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“Recycling and environment. To analyze the NGO CESTA in El Salvador”

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INTRODUCTION Centro Salvadoreño de Tecnologia Apropiada better known as CESTA, it was founded by a group of teachers in 1980, as the first environmental NGO of El Salvador. CESTA is an organization that for more than 30 years works with topics of allegations of environmental problems in the country, being a tool where any citizen can bring a story or campaign to the media's attention. It is involved in everything for the citizen protection of natural resources and human well being and lately has been working more in awareness of the effects of climate change in El Salvador (Navarro, 2000).
My research question is how the NGO CESTA is working to protect and improve the environment in El Salvador? CESTA performance is distributed in different parts of El Salvador, through its activities and demonstration centers. These Eco centers serve as a space for development and education about appropriate technologies. The Eco Bike Center, located in San Marcos, is focused on the bicycle as a sustainable transport for all kind of person. CESTA with a large bicycle workshop where arrange old bicycles, selling them at low cost, providing permanent and free workshops, being a space for learning, sharing, and opportunities for young people with low resources (Canales, 2005). The “Eco Centro Animas” is a center of capacitating outside of the city of Cojutepeque. The center has more than 20 years developing organic production, applying echo techniques, and protecting a natural reserve of tropical forest where can find many species of wildlife. In addition to these activities, CESTA carry out educational campaigns in communities, where its support team offers free workshops on topics such as food sovereignty, agro-ecology, reforestation, nutrition and natural medicine. Any young volunteer can join CESTA in any of its different programs (Navarro, 1990).

LITERATURE REVIEW A brief summary of NGO CESTA is that the main objective is to have a country and therefore a world where different societies have as fundamental task to live in harmony within themselves, among themselves, and with their environment. CESTA works to contribute to the sustainability of El Salvador, through promotion, impulse and implementation of movements, programs, projects, and environmental actions that will also help create a sustainable world. CESTA has been constituted as an autonomous environmental NGO, without profit motive or dependence of political party or any religion although its actions affect and interact in those levels (Kandel, 2002). Its nature and philosophy are consistent with its mission and seeking to bring it to reality in the most efficient and effective way. CESTA is characterized by go to the root of the problem, to its fundamental causes, to structural levels, and not to stay on the superficial aspects. Also CESTA requires the opportune participation to the different agencies and sectors of the government and civil society to carry out policies, programs, projects, initiatives, and actions that achieve changes that lead society on the path of sustainability (Barry, 1994). It is not enough to indicate the problem or to propose a solution; it is necessary to be persistent and to give pursuit to the problems since the solution is usually a process. The actions performed by CESTA should consider biological aspects, social, gender, cultural, economic, political, ethical, etc. In CESTA, the work must be performed by following a plan of phases systematized that allows to build a new coherent and firm reality, to thinking more in the medium and long term, without neglecting what is urgent and that sometimes requires immediate results. Continuously, there are proposed solutions and new and innovative actions, which are effective to face with the environmental problems. In the solution of a problem, there are promoted mechanisms of dialogue and agreement, which they avoid or reduce the use of the violence or actions motivated by the hate or the intolerance; although there is recognized the right of the persons and communities to defend themselves (Hecth, 2002).

