Free Essay

Change Managment

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By sudheer49
Words 2007
Pages 9
Cyber Terrorism
Mahesh kanneboina
Wilmington University

Abstract The Internet is the global connection of interconnected computer networks where information can be shared among users around the world. But these days the Internet is not secure as the fundamental mechanics of the Internet are well known to many people and leading to long-standing security issues caused by the bad people who could build a “cyber nuke” to take down the network. This paper discusses about the cyber terrorism where a hacker or terrorist attacks the confidential websites of the nation and gets the important information for their activities. This cyber terrorism came into light after the 9/11 attack on WTC and from then the media focused its attention on Cyber security that has reflected public policy concerns worldwide about this topic.

Security of Internet and BGP
The Internet is where every network is able to reach every other network. According to industry analysts, there are 794 million people online world-wide and it is expected to be more in the coming years. This represents a lot of data interchange. But many small businesses, and even large organizations, do not know how to protect their sensitive data, thus making it easy for criminals. Online Security is a growing concern for governments around the world.
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the protocol which makes core routing decisions on the Internet, but unfortunately, BGP is not secure because some network administrator somewhere made a small mistake that generated bogus routing information that BGP blindly accepts and relays across the Internet. The effect of such a “route leak” is that data is diverted from its intended destination, usually ending up in a black hole from which there is no return. Making BGP more secure is difficult and the extra equipment and running costs are significant. This insecurity of BGP leads to failure at the network layer. The failure of the commercial and economic layer is also because of continuing insecurity of BGP. For a more secure form of BGP the cost to each network, in equipment and in effort, would be high. Though a secure Internet would be a good, its maintenance is missing. The Internet is a vast mesh of connections over and above the component networks which cannot all connect directly to each other, moderated by BGP. Each network monitors and manages its own small part of the system. (Chris Hall., June, 2012)

Internet Vulnerabilities
Internet is very prone to different criminals and is misused by them in many situations. Though monitoring Internet performance could provide the relevant data, it is difficult because of Internet issues. * Technical problems: The technical problems like what data should be collected, where and how to collect it, how to store it in a usable form, how to process it to extract useful information are one of the reason for Internet vulnerability. * Competition between different Internet networks made some of the data commercially sensitive. * Route leak: It is the cutting of critical undersea cables. The discovery of a software problem has a more significant impact. (Chris Hall., June, 2012)

Computer Crime
Computer crime was not a familiar topic to the most prominent authorities who are even not consensus on what constitutes computer crime. Over the course of approximately 13 years, both the number and frequency of instances of digital have intensified, and the sophistication and diversity of types of cyber attacks have increased. This represents the Cyber trend these days. Cyber attacks are one of the greatest threats to international peace and security in the 21st Century. (Tafoya, William L., November, 2011)

Cyber Terror
The term cyber terror was given in the 1980s by Barry Collin who defines cyber terror as “the intimidation of civilian enterprise through the use of high technology to bring about political, religious, or ideological aims, actions that result in disabling or deleting critical infrastructure data or information. The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) also defined it as “the use of computer network tools to shut down critical national infrastructures (e.g., energy, transportation, government operations) or to coerce or intimidate a government or civilian population.” Officially, cyber terrorism is regarded as any major computer-based attack that is premeditated, politically motivated and designed both to call attention to a cause and to create panic, through the breakdown of a widely used information system. (Tafoya, William L., November, 2011)
The quality of human life will be affected if data or information from any of the nation’s critical infrastructure databases were attacked and destroyed. No one realized the threat of cyber terrorism until the 9/11 attack. After this attack there brought a lot of changes in the security immediately. The reason for this sudden change is because unexpected thing happened that is 9/11 attack.
New York Governor George Pataki signed into law the Omnibus Governors' Program Bill on Feb, 2003, which created legal definitions for a wide array of terrorist crimes. It also strengthens the authority of law enforcement to investigate and prosecute terrorists. This measure created a legal definition for the act of cyber terrorism in New York, making it a Class B felony to launch an attack on any local, state or federal government computer network.
A hacker or terrorist could bombard a state agency site with millions of "requests for information," thus causing the site to overload and shut down. Similarly, an intruder could potentially invade a system designed to control a city's water supply or air transportation systems and create havoc.
Hackers Target
A hacker most desire thing is information and this is the reason for vulnerability of every government department or agency to a cyber attack. Protecting the information is critical because you may face a huge risk with things like identity theft if it is not protected. The new emerging facts reveal that sophisticated attackers routinely build attack scripts and toolkits that the novice attacker can use with the click of mouse, with devastating effects. Hiding the tracks of the attacker and expunging or concealing any related evidence has become an integral part of many attacker toolkits today. The increase and spread of computers around the world is one of the important reasons for cyber criminality and terrorism. (Boulard, Garry; Goodwin, Janna., May, 2003)

