carried out in columns or in layers. The column chromatography uses a vertical tube packed with a medium/ adsorbent. The layer chromatography uses a thin layer embedded unto a plate unto which the samples are introduced. The thin film stationary phase may be: 1. A liquid (partition chromatography). Example is paper chromatography. 2. A finely divided adsorbent solid. (Adsorption chromatography). Example is Thin Layer Chromatography. INTRODUCTION TO THE EXPERIMENT. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a chromatography technique used to separate mixtures.[1] Thin layer chromatography is performed on a sheet of glass, plastic, or aluminum foil, which is coated with a thin layer of adsorbent......

Words: 1577 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Chromatography

...THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC) Thin Layer Chromatography is a simple, fast, multipurpose, sensitive, inexpensive analytical technique for the separation of substances. TLC has a mobile phase that is a liquid while the stationary phase is an active solid, known as the sorbent. Such sorbents are silica, cellulose, alumina, polyamides, ion-exchangers, and other numerous minor organic and inorganic sorbents. The considerable versatility of the sorbents depends on the type of substances being separated. TLC has been successfully applied to hydrophilic, lipophilic and inorganic separations. HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (HPTLC) High Performance TLC can also be taken to be the conventional TLC with increased efficiency without decreasing the resolution and selectivity. To increase the efficiency of Thin Layer Chromatography, a couple of issues must be looked into. Efficiency is the kinetic variable determined primarily by the physical characteristics of the chromatographic systems, such as the size and uniformity of the adsorbent particles and the flow rate of the mobile phase. The efficiency of the system is slightly dependent on the nature of the solute. Efficiency is calculated as the theoretical plate number: N=(X/W) 2 Where, X is the distance species moved from the origin W is the zone width. N is the theoretical plate number. * High efficiency...

Words: 468 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

How to Get Out of Jail

...Chromatography Aim: To test the purity of aspirin using chromatography. Vocational context The results which we have collected while doing this chromatography will be helpful to many different types of people. One group of people who will be interested in the results is doctors when a patient comes to visit the doctor with a virus or something the doctor can look at these results and they will be able to make a decision on how powerful the aspirin to give the patient. Another group of people who might take an interest to these results are drug testers Background science Aspirin also known as acetylsalicylic acid, is a salicylate drug, often used as an analgesic to relieve minor aches and pains, as an antipyretic to reduce fever, and as an anti-inflammatory medication. Aspirin separates and decomposes very quickly in hydroxide and alkali metals. Aspirin is stable in dry air but gradually hydrolyses when it comes into contact with moisture Chromatography can be used to separate mixtures of coloured compounds. Mixtures that are suitable for separation by chromatography include inks, dyes and colouring agents in food. There is two phases the mobile phase which flows through column, carries analyte and the stationary phase which stays in a place, does not move. The separation of the molecules is based on the partitioning between the mobile and stationary phase. Chromatography is used in labs often to separate different compounds A TLC plate is a sheet of glass...

Words: 1462 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Thin-Layer Chromatography

...Thin-Layer Chromatography PRELAB READING/VIDEO: See video on Blackboard Zubrick: Cleaning, Chapter 9 pp. 77-79; Chromatography, Chapter 26 pp. 218-221 TLC Chapter 27 pp. 222-235, Melting Point Chapter 12 pp.88-93 PURPOSE: The purposes of this experiment are to: (1) determine the optimal conditions for separating substances in a mixture using thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and (2) use thin-layer chromatography and infrared spectroscopy to identify an unknown solid. EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES: thin layer chromatography, infrared spectroscopy. This is a 2 week experiment. INTRODUCTION Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a quick, inexpensive procedure that provides the chemist information on the purity of a sample, while using a minimal amount of that sample. Chemists often use TLC after running a chemical reaction to determine the purity of their product. In this lab, you’ll be (1) determining the best solvent to use for a TLC separation of four known compounds (shown below), (2) studying how experimental parameters (the type of development chamber, the presence of a filter paper “wick,” and how well the development chamber is sealed ) affect the results of a TLC experiment, (3) determining the reproducibility of Rf values, and (4) identifying an unknown compound using TLC. Before the lab, be sure to read the chapter(s) in Zubrick on thin layer chromatography! The four compounds you’ll be studying are shown below. CHM25701 Spring 2015 Thin......

Words: 3060 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Chromatography

...Separating and Determining the Colored Components of Capsicum fructescens Using Column and Thin Layer Chromatography Duran, K., Ednalino, M., Encarnacion, F., Fernandez, T., Fernando, S., Garcia, D. 2D-Pharmacy, Group 4, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santo Tomas, España Boulevard, 1015 Manila, Philippines ABSTRACT Chromatography was used to separate and determine the purity of the colored components present in a substance. Separation of the colored components of Capsicum fructescens (Red Siling Labuyo) using column chromatography, determining the purity of the components using thin layer chromatography (TLC), and measuring the retention factor (Rf) values of the colored components in TLC were the aims of the experiment. Dichloromethane:Hexane (DCM:Hexane) (1:1) was used to extract the pigments of the red siling labuyo. For the column chromatography, 0.5 mL of the extract was placed on top of the column containing silica gel. DCM-Hexane, DCM, and DCMmethanol was introduced in succession. Colored eluates were collected on separate test tubes and noted the number of drops for each. For the thin layer chromatography, the eluates were spotted on a pre-coated TLC plate and was placed on an equilibrated chamber, with DCM:Hexane as the solvent system. After visualizing the results on the TLC plate, the distance traveled by the pigments were computed for the Rf values. The results showed that the yellow pigment had the greatest distance......

