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Central American Court of Justice

In: Social Issues

Submitted By pg2009
Words 1238
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Aunque desde el siglo XVI el teólogo español Francisco Suárez había preconizado una visión de la comunidad humana dirigida por el Derecho Internacional Público, al decir: “La razón de ser del Derecho de Gentes obedece a que el género humano, aún divido en naciones y reinos diferentes tiene sin embargo, cierta unidad, no solo específica, sino también política y moral” … (y agregaba), “jamás estas comunidades pueden separadamente bastarse a sí mismas, por eso tienen necesidad de algún derecho que las dirija en esta clase de relaciones y de sociedad” …sin embargo, tal concepción que en nuestro tiempo tiene plena aceptación, no fue desgraciadamente la que determinó al acontecer internacional de su época, ni el de los años posteriores a la misma.

Al jurista holandés del siglo XVII, Hugo Grocio, cupo el honor de señalar los lineamientos que, a partir de entonces y por varios siglos seguiría la ciencia que regula las relaciones internacionales, influyendo de manera determinante, desde entonces, en las concepciones jurídicas y filosóficas teorizantes y en las actuaciones positivas y prácticas que se plasmaron en múltiples tratados, convenciones y acuerdos suscritos entre las diferentes naciones, Estados o potencias que actuaron impulsados por la necesidad de coexistencia, sobrevivencia, o por la simple voluntad, dentro de aquel acontecer encausado cada vez más por la naciente ciencia del Derecho Internacional Público.

El concepto de soberanía absoluta de los Estados fue impuesto también, como tantas otras instituciones, por aquel dogmatismo formalista, llegando con el tiempo a convertirse en obstáculo infranqueable que nulificó muchos y muy variados esfuerzos tendientes al sostenimiento de la paz entre las naciones.

Por otra parte, si bien es cierto que un sentimiento de soberanía exaltado era un verdadero obstáculo para la paz, no se podía preconizar la supresión total o parcial de dicha institución sin tener listo y de previo un sustituto inmediato y funcional capaz de impedir el caos y la anarquía que, por su falta, quedaría reinante en el campo del ordenamiento público entre los Estados; y que la supresión de dicho concepto sin un sustituto adecuado habría arrastrado a su vez a ese caos el sentimiento nacional, base, fundamento y reflejo de las más caras realizaciones configurativas o determinantes de los grupos étnicos negando a los mismos y al individuo su propia existencia sociopolítica dentro de su ya ancestral marco geográfico.

El filósofo alemán Emanuel Kant en su conocido libro “Ensayo sobre la paz perpetua”, al concluir afirmando, que la paz no puede cimentarse sobre la responsabilidad de un solo Estado, sino que debe estarlo sobre una asociación de Estados libres, limitó también implícitamente la concepción tradicional de soberanía. La ley que regula las relaciones entre los Estados debe ser una ley de coordinación en lugar de una ley de subordinación; y estos en sus relaciones con los demás Estados no serán sujetos dependientes sino por el contrario interdependientes.

Esta y muchas otras concepciones progresistas y de avanzada alumbraron la mente de los juristas y estudiosos en su tarea por encontrar nuevas fórmulas aceptables en la difícil lucha para eliminar los múltiples escollos que de una u otra forma perturbaban el mantenimiento de una pez duradera y estable y para crear medios y prácticas coadyuvantes con tan noble objetivo.

Así al impulso de la razón creadora, paulatinamente fue rota la rigidez absoluta del viejo concepto y se abrió la brecha de luz que permitió a los juristas y filósofos finiseculares y de los primeros años del siglo XX penetrar en los amplios cielos de nuevas y novedosas concepciones que traerían renovadas esperanzas a una humanidad que, como nunca antes, en su historia, tendría que enfrentar retos y peligros que representarían en un futuro no muy lejano, no solo la pérdida de la paz, sino y lo que es catastrófico y probable, la pérdida y negación de la propia existencia biológica del hombre sobre la tierra.

Con tales antecedentes, llegamos a los primeros años del siglo XX en que Guatemala asistió en 1907 a la Conferencia de Paz Centroamericana concluida en Washington en diciembre de aquel mismo año por los cinco países centroamericanos y que dio fecundo origen a la Corte de Justicia Centroamericana, la que sin lugar a duda alguna, fue el primer Tribunal en la Historia ante el cual se sometieron obligatoriamente y de manera permanente y sin reserva alguna cinco Estados soberanos e independientes para resolver todo desacuerdo que pudiere surgir entre ellos, de cualquier naturaleza que fuere, y sin reserva alguna, todo al tener de la Convención creadora de dicha Corte, suscrita en Washington el día veinte de diciembre y con la cual se rompió en forma positiva la rígida concepción de soberanía que teóricamente diferentes pensadores, filósofos y juristas ya habían socavado.

Durante siglos, para mantener la paz y la seguridad internacionales, los grandes pensadores, estadístas y líderes religiosos, trataron de encontrar los medios más adecuados para resolver pacíficamente las disputas internacionales, sin lograr éxito alguno.

En la época contemporánea, a finales del siglo XIX, en 1898, a propuesta del Zar de Rusia, se aprobó el La Haya una convención al respecto, pero no fue sino hasta ocho años después, en la Segunda Conferencia, que se creó la llamada Corte Permanente de Arbitraje, que no era un verdadero tribunal, sino una lista de árbitros de la que se podía escoger a una personalidad imparcial para conocer de un litigio determinado. En ese mismo año, en 1907, se trató de establecer una corte internacional de presas, que si bien la convención respectiva fue ratificada por numerosos países, incluyendo El Salvador, no llegó nunca a organizarse debido a “la oposición terminante de los Estados Unidos de América de someter a revisión d una corte internacional las decisiones de su más alto tribunal federal”.

En ese memorable año de 1907, para consolidar la paz en la región, afectada seriamente por la guerra entre El Salvador y Guatemala un año antes, y apenas firmada la paz en el barco “Marblehead”, surgió otra contienda bélica entre El Salvador y Honduras, por una parte, y Nicaragua, por lo que con los buenos oficios de los gobernantes Teodoro Roosevelt, de Estados Unidos, y Porfirio Díaz, de México, se firmaron en Washington, D.C., dos pactos de grandes alcances: el fructífero Tratado General de Paz y Amistad y la Convención para el Establecimiento de una Corte de Justicia Centroamericana.

Con la creación de este último organismo, Centroamérica tiene indiscutiblemente el derecho de mayorazgo en la historia universal. Al conmemorarse el cincuentenario de ese hecho memorable, en la sede de la ODECA, manifesté lo siguiente: “Defendemos, con orgullo patriótico, ese derecho de primogenitura, no por conservar simbólicamente el bíblico plato de lentejas, sino por mantener incólume la verdad histórica”.

Además fue el primer Tribunal que formó jurisprudencia de manera regular, científica y formal, legándonos el rico filón de sus sentencias, que tanto en su forma como en su fondo, por la elegancia de su estilo como por la profunda y acertada interpretación de los principios generales del Derecho de Gentes, de la práctica entre Naciones y de la moral internacional, constituyen ejemplo vivo y de fuente inagotable para los futuros tribunales que a partir de entonces se han creado en la búsqueda permanente del mantenimiento de la paz entre las naciones del mundo.

Por último, fue dicha Corte la primera en presentarse ante los Estados del mundo luciendo en su sistema orgánico y procesal, novedosas formas y prácticas hasta entonces reservadas al campo exclusivo del derecho interno.…...

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