THEORY SECTION What are different possible answers on how the NGO CESTA is working to protect and improve the environment in El Salvador? Water is the principal and essential component of every living being; it is called drinking water or water for human consumption the water that can be consumed without restriction due to the fact that, thanks to a process of purification, does not represent a risk to health. The term is applied to the water that meets the quality standards established by the local and international authorities. CESTA, in a continuous effort to take health to the populations who more need it, realizes diverse activities related to identification of sources of water for human consumption, sampling and analysis of water for verification of quality, protection of water sources, and construction of filters of sand to improve the quality of the waters (Beneke, 2001). Climate change is one of the main areas of work of CESTA, conscious that this phenomenon has generated a very serious crisis, which is aggravated by the time and that could go out of control threatening the existence of humanity. Already scientists have pointed out that an increase of 5 ° C is possible and that if this happens, the area in the middle of the Earth near to equator line, now inhabited, could become too hot to live (Hernandez, 1998). For this reason, CESTA actively participates in campaigns admissions to generate awareness about the urgency of changing patterns of consumption and to influence the political leaders of the planet by requiring decisions to stop climate change. At the local level CESTA accompanies to impoverished rural communities in to strengthen their livelihoods in doing activities and relationships, that are required to be able to live with dignity. Therefore CESTA is working on the generation of conscience because the society as a whole must understand the magnitude of the problem and the severity of the impacts that approach, to make changes in their lifestyles and to demand from its leaders political decisions that should prepare consequences of major proportions. In El Salvador, it advances the implementation of projects that devastate ecosystems, and displace communities; It is necessary to show solidarity with the most affected population and strengthen the processes of struggle that are being developed against the mining, construction of dams, generators of electricity, and tourism (Hernandez, 1998). Anticipating strong climatic events that lie ahead working on proposals to increase chances of survival, is conceived as proposals production and food conservation, the use of alternative medicine, conservation and disinfection of water, generation of renewable energy, local processing waste, among others. Also CESTA has more than two decades of work in the area of solid waste; since it is a permanent nationwide problem there is no political will to deal with this issue. In this sense, the generation and accumulation of waste without any treatment still affect health and the environment of El Salvador. CESTA for its part has developed and has repeatedly submitted proposals for integrated management of solid waste, and implemented experiences in systems of integral management of wastes in different municipalities of the country like Suchitoto, Carolina and San Juan del Mosco (Navarro, 2000). In addition to the proposals have been promoted and disseminated at the national level "Evita la Basura" campaign, through the organization of conferences, forums, with mayors of El Salvador, public institutions, including nongovernmental organizations (Navarro, 2000). Also has been working heavily in the development of educational programs for staff of municipalities, schools and general population as part of a training and ongoing process that provides theoretical and practical elements in order to change attitudes and behaviors related to the management of solid waste. The main component of the activities performed in this area, is the education and campaign to raise public awareness in order to modify habits and practices to reduce to the minimum the generation of garbage, and making them the most appropriate management in ecological, social, economic, and political terms (Navarro, 2000). RESEACR DESIGN SECTION What are the evidences and strengths that support my research question in how the NGO CESTA is working to protect and improve the environment in El Salvador? One of the evidences and strengths is the Forest and Biodiversity program from CESTA that consists on sensitizing and making the Salvadorans aware on the current situation of the forests and the biodiversity in the country, through community organization and local initiatives that allow the rehabilitation, protection and, conservation of the natural elements, species of plants, and animals that still exist in El Salvador, also through the development of environmental talks, forums and others that can an impact on people (Hecht, 1999). The Biodiversity and Forest program, focus it effort on to make people be aware on the need to take care of the few forested areas that still are in our country, as well also to motivate and propose the need to manage a total ban to the felling of trees and forests before the authorities since forests are subject to merchandise on the part of large corporations. CESTA proposes joint efforts at community level, and be the population the protagonists of an empowerment and sustainable management of natural resources, principally of the forests. In the way to assure in the communities basic elements like water, food, medicine, minerals, firewood, oxygen, protection and a healthy and friendly recreation with nature. One of the first initiatives that hopes to be consolidated is the creation of a “Movimiento Comunitario de los Bosques de Manglar en El Salvador”, with the participation of communities in the Bahia de Jiquilisco, through a sustainable community management of the mangrove swamp (Nuñez, 1990). With this initiative, they try to articulate a bigger effort at national level for the protection and community handling of the forests in El Salvador. Also, with a permanent and systematic campaign called “Cuida el Bosque, el Bosque te cuida a ti”, CESTA expects a greater understanding about the relationship between the forest and the humans, and allow a harmony between human actions and the existence of the species and ecosystems essential for life on the planet (Hecht, 1999). CESTA is also provided with Ecocenters in which they realized activities of environmental education, organic farming, and ecotourism; there are sanctums for species of plants and animals that they are threatened or endangered. This and other initiatives will be accompanied with community development strategies, that allow the creation and strengthening of productive alternatives and environmental actions with the sustainability of families, and the possibility that these are part of a management more strategic of the natural resources in El Salvador.

