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Chemistry Paper Dissapearing Spoon

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Steven Velasquez Page 1 Chemistry has been around since before time these element have existed since before time. It was only up to us to find each and every one of them. Every element is unique in their own way. Each have different amounts of protons and electrons, have different masses, and are in different states of matter. Sodium, Oxygen, and Carbon each have different components and different ways that they react with other elements.
Sodium
Sodium is the eleventh element on the periodic table of elements. This means it has 11 protons and 11 electrons. Its symbol is Na and has an atomic weight of 22, 9898. It’s a soft metal, and even though sodium is the sixth most abundant element on earth, it is a very reactive element and is never found free in nature. Sodium was first made pure by Sir Humphry Davy in 1807 by the electrolysis of caustic soda. Sodium is so reactive it can ignite on contact with water forming sodium hydroxide which is highly irritating to skin, eyes, nose and throat. This can cause coughing and sneezing but very intense exposures can result in difficult breathing, and chemical bronchitis. Contact to the skin may cause itching, tingling, and permanent damage due to burns. Contact with eyes may result in permanent loss of sight. So because of this it has to be kept in a moisture free environment. Titanium, sodium peroxide, sodium hydride, and sodamide are produced by sodium. Sodium is also used as coolants for nuclear reactors. Sodium is also used in street lights that produce a bright yellow light. Sodium also has a low melting point, with a density of 0,97 at 20ºC (68ºF). Many useful compounds come from sodium. Some of which the most are: table salt, soda baking, caustic soda, Chile saltpeter, and borax. Sodium is considered the most important of all alkaline metals.
Steven Velasquez Page: 2
Sodium reacts with water, ice, and snow very quickly to create hydrogen and sodium hydroxide. When it’s exposed to air, metallic sodium loses its silvery appearance and instead takes on an opaque grey color due to the formation of a sodium oxide coating. Sodium even at very high temperatures does not react with nitrogen, but it can react with ammonia, hydrogen and on rare occasion’s carbon. The reaction of sodium with alcohols is like the reaction of sodium with water, but slower. Sodium is also a component of sodium chloride (NaCl) a very important compound found everywhere in the living environment. Solid sodium carbonate is needed to make glass. Sodium is important for humans to maintain the balance of the physical fluids system. Sodium is also needed for nerve and muscle functioning. Too much sodium can increase chances for high blood pressure and can damage the kidneys.
Oxygen
Oxygen is the 8th element on the periodic table of elements. It is a gaseous element with a symbol of “O”. Oxygen is the essential element in the respiratory system for most living organisms and in combustion processes. It is also considered the most abundant element on the earth’s crust. In most common situations oxygen is colorless and odorless, but it does condensate in a light blue liquid. Oxygen is reactive and will form oxides with all elements except helium, argon, krypton, and neon. Oxygen can be removed from air by distillation. The main applications of oxygen are mining, production and manufacture of stone and glass products, melting, refining and manufacture of steel and other metals, rocket propulsion, medical and biological life support, and manufacture of chemicals by controlled oxidation.

Steven Velasquez Page: 3
Oxygen gas makes up more than a million billion tons of the atmosphere, meaning taking up a fifth of the atmosphere. The oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere has been accumulating for a long time using the abundance of carbon through the process of photosynthesis. Oxygen is necessary for all forms of life since it is a basic component of DNA and almost all other biologically important compounds. It is so essential that animals must have minute to minute supply of this gas to survive. Every human needs oxygen to breathe, but if you have too much it is not good. If you are exposed to such large amounts for a long time it can cause some severe lung damage.
Carbon
Carbon is the 6th element on the periodic table of elements. Carbon has four electrons in its valence shell. Since this energy shell can hold eight electrons, every carbon atom can combine with up to four different atoms. Carbon can share electrons with other elements as well as with itself. This lets carbon to form many different compounds with different shapes and sizes. Carbon alone can form graphite and diamond both of which are made up of only carbon atoms, yet graphite is very soft and diamonds is known as the hardest substance in the world. The simplest organic compounds contain molecules composed of carbon and hydrogen. Carbon is found in many different compounds. It is in the food, clothes, and gasoline. Carbon is the sixth most abundant element in the universe. Furthermore, carbon is a very important element because it plays a big role in the chemistry of life. Carbon was found in prehistory which was manufactured by burning organic material making charcoal.

Steven Velasquez Page: 4
Carbon is in all living organisms which makes it the basis to Organic Chemistry. Carbon can combine into 10 million different compounds using almost all other elements in the periodic table. Almost everything can’t exist without carbon. Carbon is also known to have the highest melting point of all elements. Carbon in large quantities can be dangerous to humans. It also makes up 18.5% of human body’s mass. Carbon is also known to be the cause of global warming. About 30% of car tires are black due to using carbon. Even though carbon forms many compounds, it is known to be a non-reactive element. Lastly all plastics are made up of Carbon polymers.
As you can see all 3 elements Oxygen, Carbon, and sodium contain different properties, whether it is the amount of electrons or the boiling points. Each is its own specific element and there is no other like the one before it because that would be that actual element. The book The Disappearing Spoon gave a lot of insight on how and why each element is different. It was a very interesting book and was a lot better than the first time I read it.…...

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