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Chemistry Lab

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Submitted By mcauliffed
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Physical properties of Elements & chemical properties of Elements

Purpose- The purpose of this lab is to look closely at properties that differentiate metals from nonmetals, and then to see how the reactivity of metals differ within a group and within a period
Procedure- (Part 1). First you must put on googles because we are working with chemicals that could damage your eye sight if got in eye. Then you obtain a spot plate and obtain 1 sample of each element and be sure not to use your fingers while doing this. Next you get a conductivity tester, then observe elements and record color, whether the element is malleable or brittle, and if it conducts electricity. After that you identify if the sample is a metal, nonmetal, or metalloid. Lastly you clean up your area and return the nonmetals and the conductivity tester.
(Part 2). The first step is you must have googles on. You then return all the nonmetals, and get one more sample of each metal, but do NOT use your fingers. Then record your observations about each metal in data table 2. After that clean out your spot plate then place spot place over a blank piece of paper, next locate three wells that are not adjacent to each other and label them as magnesium, aluminum, and calcium. Your next step is to add 10 drops of distilled water to the three well and then add 1 drop of litmus to each well too then record the color of the liquids in the data table. Also add 1 piece of the appropriate metal to the wells and record observations in data table 2. Poor contents of spot plate into waste disposal container and wash and dry the spot plate. Lastly repeat steps 5-8 with HCL.

Data Table 1: Element | Solid, liquid, gas? | Malleable or brittle | Conduct electricity? | Metal, nonmetal, or metalloid | sulfur | solid | brittle | None conductive | Non metal | carbon | solid | brittle | conductive | metalloid | Aluminum | solid | malleable | conductive | metal | Calcium | solid | brittle | conductive | metalloid | Magnesium | solid | malleable | conductive | metal |

Data Table 2: | No metal | Magnesium | aluminum | Calcium | Initial observation | Clear, liquid | Malleable, silver, thin | Silver, thin, conductive, malleable | Gray, solid, brittle, conductive | Water (with litmus) | Nothing, small red tint | No color change | Nothings changed | Turned purple & blue then smoked then turned white | HCI (with litmus) | nothing | Yellowish, green, small bubbles | Nothing changed | Bubbled, red, smoked to white |

Data Table 3: | lithium | Potassium | Initial observation | Soft, shinny | Sand like, soft, metal, dark gray, malleable | Water (with litmus) | Turning purple to blue, bubbles/ gas, slow reaction | Turned light red then flames turned to a blue/ purple color, fast reactive time |

Questions: 1) Metals are located in the middle area on the periodic table. nonmetals are located on the right side of the periodic table. Aluminum has characteristics of metals and nonmetals the dark zig zag line on the periodic table indicates the separation of metals from nonmetals Calcium is more reactive then magnesium because when both water with litmus and HCI with litmus was put in with calcium it reacted by changing colors and bubbling. In magnesium there was no color change when water with litmus was added and when HCI with litmus was it only reacted in small bubbles and a light color change. Magnesium is more reactive then aluminum because magnesium turned a different color and got small bubbles when HCI was added. Nothing changed at all for aluminum. Potassium is more reactive then lithium because it took a lot longer for lithium to react then it did not potassium. Also potassium had a much bigger reaction. Least reactive to most reactive- no metal, aluminum, magnesium, lithium, calcium, & potassium as you go to the right on the periodic table the reactivity goes down as you go down the periodic table it gets more reactive least to most reactive- K, Na, Mg

Conclusion- The purpose of this lab is to look closely at properties that differentiate metals from nonmetals, and then to see how the reactivity of metals differ within a group and within a period. We accomplished figuring out which elements are more reactive than others. When you go left to right they become more less like metals and more like nonmetals. Another test I could do is see how each element reacts in gasoline.…...

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