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Case Study of Sinar Harian

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World Applied Sciences Journal 28 (11): 1481-1487, 2013
ISSN 1818-4952
© IDOSI Publications, 2013
DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.28.11.13813

The Neutrality of Sinar Harian Newspaper in Malaysian Politics
Wan Rohila Ganti bt Wan Abdul Ghapar, Nurul Saadatun Nadiah Mohd Ngah and Ilyas Abdullah
Faculty of Administrative Science and Public Policy Universiti Teknologi
MARA (UiTM), 23000 Dungun, Terengganu, Malaysia
Abstract: This article examines the neutrality of Sinar Harian, a Malay daily, which claims to be neutral and without favour, from 20 April 2013 to 5 May 2013, 15-day campaign period of Malaysia’s 2013 General Election.
The 13th General Election was the most contentious of election in Malaysian politics. Sinar Harian attempts to present a balanced reporting, by giving spaces to both parties to present their ideas and defend their stand, rooms which are not available in other mainstreams newspapers. This study uses content analysis as a method of investigation. It is a technique of gathering and analyzing the content of text. The analyses cover these dimensions; news report and analyses, letters to the Editor, political advertisements and special guest columns.
This study found 33% of articles favored BN, 36% covered PR, 24% of articles considered as neutral reports and 6% of articles reported the activities of independent candidates. Using Monti’s classification of biasedunbiased reports, Sinar Harian can be categorized as unbiased newspaper.
Key words: Sinar Harian Neutrality of media

Mainstream newspaper

INTRODUCTION
Media freedom is important for a number of reasons.
It is a vital part of the system of checks and balances in democracy, acting as the watchdog of the people and as the Fourth Estate. A free press plays a key role in sustaining and monitoring a healthy democracy, as well as in contributing to greater accountability, good government and economic development. Most importantly, restrictions on media are often an early indicator that governments intend to assault other democratic institutions [1]. Becker [2] argued that the most essential norm of media freedom is that media should have certain independence, sufficient to protect free and open public expression of ideas and information.
The media practitioners have to decide between news values, public’s rights to know, national secrecy and serve the interests of the ruling elites.
It is worrying when the press is not encouraged to entertain criticisms of certain government projects for the supposed fear that they would divert the attention of the people and government away from so-called vital development issues. It is asserted that the media, being

General election

Election campaign

responsible and committed to national development, must give their undivided support to the government by publishing positive news about the government and condemn the opposition [3-5]. Analysis of the 1990,
1995 and 1999 elections have shown that the mainstream media is consistent in portraying the ruling coalition positively, who also happen to be the owners of most media and at the same time discrediting the opposition
[6-7].
There seemed to be an increased disillusionment with the mainstream media that was perceived as echoing the voice of the government, not giving a balanced coverage of issues and ignoring the Opposition’s point of view.
Fed-up with one-sided newspaper, readers started to move to internet, as online media which was accessible to a large segment of the population. It served as a new medium of information. The coverage is more salient, reliable, fast and free. Malaysiakini.com, Malaysia’s first commercial internet newspaper, for example, was placed at number 18 in the Asiaweek’s “Power 50” list of influential communicators across all Asia. The online media became very popular, at times equating the popularity of the mainstream media [8].

Corresponding Author: Wan Rohila Ganti Wan Abdul Ghapar, Faculty of Administrative Science and Policy Studies,
Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 23000 Dungun, Terengganu, Malaysia.

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Fig. 1: The Traffic Ranks of Sinar Harian in 2012 and 2013
Source: http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/sinarharian.com.my. (Accessed on 30 July 2013) [10].
In 2006, Sinar Harian, a Malay daily, was set up in
Shah Alam. It belongs to the biggest and most successful bumiputra owned publisher in Malaysia; Kumpulan
Media Karangkraf. Karangkraf publishes 25 magazines titles, ranging from entertainment, sports, cooking to fashion, religious and interior design. Sinar Harian is an attempt of Karangkraf to present a balanced reporting, when it gives spaces for both parties to present their ideas and defend their stand, rooms which are not available in other mainstreams newspapers. It attempts to suit the era of media independence when the credibility of news reporting is upheld, without fear or favour. This
Malay daily is published based on region. Under the tagline, Telus dan Tulus (Transparent and Sincere), the current regional editions cover Kelantan, Terengganu,
Pahang, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka, Perlis, Kedah and
Penang, Perak, Johor and Selangor and Kuala Lumpur.
The editorials are led by five managers, eight editors, eight assistant editors and 200 reporters [9].
The strategy of Sinar Harian to maintain its neutrality receives overwhelming supports from the masses, especially among the Malay readers. Currently, Sinar
Harian Online, its internet version, was ranked at number
23 of the most visited sites in Malaysia. In the category of media, Sinar Harian is the second most visited site after
Malaysiakini.com. It left all traditional media who also offered online versions (Figure 1). The number of its visitors has increased from time to time. Random observations at the nearest newspaper vendors during the campaign days exposed Sinar Harian was the first newspaper to be sold out.
Recent General Elections in Malaysia: alaysia has consistently conducted general elections since 1955 in order to decide the formation of the government and election is necessary to decide the policy and administration of the country. Since independence,
Malaysia has been ruled by the Barisan Nasional

