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Chemical Engr

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Submitted By omishafi
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CLASS:. 3rd YEAR CHEMICAL
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SUBJECT:.PRESSUR REGULATOR
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AND ITS WORKING
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SUBMITTED TO:.SIR JUNAID AKHLAS
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------------------------------------------------- Pressure regulator and its working
Defination:. Gas pressure regulators reduce high-pressure gas in a cylinder or process line to a lower, usable level as it passes to another piece of equipment. They also maintain pressure within a gas delivery system. Gas pressure regulators are not flow control devices; they are used to control delivery pressure only
Types of pressure regulators:. There are four main types of gas pressure regulators
1-line gas pressure regulators
2-general-purpose gas pressure regulators
3-high purity gas pressure regulators
4-special service gas pressure regulators
Uses :. Typically, line regulators are point-of-use gas pressure regulators that serve low-pressure pipelines. They can be used in conjunction with high-pressure cylinder regulators that limit the inlet pressure to 250 to 400 psig.
General-purpose and high-purity gas pressure regulators are common types of gas pressure regulators General-purpose gas pressure regulators are designed for economy and longevity. They are recommended for noncorrosive general plant, pilot plant, and maintenance shop applications. High-purity gas pressure regulators are designed and constructed to provide diffusion, resistance, and easy cleanup. In these types of gas pressure regulators, inboard diffusion is minimized or eliminated by metal diaphragms and high-purity seats and seals.
Specialized services are available for gas pressure regulators. Special service regulators is a type of gas pressure regulators specifically constructed for specialized applications including oxygen, acetylene and fluorine service, high-pressure, ultra high-pressure, and corrosion service. Additional custom gas pressure regulators are available.

Components:. there are three basic operating components in gas pressure regulators.
1- loading mechanism
2- sensing element
3-control element These three components work together to accomplish pressure reduction. Loading element:. Loading mechanisms for gas pressure regulators determine the setting of the regulator delivery pressure. Most gas pressure regulators use a spring for the loading mechanism. When a gas pressure regulator’s hand knob is turned, the spring is compressed. Force is placed on the spring and is communicated to both the sensing element and the control element to achieve the outlet pressure. Sensing element:. Sensing elements in gas pressure regulators sense the force placed on the spring and set the delivery pressure. Most gas pressure regulators use a diaphragm as the sensing element. These diaphragms may be constructed of elastomers or metal. The sensing element communicates this change in force to the control element.
Control element:. In gas pressure regulators, the control element is the valve that accomplishes the reduction of inlet pressure to outlet pressure. When the gas regulator’s hand knob is turned, the loading mechanism is compressed. The spring displaces the sensing element and the diaphragm then pushes on the control element, causing it to move away from the gas pressure regulator’s seat. In turn, the orifice becomes larger in order to provide the flow and pressure required.
Operation:. A pressure regulator's primary function is to match the flow of gas through the regulator to the demand for gas placed upon the system. If the load flow decreases, then the regulator flow must decrease also. If the load flow increases, then the regulator flow must increase in order to keep the controlled pressure from decreasing due to a shortage of gas in the pressure system. The restricting element is a type of valve. It can be a globe valve, butterfly valve,poppet valve, or any other type of valve that is capable of operating as a variable restriction to the flow.The loading element applies the needed force to the restricting element. It can be any number of things such as a weight, a spring, a piston actuator, or more commonly the diaphragm actuator in combination with a spring.The measuring element determines when the inlet flow is equal to the outlet flow. The diaphragm is often used as a measuring element because it can also serve as a loading element.
In the pictured single-stage regulator, a diaphragm is used with a poppet valve to regulate pressure. As pressure in the upper chamber increases, the diaphragm is pushed upward, causing the poppet to reduce flow, bringing the pressure back down. By adjusting the top screw, the downward pressure on the diaphragm can be increased, requiring more pressure in the upper chamber to maintain equilibrium. In this way, the outlet pressure of the regulator is controlled.
Diagram of pressure regulator:.

Single stage pressure regulator two stage pressure regulator…...

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