Words: 1633 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Thin Layer Chromatography

... (Unknown #212) Thin Layer Chromatography The main objective of this experiment was to use a Thin-layer chromatography analytic technique to analyze the relative polarity of given samples and to identify the components of a given unknown solution. TLC is usually done on a small plate coated with silica which is the stationary phase. The solvent is the mobile phase. Small sample of different compounds is placed across the plate and each plate is then put into a jar containing different solvents. Each solvent climbs up the plate with capillary action with different rate bringing up the sample to the top of the plate along with it. After the plate is allowed to dry, the relative distance the compounds traveled along the plate can be compared to that of the solvent using a ratio of Retention factor, Rf. A sample of five compounds and one unknown was placed on a small TLC plate. The original spot of each compound was represented with alphabetical letter which is ~ 1cm from the bottom of the TLC plate. Accordingly, A represented the acetanilide solution, B represented the benzophenone solution, C represented the mandelic acid solution, D represented benzyl solution, E represented Benzoic acid and X represented the unknown. This process was repeated four times making the total of five TLC plates samples. Five empty jars were obtained and a peace of large filter paper was inserted into each jar sideways. Approximately 10ml of solvent was added into each jar....

Words: 825 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Color Reactions and Chromatography

...Thin-Layer Chromatography 2H-Pharmacy Group 3 Jan Claire Coros, Allen Cruz, Mikhail Cuanzon, Nikka Cuenca, Marc Dalangin Abstract After precipitating casein, several tests were conducted for the presence of amino acids. Biuret test, Ninhydrin test, Xanthoproteic test, Millon’s test, Hopkins-Cole test, Sakaguchi test, Nitroprusside test, Fohl’s test, test for amides, and Pauly’s test are the tests that performed which is shown in the table. The results have shown the presence of amino acids in the intact proteins, acid hydrolysate, basic hydrolysate, and enzymatic hydrolysate. Introduction ​The hydrolized was tested with different characterization reagents namely: Biuret, Ninhydrin, Xanthoproteic, Millon’s, Hopkins-Cole, Sakaguchi, Nitroprusside, Fohl’s, Test for Amide and Pauly’s tests. Biuret test is used to detect the presence of peptide bonds, Ninhydrinis a typical test for alpha-amino acid, Xanthoproteic detects side chains of aromatic amino acids, Millon’s determines tyrosine residue, Hopkins-Cole detects tryptophan residue, Nitroprusside is used for the detection of sulfur-containing amino acids, test for amides detect R-groups of aspargine and glutamine, and Pauly’s test for the presence of imidazole ring of histidine residue. ​In chromatography, there are different types that can be used to isolate proteins. They are thin-layer, gel-filtration, ion-exchange, affinity and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Thin layer chromatography in which......

Words: 1000 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Thin Layer Chromatography

...BAB I PENDAHULUAN 1.1 LATAR BELAKANG Perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan pada zaman sekarang telah berkembang dengan cukup pesat, terutama di bidang teknologi itu sendiri. Termasuk dalam bidang kedokteran itu sendiri. Pada makalah ini akan dibahas mengenai salah satu teknik ataupun metode yang digunakan dalam bidang kedokteran yaitu kromatografi terutama kromatografi lapis tipis. Kromatografi adalah teknik kromatografi adalah teknik pemisahan suatu zat yang didasarkan pada perbadaan kecepatan migrasi komponen-komponen yang dipisahkan diantara dua fase, yaitu fase gerak dan fase diam. Istilah kromatografi pertama kali ditemukan oleh Michael Tswatt (1903), seorang ahli botani asal Rusia. Kromatografi sendiri berasal dari bahasa Yunani yang terdiri dari dua kata yaitu, “chromos” yang berarti warna dan “graphos” yang berarti menulis. Jadi kromatografi berarti penulisan dengan warna. Kromatografi sendiri dapat diklasifikasikan lagi menjadi empat teknik yaitu adalah Kromatografi Kertas (KKT), Kromatografi Lapis Tipis (KLT), Kromatografi Gas Cair (KGC), dan Kromatografi Cair Kinerja Tinggi (KCKT). Pada makalah ini akan dibahas mengenai kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT). Kromatografi lapis tipis adalah salah satu teknik kromatografi yang banyak digunakan karena penggunaanya yang mudah dan cukup murah. Metode ini menggunakan lempeng kaca atau lembaran plastik yang ditutupi penyerap untuk lapisan tipis dan kering bentuk silika gel, alomina, selulosa dan polianida. Untuk......

Words: 2061 - Pages: 9