(National Front, BN), a coalition of 14 political parties mainly UMNO, MCA and MIC, which has produced all the six Prime Ministers of Malaysia. Other parties are allowed to be formed and the biggest rival of BN is the
Pakatan Rakyat (PR), a loose coalition of PAS, PKR and
DAP.
The 13th General Election on 5 May 2013 was arguably the most closely fought in Malaysia since political independence from British colonialism in 1957. The 2008
General Election witnessed PR’s ability to capture five states (Kelantan, Kedah, Penang, Perak and Selangor.
They also denied BN’s two-third majority in the
Parliament. The 13 th General Election became the most awaited moment since surveys showed both parties have equal chance to win the election [11]. BN wanted to retain its federal power and wrested the five states they lost in
2008, while PR wished to topple BN and control Putrajaya.
The Prime Minister announced the dissolution of the
Parliament on 3 April 2013, paving the way for the
Suruhanjaya Pilihanraya (EC) to fix the election date.
The EC then decided the most awaited date, 5 May 2013 as the polling date, with 20 April 2013 as the official start of political campaigning allowing for 15 days campaign period. There were 222 parliamentary seats and 505 State
Legislative Assembly seats to be contested.
As expected, BN retained its power and recaptured
Kedah. However, BN still lost the two-third majority power in the Parliament when it only won 133 seats, compared to its 140 seats in 2008. PR was unable to be the next government when it only won 89 seats, better than its
2008 performance (82 seats). For the State Legislative
Assembly Seats, BN won 275 seats and PR won 230 seats.
The election fever was proven with 84.84% of voter turnout. With all results in, BN polled 5.220 million votes to PR’s 5.489 million, for a deficit of 269,130 votes.
This was proportionally down from the 4.082 million votes
BN polled in 2008 Election, against the 3.796 million that the PR collected then.

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Problem Statement of the Study: The role of the media is most evident in the run-up to any election. Studies on media and elections clarified that the mainstream newspapers in Malaysia are controlled by BN and they remained a critical factor in ensuring BN’s continued success. The Media Prima, a media conglomerate which has a close relationship with UMNO, owned the biggest share of The New Straits Times while The Star and Nan
Yan Siang Pau are controlled by MCA, a BN key component party. These are evidences that the ruling elite controlled the editorial boards of these newspapers, forcing them to construct news in a way that favors powerful parties [3, 8, 12-13]. However, opposition parties do have their own newspapers such as Harakah which is published twice a week by PAS, DAP publishes The
Rocket and PKR has Suara Keadilan. However, the circulation of these papers is very limited. The contents are mainly on party activities and propaganda.
There comes the question on what are the choices left for masses who are looking for unbiased, neutral and reliable election reporting? Literature search found that no studies have been conducted on neutrality of Malaysia’s newspaper. A case study on the neutrality of Sinar Harian in reporting election news is hoped to fill the literature gap. Method and Material: This paper uses Content Analysis as a method of investigation. It is a technique of gathering and analyzing the content of text. The content refers to words, meanings, pictures, symbols, ideas, themes, or any messages that can be communicated [14]. The aim of this study is to examine the neutrality of Sinar Harian in reporting the Malaysia’s 2013 election campaign. The period of analysis is from 20 April 2013 to 5 May 2013, a
15-day campaign period. The analyses on fifteen editions of Sinar Harian (Terengganu edition) cover these dimensions; news report and analyses, letters to the
Editor, advertisements and special guest columns.
Monti [15] divided the news reporting on two categories; relatively biased and relatively unbiased.
The newspapers are relatively biased when there should be a greater number of stories about powerful parties than weaker parties. Another hint is stories about powerful parties should get more coverage in the front pages of the papers than stories about weaker parties. The relatively unbiased newspapers on the other hand, should be no appreciable difference in the number of stories powerful or weaker parties. There also should be no appreciable difference in the placement of stories about powerful and

