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Cation and Anion

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How does test for Cation and anion work
Anion are negatively charged ion, this means that it would be attracted to the anode in electrolysis. Because anion are negatively charged particles, this means that the number of electron is greater than the number of proton. This happens when an atom receive an electron from another molecule or atom. This negative charge will now allow anions to attract and interact with positive ions, which are Cation. When anions from a bond with a Cation, they form salts. Salts are inorganic molecules, it doesn’t have a lot of carbon and hydrogen. Salts dissolve well in water, and will separate into anions and Cations in this solvent. An example of anion are; hydroxide, chloride, nitrate, oxide, carbonate, and sulphate. Testing for anion includes, testing for carbonate it requires you adding a dilute acid to the carbonate sample, using a pipette take out the air in the sample and bubble it through limewater. It will go cloudy which mean that carbon dioxide is present. Testing for sulphate and Sulphide, if sulphate dissolve in dilute nitric acid, then a white precipitate forms with barium chloride solution. If you was to add hydrochloric acid, the sulphate will dissolve but if it doesn’t dissolve it is a Sulphide. Testing for sliver nitrate you will do a halogens, or halide ions test. You add sliver nitrate to a solution, this could be chloride, bromide or iodide, and if they react with the sliver they will form a ppt. A white, cream or yellow ppt. If chloride dissolve in dilute nitric acid, then a white precipitate forms with silver nitrate solution. The precipitate will dissolves in dilute ammonia solution. If bromide dissolve in dilute nitric acid, then a cream precipitate forms with silver nitrate solution. The precipitate is insoluble in dilute ammonia solution, but will dissolve in concentrated ammonia solution. If iodide dissolve in dilute nitric acid, then a pale yellow precipitate forms with silver nitrate solution. The precipitate is insoluble in dilute and concentrated ammonia solution. Testing for nitrate you add sodium hydroxide solution and warm with powdered aluminium, then test the gas given off (ammonia) with damp red litmus paper, which will turns blue. Word equation for anion tests | Symbol equation | Carbonate + acid ==> salt + water + carbon dioxide | CO32–(s) + 2H+(aq) ==> H2O(l) + CO2(g) | Barium solution + sulphate = barium sulphate | Ba2+(aq) + SO42–(aq) ==> BaSO4(s) | Silver nitrate + sodium chloride = silver chloride + sodium nitrate. | AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) = AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq) | Sliver nitrate +lithium bromide = sliver bromide + lithium nitrate | AgNO3(aq) + LiBr(aq) = AgBr(s) + LiNO3(aq) | Sliver nitrate + potassium iodide = silver iodide + potassium nitrate | AgNO3(aq) + KI(aq) = AgI(s) + KNO3(aq) | | | | |

Cation are positively charged ion, this means that it would be attracted to the cathode in electrolysis. A Cation will form when an element or atom lose one or more electron. Electrons are actually negatively charged particles for this reason when element loses an electron, it becomes less negative and more positive. Example of Cation are; hydrogen, barium, sodium, potassium, sliver, ammonium, calcium, iron, copper, lead, and aluminium. A flame test is a most test use to identity most of the Cation like iron and calcium. A Bunsen and burner and a nichrome wired looped is used for a flame test. The nichrome wire should be cleaned in hydrochloric acid concentration, to sure there is no contaminating flame colours. You dip the nichrome wired loop in the calcium or iron powder, then put it through the blue flame in the Bunsen burner and the nichrome wired loop should show colour change. For like calcium the colour will show an orange red. The colours in the flame test are due to the stimulation to a higher electronic energy levels. The light will emit as the electron return to a lower and stable electronic energy level. Aluminium, magnesium, iron and zinc do not produce a useful identifying flame colours. We can test for cations by adding sodium hydroxide solution and noting the colour of the precipitate. For the sodium hydroxide test if the Precipitate turns white like for aluminium and calcium, you need to add more sodium hydroxide to observe whether the precipitate dissolves. Ammonium ions give off ammonia gas when we heat them with sodium hydroxide solution. Word equation for cation tests | Symbol equation | Copper sulphate + sodium hydroxide = copper hydroxide + sodium sulphate | CuSO4(S) + NaOH = CuOH + NaSO4 | Iron II sulphate + sodium hydroxide = Iron II hydroxide + sodium sulphate | FeSO4 + NaOH = FeOH + NaSO4 | Calcium sulphate + sodium hydroxide = calcium hydroxide + sodium sulphate | CaSO4 + NaOH = CaOH + NaSO4 | Iron III sulphate + sodium hydroxide = Iron III hydroxide + sodium sulphate | FeSO4 + NaOH = FeOH + NaSO4 | Aluminium sulphate + sodium hydroxide = Aluminium hydroxide + sodium sulphate | AlSO4 + NaOH = AlOH + NaSO4 | Magnesium sulphate + sodium hydroxide = Magnesium hydroxide + sodium sulphate | MgSO4 + NaOH = MgOH + NaSO4 |…...

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