ANALYSIS To analyze the environmental situation and what makes sense to me is that in El Salvador the environmental situation is not taken seriously, we have seen that for the governments the environmental situation keeps on being in a critical condition. The first thing that can be highlighted is that there is no governmental awareness of the serious and urgent environmental and social crises caused by climate change. In the energy topic, for example, there are no indications of politics faced to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels, neither in the transportation or in the industry, not even in the generation of electricity is where continued with plans to operate thermal plants based on coal and natural gas. Either not policy has been established to stop the erosion of biodiversity in projects promoted by the Government; an example is the decision to continue with the construction of hydroelectric preys “El Chaparral and El Cimarron”, although experts in the country's economy see these projects as an economic suicide (Canales, 2005). Other aspects such as the promotion of the use of land for energy cultivation not only shows the lack of interest of the Government in fight against climate change or promoting biodiversity in the country. Also shows little interest in the hunger of people that already make more land dedicated to the cultivation of energy harvest, but the lower the land is dedicated to the cultivation of food, and therefore is higher the price of the food. On the one hand there is the Ministry of tourism that recommend to stay in the country to enjoy vacations, which is entirely logical because not only helps economy but it also contributes to the fight against climate change since less distance traveled lower derivatives of petroleum consumption and therefore lower is the emission of greenhouse gases. In something that the Governments has expressed their speeches, since is progressing and now offers an environmental speech more modern and attractive, but unfortunately does not reflect in their policies or actions.

RESULTS The evidence that support my hypothesis is on the programs “Ecobici and Trabajando con Tortugas Marinas.” The “Ecobici” is one of the programs and most ancient areas of CESTA was created with the aim of developing related areas in cycle mechanisms and renewable energy, as well as promoting the bicycle as a way of alternative transportation in El Salvador. In the first years of its existence, several hundreds of bicycles are placed in the communities, which needs that someone repairs them (Zilberg, 1999). It is as well as thinking of empowering people in communities in the repair of bicycles; this allows them to learn a new trade and to generate them additional income. Many micro businesses are born in communities, each supported by its own organizations and others supported and financed by CESTA for the work of introduction of the bicycles it begins buying new bicycles, but from 1995 secondhand counterparts bicycles are received. In order to contribute in improving social conditions and providing alternatives to young people, CESTA has been running educational seminars on different environmental themes, in particular workshops in the Assembly and repair of bicycles (Zilberg, 1999). During the school holidays is develop with young people training and environmental workshops on prevention of violence, as a result of this, the young people proposed in to organize ecological groups to develop community activities such as camps, touring bikes, hiking, contests, as well as continue with trainings on different topics. In the program of working with marine turtles from 1994 to 2004, CESTA and residents of the beach community from Toluca, La Libertad, were part of a community handing of marine turtles, this one finishes due to the emergence of a law that ban the development of this resource (Canales, 2005). This mechanism is not sustainable and much less sustainable in the management of nurseries for the incubation of the eggs of marine turtles and more deepens the poverty of families who for many years have been devoted to the collection of eggs of sea turtles. CESTA is currently dedicated to handle the unique Center of interpretation of sea turtles in El Salvador. The center of interpretation is a strategic tool of community environmental education of the marine turtles in El Salvador that hopes to become stronger with the community of the beach Toluca, principally with the children and girls who have showed a real interest in the conservation of these species.