weaker actors. The neutrality of Sinar Harian is measured based on its reporting techniques and coverage given to contesting political parties. A total of 288 news articles were analyzed and categorized as pro-BN, pro-PR and neutral. Analysis/Results: This paper analyzes these four dimensions; news report and analyses, letters to the
Editor, advertisements and special guest columns.
News Reports and Analyses: The newspaper is biased when stories about powerful parties received more coverage in the front pages of the papers than stories about opposition parties. The relatively unbiased newspapers on the other hand, should be no appreciable difference in the number of stories powerful or weaker parties [14]. Figure 2 shows the headlines in the front pages of Sinar Harian. The following discussion wraps these headlines into six elements.
Fraction in Pakatan Rakyat: Sinar Harian on 20 April
2013 placed “PAS,PKR in Battle” as its banner headline on its front page. As agreed by Pakatan Rakyat Supreme
Council, DUN Kota Putera, Bukit Besi and Seberang Takir would be allocated to PKR. However, a day before the nomination day, PAS decided to place their candidates, which would cause the three-cornered contest in those constituencies. Sinar Harian reported that the PKR State
Chairman was dissatisfied with PAS’ decision, as it would fracture their ties. PAS, on the other hand, defended their decision by saying that the candidates from PKR not competence. BN Terengganu said this argument signaled the fraction in PR, which would give advantage to the BN.
Fortunately, Sinar Harian dated 23 April 2013 reported that all the three PKR candidates withdrew and declared their supports to PAS candidates.
Independent Candidates: The Nomination Day was given wide coverage by Sinar Harian. Due to strong protests from the grassroots, a few names were withdrawn and replaced by candidates that are more preferable. Both the
BN and the PR warned their dropped members to continue supporting the parties as this is the party struggle, not an individual’s. Frustrated members who contest as independent candidates would be automatically dismissed from the party. Photos of dropped party stalwarts like
Datuk Kamilia Ibrahim, the UMNO Wanita Chief, Jenice
Lee of DAP were emblazoned on its front page. This edition focused on the increasing number of independent

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World Appl. Sci. J., 28 (11): 1481-1487, 2013
Date
April 20,2013
April 21,2013
April 22,2013
April 23,2013
April 24,2013
April 25,2013
April 26, 2013
April 27, 2013
April 28, 2013
April 29,2013
April 30, 2013
May 1, 2013
May 2, 2013
May 3, 2013
May 4, 2013
May 5, 2013

Headline
PAS,PKR Berentap (PAS, PKR on Battle)
Lepas Geram (Who Cares?)
Cabar Hapus Produk 1 Malaysia (Stop 1 Malaysia Products)
MB Sumpah Laknat (CM Denies)
Aura Calon Wanita (The Aura of Women Candidates)
Jangan Ikut Hati (Think Wisely)
Siapa Khianat (Who Betray)
Siapa Gagah Siapa Gelabah (The Stronger vs Weaker)
Siapa Giant Killer (Who is Giant Killer)
Ulama Bukan Penentu (Ulama is Not a Factor)
Serangan Saat Ahkir (The Last Minute Attack)
Ini Kalilah atau Lain Kalilah (This Time or Next Time)
Kami Tidak Ditaja (We Are Not Sponsored)
SPR Jawab Tuduhan (EC Answered the Accusation)
Misteri Bendera Kecil (Mystery Flags)
Bersedia Untuk Kalah (Ready to Loss)

Fig. 2: The Headlines of Sinar Harian (April 20-May 5, 2013). candidates, where three professors from local universities were interviewed. Both saw this increment as healthy to democracy but demerit BN. Another professor read this scenario as a new version of party sabotage, but it would not give any big impacts to BN or PR. Some party leaders accused these independent candidates as they were being sponsored to contest to break the votes. However these allegations were denied by the candidates.
Party Stalwarts: Another interesting report was the neck-to-neck contest between party heavyweights such as in Pekan (Mohd. Najib Tun Razak/ President UMNO and BN), Pagoh (Muhyiddin Mohd. Yassin/ Deputy Prime
Ministers), Putrajaya (Tengku Adnan Tengku Mansor/
UMNO Secretary General versus Husam Musa/ PAS Vice
President), Bukit Katil (Mohd Ali Rustam/ Chief Minister of Malacca versus Shamsul Iskandar Mat Akin/ PKR
Youth Chief), Sungai Limau (Azizan Razak/ Chief Minister of Kedah versus Mohd Fadzillah Mohd Ali/cousin),
Lembah Pantai (Raja Nong Chik/ Cabinet Minister versus
Nurul Izzah Anwar/ the incumbent) and Gelang Patah
(Abdul Ghani Othman/ Chief Minister of Johor versus Lim
Kit Siang/ DAP Supremo). Sharp predictions on who has bigger chance to win were illustrated with grafts on ethnic composition and previous election results in those constituencies. Women Candidatures: Women Candidature received a special coverage by Sinar Harian when “Aura Calon
Wanita” (The Aura of Women Candidates) became the headline, with the photos of Nurul Izzah Anwar, Nor
Azrina Abdullah Surip from PKR and Noraini Ahmad and
Jessie Ooi from BN. Sinar Harian reported that there are
168 women candidates in the coming election, proving

