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Cell Biology and Genetics

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BIO 264 - Human Anatomy and Physiology
Chapter 3 – Cell Biology and Genetics PART A
1. Describe the structure of a typical animal cell. Describe the structure and function of each of the cell parts labeled in Figure 3.1, plus cytosol, cytoplasmic inclusions, and flagella. * Plasma Membrane- Outer boundary of the cell, through which the cell interacts with its external environment. * Nucleus- It directs cell activities, most of which take place in the cytoplasm. * Flagellum- Extension of the plasma membrane containing doublets of parallel microtubules./ in humans, it propels spermatozoa. * Microvilli- Extension of the plasma membrane containing microfilaments. /increase surface area of the plasma membrane for absorption and secretion; modified to form sensory receptors. * Cilia- Extensions of the plasma membrane containing doublets of parallel microtubules./ Move materials over the surface of cells. * Cytoskeleton- * Proteasomes- tubelike protein complexes in the cytoplasm./ Break down proteins in the cytoplasm. * Peroxisome- Membrane bound vesicle/serves as one site of lipid and amino acid degradation; breaks down hydrogen peroxide. * Centrioles-pair of cylindrical organelles in the centrosome, consisting of triplets of parallel microtubules./ Serves as centers for microtubule formation; determine cell polarity during cell division; from the basal bodies of cilia and flagella. * Centrosome- * Cytoplasmic organelles- Ribosomal RNA and proteins form large and small subunits; some are attached to endoplasmic reticulum, whereas others (free ribosomes) are distributed throughout the cytoplasm./ serves as site of protein synthesis. * Rough endoplasmic reticulum- Membranous tubules and flattened sacs with attached ribosomes./ synthesizes proteins and transports them to the Golgi apparatus. * Smooth endoplasmic…...

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