CONCLUSION The environmental situation of El Salvador becomes more and more difficult, and the levels of contamination and deterioration of resources as important as the soil, the water, the air, the native species of plants, and animals are being eliminated (Hecht, 1999). In the same way, the high levels of risk and vulnerability of many areas at national level increase, before a such situation the organized communities are still demanding of the competent institutions the most coherent actions with the environmental protection, despite of the violence and institutionalized repression. In that sense, CESTA is accompanying the needs and demands of the communities and areas affected by environmental degradation, creating spaces to publicize their problems at a national and international level. Some of the areas highly vulnerable in El Salvador are as an example La Cordillera del Balsamo y la Finca El Espino (Kandel, 2002). They are mainly areas of high ecological potential by the aquifer recharge; however they have become a favorable place for exploitation and destruction by businessmen of construction and infrastructure. The most recent has been the expansion of the road to “Puerto de la Lbertad”, which has destroyed significant forest, as well as the evicted communities in the municipality of Zaragoza, that mostly are children and young people with more than 15 years of settling in the area (Canales, 2005). According to CESTA, some of the guilties for destroying La Cordillera El Balsamo and La Finca El Espino are Grupo Roble and the construction company Siman with the permission of some institutions of the national government and local like the municipalities of Nuevo Cuscatlan, Zaragoza, San Jose Villanueva, among others (Canales, 2005). Residents of the lower area of Jiquilisco (San Marcos Lempa), since Hurricane Mitch, suffering floods, caused by high levels of vulnerability of the area; the population is affected each year, suffering losses in their crops, belongings, damages to homes, proliferation of diseases which goes even further because of its levels of poverty (Hecht, 2002). To stop this process of destruction since that year are asking the Government the repair of the Board in the riverbed of the Lempa river, in addition to having an early warning system, hostels equipped, and security in the area if they eventually have to vacate their homes. On the other hand, the sector of persons with disabilities has been one of the most marginal of the policies and plans of Government. The level of deterioration of natural resources has generated them also a permanent situation of vulnerability to phenomena such as hurricanes, floods, droughts and earthquakes (Hecht, 2002). These phenomena impact more forcefully in persons with disabilities since for them it is more difficult to react during emergencies, and on the other hand, it is difficult for them to access to basic resources such as drinking water and food.
Barry, Deborah (1994). Organismos financieros y política ambiental en El Salvador. PRISMA No. 6. San Salvador
Béneke (2001). Determinación de la calidad del agua de consumo humano de las familias rurales de El Salvador. FUSADES. San Salvador.
Canales Candelario, A. I., Figueroa Sosa, J. E., & Ortiz Corvera, R. G. (2005).Introducción a la legislación ambiental en El Salvador (Doctoral dissertation, Universidad Francisco Gavidia).
Cuéllar, Nelson et al. (2001). La gestión del agua en El Salvador: Desafíos y repuestas institucionales. PRISMA. San Salvador, El Salvador.
Hecht, Susana (1999). Visión 2021. El Salvador Recursos Naturales: Una previsión de alternativas utópicas y distópicas. MARN. San Salvador.
Hecht, Susana, Herman Rosa y Susan Kandel (2002). Globalization, forest resurgence and environmental politics in El Salvador. PRISMA. San Salvador, El Salvador.
Hernández de Larios, Silvia (1998). Transporte urbano y contaminación el aire en la Región Metropolitana de San Salvador. PRISMA. San Salvador.
Kandel, S. (2002). Migraciones, medio ambiente y pobreza rural en El Salvador. PRISMA, Programa Salvadoreño de Investigación sobre Desarrollo y Medio Ambiente.
Navarro, R. (2000). Resistiendo a la globalización. Ecología Política, 89-91.
Núñez et al (1990). El Salvador natural resources policy inventory. USAID-ROCAP-RENARM Project. Technical Report No. 113.
Ricardo, N. A. V. A. R. R. O. (1990). El Pensamiento Ecológico. Centro Salvadoreño de Tecnología Apropiada, CESTA, San Salvador.
Zilberg, Elana y Mario Lungo (1999). ¿Se han vuelto haraganes? Jóvenes salvadoreños, migración e identidades laborales. en Lungo y Kandel, FUNDE. San Salvador, El Salvador.…...

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Atividade 2

...necessitar de uma abrangência de resultados para ser gerado. Confiança mínima é a relação que é gerada de um conjunto de itens que o item derivado ou pesquisado (por exemplo, Y) dentro do conjunto desejado (Z). Relaciona a presença de Y implicando Z dentro de uma pesquisa desejada, comparando os exemplos que não há essa implicação. 2. (30%) Explique com suas próprias palavras o que é Conjunto Frequente no contexto das Regras de Associação. Baseado em um número de transações, o conjunto frequente é a relação de conjuntos que são exibidos com frequência, respeitando a regra do Suporte Mínimo. Gerando esses conjuntos, são criadas regras de associação com confiança idêntica ou maior ao índice gerado da Confiança Mínima. 3. (50%) Crie uma pequena Cesta de Compras ( 5 Exemplos) com itens relacionados ao seu ambiente de trabalho, ou à área de seu TCC, ou a qualquer outra área de seu interesse, e gere as Regras de Associação no Weka. Anexe o respectivo arquivo “.arff”, e um pequeno relatório sobre a simulação. O exemplo criado foi gerado com pesquisas de 7 colegas sobre compras na rede MCDonalds e seu comportamento. Foram questionados sobre seus perfis de compra. São pessoas de 25 a 30 anos, casadas sendo que 5 possuem filhos maiores que 3 anos. As respostas geradas foram: Utilizando o aplicativo, consegui observar os resultados que: • Quem compra batata, compra refrigerante com regra de suporte mínimo de 0,8. • Quem compra lanche, compra batata e o mesmo vale para......

