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Chemical and Life in Taiwan

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產經一B 403540981 高子翔

「毒」家新聞:Q彈、久煮不爛的真相-順丁烯二酸酐化製澱粉

報導內容(相關資料統整): 2013年5月13日,爆發「毒澱粉事件」(後來行政院更名為違法食品添加物事件)。此事件重創台灣食品業,媒體報導衛生署食藥局早在今年2月就接獲舉報,但調查到5月才公布,指衛生署隱匿吃案。衛生署食藥局局長康照洲憤怒駁斥並非事實。他說,今年2月初食品組同仁在會議上聽聞有澱粉添加違法物質,當時連是什麼都不清楚,但已著手調查,期間從建立檢驗方法、市面抽驗、產品下架、追查源頭,直到掌握事證立即對外公布,外界指隱匿並非事實。 康局長表示,食藥局同仁警覺性很高,一得知立即著手調查,經過不斷研究,3月15日建立檢驗方法,18日調查市面上74件產品,檢出粉圓、黑輪、粄條等五件含有順丁烯二酸,立即著手要求相關業者將產品下架回收,確保產品不會流入市面,期間也持續追蹤。康局長表示若沒有掌握實質證據就對外公布廠商,恐怕會牽涉到司法問題;且擔心一旦消息公布,很多廠商可能會藏匿相關產品、證據,增加調查困難,所以才沒有在一開始就公布。
由於從獲得訊息到對外發布,期間長達三個月,外界認為衛生署可能誤判情勢,延誤新聞發布才導致這起食品安全事件如雪球般愈滾愈大,還讓毒澱粉更流向國外。
針對順丁烯二酸酐化製澱粉事件,食品藥物管理局聯合各地衛生局持續查察,稽查進度如下:日前涉案之澱粉包括地瓜粉、蕃薯粉、酥炸粉、黑輪粉、清粉、澄粉或粗粉等,受影響之市售產品包括粉圓、芋圓類、板條、魚肉煉製品類(關東煮、黑輪)、肉圓、豆花及粉粿等。以上經查證屬實之違規產品,已由轄區衛生局勒令下架停止販售,並限期退回上游經銷業者或製造廠,由衛生局儘速銷毀。截至(2013,5,28),違規產品回收、封存、銷毀共計約239公噸。

何謂順丁烯二酸和順丁烯二酸酐: 「順丁烯二酸酐」又名馬來酸酐或水蘋果酸酐,常簡稱順酐。遇水變成「順丁烯二酸」;「順丁烯二酸」加熱去水後,又可變回成「順丁烯二酸酐」。若「順丁烯二酸酐」與澱粉或蛋白質作用,會產生多樣化合物,結果非常複雜莫測。 我國法律不允許「順丁烯二酸酐」被添加到食品中,不法業者仍將它添加到澱粉中以增加食品的彈性、黏稠度與穩定度,從而產生Q彈口感、久煮不爛、常溫下可防腐等特性。 至於「順丁烯二酸」,有些合法的食品添加物便含有微量的這種物質。未成熟的蘋果、蕃茄、櫻桃都含有微量的「順丁烯二酸」。製藥業用它來增加藥劑的穩定度。在印度,它被添加到食物、茶葉、橘汁、糖漿以及運動飲料等以增加芳香風味。在生物領域,它屬於微生物可分解的物質,也不會在生物體內聚集殘留,没有致癌性,亦無使基因變異的毒性。因此,微量的「順丁烯二酸」不危害人類健康。 總之,順丁烯二酸和其酸酐都不是核准的食品添加物,但美國及歐盟有限度的允許使用順丁烯二酸酐在和食品直接或間接接觸的包材中,美國也允許將順丁烯二酸用為化妝品中的酸鹼調和劑。
以產業經濟角度分析此事件對社會之衝擊:
食品是生活在社會中最重要的一環,每個人每天一定多多少少會攝取到,除非只吃單純無調理,只用水燙過的「食物」,但如此一來,我們將會吃的了無新意,吃飯就不再是種享受,而是一種填飽肚子的例行公事,生活中也少了種樂事。既然食品對社會而言如此重要,為什麼不肖商人們還要透過違法添加物來謀取暴利呢?而當人們得知自己吃了多年的食品竟然是危害健康的毒藥,又會作何感想呢?民眾會抵制、拒買?還是過了一段時間後全忘了,讓不肖商人們再度用創新的毒藥來毒害人們呢?這些都是值得我們省思的問題。 首先,以經濟學角度來看商人做這件事帶來的效益,商人透過順丁烯二酸酐化麵粉製造食品,不但能增加賣相、防腐還能降低生產成本使售價降低,增加銷量,民眾也能以更少的金錢購得日常食品,這看似一場對買賣雙方彼此互惠的交易,但其中對食用者健康危害的隱藏成本完全被忽略,如果把這隱藏成本加上去,等於只有賣方獲利,而買方損失利益,社會整體利益亦下降,因此以經濟學角度來看會造成社會福祉下降,賣方應該付出賠償金來彌補社會損失,但通常政府的罰金對於他們的暴利而言不過是雞毛蒜皮的小錢,再者人民已失去的健康是這些金錢無法換回的,這也是助長黑心食品的主因之一。 次之,台灣人民歷經過多次食安風暴,此次報導的毒澱粉、2013年8月的胖達人香精麵包、2013年10月的棉籽油事件,到近期的黑心餿水油,層出不窮的黑心食品,我想這不僅代表了政府罰金太少,也象徵台灣商人被利益蒙蔽了良心,即使有這麼多借鏡事件,它們仍執意冒險販賣「黑心」,而台灣民眾的抵制購買行動也是具時效性的,這也造就了商人願意承擔風險牟取暴利的原因,因為他們會認為台人都具有健忘症,只要以低價販售,商品就不會有賣不出去的風險,時安問題也趨日益嚴重。 最後,我認為要解決食安問題,政府需要擬定一份嚴厲的食安條款,使商人認為假如黑心食品被抓到可能致使自己累積多年的商譽、財富可能會在一夜間全部成空,這樣才能促使商人們產生警惕感,而民眾們也必須「硬」起來,用甘地般的精神抵制到底,如果這兩件事都能達成,諒商人們也應該不再敢販賣這得不償失的「黑心」了吧。

參考資料:
衛福部食品藥物管理署
http://www.fda.gov.tw/TC/newsContent.aspx?id=9836&chk=131bee39-0697-4041-8d81-03ea7165d056#.VHrTsD-SxU1

環境資訊中心-食在環保專欄-2013年順丁烯二酸(毒澱粉)事件 http://e-info.org.tw/node/97156 http://e-info.org.tw/node/97157

聯合新聞網: http://udn.com/NEWS/NATIONAL/NATS1/7944586.shtml ETtoday「順丁烯二酸酐」與食品安全http://www.ettoday.net/news/20130623/228977.htm

維基百科 http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/2013%E5%B9%B4%E8%87%BA%E7%81%A3%E6%AF%92%E6%BE%B1%E7%B2%89%E4%BA%8B%E4%BB%B6 淡江大傳系研究生-邱柔毓論文
信任與背叛:「食品安全」新聞報導的敘事分析…...

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