Securing Cyber world by Preventing Cyber Terrorism
The Department of Homeland Security has the major responsibility in protecting the nation from cyber terrorism. It is in charge of creating a comprehensive national strategy to secure "key resources and critical infrastructure of the United States." The DHS will also be responsible for responding in the event of a crisis, supplying technical assistance to the government and private businesses, coordinating efforts between agencies, and conducting and funding research to support homeland security. (Boulard, Garry; Goodwin, Janna., May, 2003). In 2010 Homeland security has understood the importance of some critical areas of the United States Nation. Safeguard and secure cyberspace is one such area, the Homeland security taken as responsibility for protecting the Nation. They started mission by declaring the potential threats as it is a serious issue and protecting the Nation from the identified threats. The Department of Homeland security issued a Blue print for a secure cyber future. It clearly mentioned what are the steps that homeland security taken for implementation of security strategies and achieve the goals. National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace is part of President Bush's larger National Strategy for Homeland Security.
The five major national priorities: * To create a cyberspace security response system. * To establish a threat and vulnerability reduction program. * To improve security training and awareness. * To secure the government's own systems. * To work internationally to solve security issues.
The state and local governments and the private businesses are been supported by this new strategy to reduce threats and vulnerabilities incrementally with a number of recommendations. To establish IT security programs, State and local governments are persuaded to work closely with the federal government and Department of Homeland Security so that they can create awareness, audits and standards in the combat against cyber threats and attacks.
Acts against Cyber Terrorism
In 1986 the federal government had a computer crime law, the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. This act addressed hacking information involving national secrecy with the intent to injure the United States, as well as unauthorized access to federal government computers. There are several changes done to this act to keep pace with advancing technology. Increased penalties for hackers who damage protected computers were included in the 2001 Patriot Act, passed in the wake of the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks.
The Patriot Act also specified that a hacker need only intend damage for criminal penalties to apply. Also this act added a new offense for damaging computers used for national security or criminal justice and also included computers in foreign countries if they affect American interstate or foreign commerce. (Boulard, Garry; Goodwin, Janna., May, 2003)
Cyber Security Enhancement Act also introduced into the Homeland Security Bill at the last moment which expands police powers to conduct Internet or telephone eavesdropping without a court order. It also gives Internet providers more latitude in reporting information to the police.

Tasks for Strengthen the Cyber World * Applying security measures regularly by each individuals and organizations. * Proper validations of individual identities should be done and kept secret without sharing the information over unsecured medium of communication. * Interoperable security capabilities are built into information and communication technologies. * Users should be able to understood and manage the risks of information and communication technology.

Conclusion
Internet is playing a vital role in everyone’s life by supporting their life and securing the Nation’s economy and infrastructure. At the same time it was misused by the bad people like terrorists for getting the confidential information of Nation. These Cyber terrorists indiscriminately will attack the nation’s critical infrastructure and the innocent civilians, one of the example is 9/11 attack on WTC. Securing this cyberspace has become a major task for the government and the Department of Homeland Security took this responsibility. It requires a dedicated vision, ability of broadminded and a good leadership. Securing the cyberspace is not an easy task, each and every ones active participation for making progress in achieving our desired goals by utilizing framework proposed by the Federal government and other official departmental strategies. I feel every citizen should be responsible about nation security and should talk when they notice any unusual things going with their IP addresses. With these efforts the department of homeland security can make our Internet safe and secure.

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Grammatical errors
Information was good

References
Babbin, Jed (August, 2011) “Computers Are Weapons of War”
Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=8&hid=11&sid=f3e81716-3eb2-4599-9599-2728b5932b78%40sessionmgr12 Boulard, Garry; Goodwin, Janna (May 2003) “Cyber Terrorism: No Longer Fiction”

Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=9&hid=11&sid=f3e81716-3eb2-4599-9599-2728b5932b78%40sessionmgr12&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=9692017 Cyber Terror
By WILLIAM L
Chris Hall (June, 2012) “Privacy and Security of the Internet and the Known Unknowns”

Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=5&hid=11&sid=f3e81716-3eb2-4599-9599-2728b5932b78%40sessionmgr12

Herbert Lin (June, 2012) "Why Computer Scientists Should Care About Cyber Conflict and U.S

National Security Policy”

Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&hid=11&sid=f3e81716-3eb2-4599-9599-2728b5932b78%40sessionmgr12

Prof. Oliver E. Osuagwu1; Prof. Tony Ogiemien; Dr. Samuel Okide (August, 2010) “Deploying
Forensic Science & Technology for Resolving National Cyber-Security Challenges”
Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&hid=11&sid=f3e81716-3eb2-4599-9599-2728b5932b78%40sessionmgr12 Tafoya, William L (November, 2011) “Cyber Terror”
Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=6&hid=11&sid=f3e81716-3eb2-4599-9599-2728b5932b78%40sessionmgr12

http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=6&hid=11&sid=f3e81716-3eb2-4599-9599-2728b5932b78%40sessionmgr12…...

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