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Manual Del Investigador Caperucita Roja Autor: Hermanos Grimm Había una vez una niña muy bonita. Su madre le había hecho una capa roja y a la muchachita le gustaba tanto que la llevaba todos los dias, así que todo el mundo la llamaba Caperucita Roja. Un día, su madre le pidió que llevase unos pasteles a su abuela que vivía al otro lado del bosque, recomendándole que no se entretuviese por el camino, pues cruzar el bosque era muy peligroso, ya que siempre andaba acechando por allí el lobo. Caperucita Roja recogió la cesta con los pasteles y se puso en camino. La niña tenía que atravesar el bosque para llegar a casa de la Abuelita, pero no le daba miedo porque allí siempre se encontraba con muchos amigos: los pájaros, las ardillas... De repente vio al lobo, que era enorme, delante de ella. - ¿A dónde vas, niña?- le preguntó el lobo con su voz ronca. - A casa de mi Abuelita- le dijo Caperucita. - No está lejos- pensó el lobo para sí, dándose media vuelta. Caperucita puso su cesta en la hierba y se entretuvo cogiendo flores: El lobo se ha ido -pensó-, no tengo nada que temer. La abuela se pondrá muy contenta cuando le lleve un hermoso ramo de flores además de los pasteles. Mientras tanto, el lobo se fue a casa de la Abuelita, llamó suavemente a la puerta y la anciana le abrió pensando que era Caperucita. Un cazador que pasaba por allí había observado la llegada del lobo. El lobo devoró a la Abuelita y se puso el gorro rosa de la desdichada, se metió en la cama y......

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...prednostne ceny ktore by pri kolektivnej cene mohli zmiznut. Ale Eu sa vyjadrila ze by mohla byt nekompromisna k energetickym spolocnostiam ktore poskudzuju konkurenciu, blokuju tok alebo sa vyhrazaju uzavretim kohutika.Cina dala zelenu konstrukcii nuklearneho reaktora a tento krok sa dostal na titulky novin pretoze pouzije vlastnu technologiu. Cina ma mnozstvo jadrovych reaktorov ktore sa momentalne konstruuju a je jedna z mala krajin ktore sa posuvajuvpred co sa tyka nuklearnej energie. Ale doteraz vzdy vyuzivali technologie zo zapadnych krajin, americka firma Westinghouse a francuzsky gigant Areva buduju v cine. Obidve firmy sa vsak potykaju s omeskaniami,, zvysenymi nakladmi a preto sa rozhodli cinania pouzit vlastne technologie. Tato cesta bude pre cinu tazsia ale ak veduca spolocnost projektu moze uspesne demonstrovat svetovy dizajn a vysoke bezpecnostne standardy, stavbu nacas, firmam zo zapadu sa zacnu zcvrkavat moznosti kedze cina sa viac bude spoliehat na domace firmy. ...

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...sjever-jug po nekim prirodnim znakovima kao što su zvijezda Sjevernjača i Sunce, a zatim zemljovid usmjerimo prema sjeveru.     Orijentacija zemljovida pomoću kompasa     Kod ove metode greška je u magnetskoj deklinaciji, ali je ona zanemariva, pa je ova metoda najtočnija. Vanjski rub zemljovida poklapa se sa meridijanom. Uz lijevi ili desni rub rub postavimo kompas. Zatim okrećemo zemljovid zajedno sa kompasom dok ga ne orijentiramo.     Orijentacija prema raznim linijama na zemljovidu     Ovo je način orijentacije zemljovida kada nemamo kompas. Prvo odredimo linije na zemljovidu koje su i na zemljištu, a zatim ih uskladimo. To je najlakše uraditi tako da stanemo na neku od linija (cestu i sl.) gdje se siječe s drugom linijom (druga cesta, potok, šumski put i sl.).     Orijentacija prema pravcima objekata na zemljovidu     Ovo je najprecizniji način orijentacije zemljovida bez kompasa. Kad znamo svoju stojnu točku nađemo neke markantne točke u prirodi (crkva, raskrižje, most i sl.). Zatim gledamo da se smjerovi tih objekata poklope na zemljovidu.     Kod ove metode možemo uzeti i neko ravnalo, te ga prislonimo uz zemljovid od svoje stojne točke do objekata koji ciljamo. U tom slučaju nam ravnalo služi kao ciljnik kojim poravnavamo smjer od stojne točke preko objekta na zemljovidu ka objektu u prirodi. ·        Određivanje stojne točke     Određivanje stojne točke je radnja koja prethodi svakom korišćenju zemljovida na terenu. Orijentiranje zemljovida......

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...jednostavno izgladnjuju, bulimičari se "čiste" povraćanjem koje su sami izazvali. Oboljeli od bulimije također često koriste pilule za mršavljenje, laksative i diuretike da bi smanjili težinu. Uzroci Smatra se da su pritisci i sukobi unutar obitelji prvotni znak bulimije. Bulimičarka je obično osoba koja želi previše postići i teži savršenstvu, a osjeća da ne može zadovoljiti očekivanja svojih roditelja. Njezino samopoštovanje je na niskoj razini i pati od depresije. Možda je kao dijete bila fizički ili spolno zlostavljana; oko polovice svih obojelih od bulimije ima u prošlosti iskustvo zlostavljanja. Znakovi koji ukazuju na bulimiju: | Emotivne karakteristike: | Tjelesne karakteristike: | * često je idealna tjelesna masa održiva | * česta promjena raspoloženja | * gubitak zubne cakline | * pojačan strah od debljanja | * depresija | * problemi sa zubima | * konzumiranje hrane u pretjeranim količinama | * impulzivnost | * ispucale usne | * tajno konzumiranje hrane | * zlouporaba lijekova i alkohola | * problemi sa štitnjačom | * čest osjećaj gladi | * samosakaćenje | * grlobolja | Liječenje Liječnik ili psiholog bi morao postaviti dijagnozu bulimije, ako postoje najmanje dvije bulimične epizode tjedno u trajanju od tri mjeseca. Psihoterapija - često kombinirana s antidepresivima - prvotni je način liječenja, zajedno sa savjetovanjem oprehrani. Psihološko liječenje bulimije može uključivati pojedinačnu, obiteljsku ili skupnu psihoterapiju. Isto tako, često......

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Problemi Mikrosociologije

...koji može putovati svijetom, učiti strane jezike i priuštiti si općenito šarolikiji dijapazon iskustava biti različite od sinapsi osobe koja čitav radni vijek provede radeći repetitivne poslove, bez obzira kakav odnos imala prema sredstvima za proizvodnju. Dakle, i mikrosociologija može imati marksistički predznak, zbog čega opoziciji mikro-makro ne bismo trebali davati apriorne političke konotacije. Mikrosociologija previđa kontekst interakcije. Neposredna interakcija licem-u-lice ne može se objasniti ako zanemarimo individualnu biografiju, akumulirano iskustvo akterâ, povijesno proizvedene razlike i sličnosti akterâ, te događaje koji su prostorno udaljeni, ali omogućuju izvjesnu interakciju upravo u obliku u kojem se i događa. Izgrađena cesta, škola ili bolnica će bitno promjeniti iskustvo interakcije budućim generacijama. Erving Goffman ne bi imao koga proučavati da u nekom trenutku povijesti nije uvedena praksa izdvajanja „čudnih“ osoba i da neka građevinska firma nije izgradila mentalne institucije; mobitele kojima komuniciramo netko je proizveo u eksploatacijskim uvjetima na drugom kraju planete i s tim smo osobama mi kao korisnici mobitela u indirektnom kontaktu; niti jedan od električnih uređaja ne bi radio da netko jednom nije postavio električnu mrežu i održavao je do današnjeg dana. Društvo se ne događa samo pri susretu licem-u-lice. Njegova snaga seže puno dalje i oblikuje nas. Dakako, ovi i slični problemi mikrosocioloških pristupa nisu razlog da ih napustimo.......

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