their capabilities to woo the votes. UMNO Puteri Chief commented that all women candidates have an equal chance to win the election with their man counterpart. She praised BN for fielding a number of women candidates, showing the party recognized the contribution of women in BN. Fuziah Salleh of PKR stated that women candidate have more advantages in canvassing votes during their house-to-house campaign as female voters usually stay at home. The MIC women chief and PAS Muslimat chief were satisfied when the party leaders trusted the ability of women to have bigger roles in politics.
Sinar Harian Forum: The calls for public forum discussing the national issues have been heard after the
General Election 2008. Malaysian voters want to see a representative from BN and PR share the same stage debating national issues. Sinar Harian bravely responded to the call by mediating the first country’s debate by inviting party leaders, NGO activists and academicians.
The ninth debate entitled “General Election 13: Manifesto
BN vs PR” was held on 30 April 2013. This discourse was paneled by three prominent academicians from local universities and it was full house. This shows the efforts of Sinar Harian to mediate a debate received good responses from the masses. The panels operated the manifestoes of both parties and offered their critical evaluations on a few populist policies such as on free education, security, transportation, poverty and price of goods. They agreed to disagree on few issues but they all agreed that more open debates should be held and attended by party leaders. The panels also unanimously agreed that voters should think wisely before casting their votes as they would determine the future of the country. 1484

World Appl. Sci. J., 28 (11): 1481-1487, 2013

Religious Background Is Not a Factor: The 2 May 2013 edition focused on the competency of candidates with religious background (ulama’). Realizing the aura and personality of ulama’ can magnetize votes, both parties fielded ulama’ as their candidates. In the context of Malay political culture, ulama’ is respected and trusted, hence, fielding ulama increases chances for contesting parties to win. There comes no surprise for PAS to nominate ulama since it is an Islamic party. Recently, BN also placed a few ulama’ in order to fight PAS. Names such as
Ustaz Fathul Bari, Jamil Khir Baharom, Abu Ubaidah
Redza (BN) and Mohd Firdaus Jaafar, Abdul Hadi Awang and Haron Din (PAS) were given special coverage by editors on their chances to win. Sinar Harian counted that
16 ulama’ from BN and 24 from PAS were nominated and would fight with other professional candidates. Based on interviews with political analysts, Sinar Harian concluded that having strong religious background is not a determinant factor for voters to vote since they also consider other important factors such as manifesto, issues, party performance and party identification.
Letters to the Editor: Conventional media provides a space for readers to express their opinions by sending letters to editors. Letters that were published in this column mainly favor the ruling coalition [16]. In many cases, such letters only reinforced the pro-BN news that appeared on the day concerned. Furthermore, an array of such letters could give the impression that a large majority of Malaysians supported the BN and condemned the opposition [3]. To suit the modern era, Sinar Harian invites its readers to express their opinions by sending short messages system (SMS) to the editors. In contrast with other press, the SMS from its readers varied; there were messages supporting BN and urged the readers think wisely before casting the votes since their votes would determine the future of the country. Below are the samples of messages supporting BN:
“I pray for BN and UMNO will win the coming election.
BN has done a lot to the people.
Those who reject BN are blind and not thankful”
“We, the FELDA settlers promise to give undivided support to BN under the leadership of DS Najib. It is proven that only BN can bring peace, development and prosperity to our country. The mandate should be given to BN”

The supporters of Pakatan Rakyat sent messages asking the fellow readers to change the government because this is the right time. Below are the samples of messages sent by PR supporters.
“The entrance of DS Muhammad Taib to PAS will strengthen PAS machinery. The experience of Muhamad
Taib will help PR and PAS to face attacks from BN.
History repeats itself when
Umar al-Khattab joins Rasulullah, thus strengthening the Muslim army.”
“Where is a fair election? Media are controlled by BN,
PR has not been given access to it. Is it fair for the government of the day to manipulate government machinery for their interests? Is it fair to give election goodies using government money?”
Political Advertisements: Advertisement is the source of income that ensures the survival of a particular newspaper. It is understandable that political advertisement in the mainstream media unabashedly promoted the BN as a stable and united front, a welfare government who works for the sake of people, promotes peace, stability and prosperity. The illustrations were made attractive, with catchy and appalling words, plus colorful photos and captions. There are direct political advertisements that put the emblem of BN such as “Vote
BN for Prosperity” and indirect political advertisement like
“Saya Anak Malaysia (I am Malaysian)”. M. Kamal [3] found that the opposition was depicted negatively in the mainstream media’s advertisement such as “Anwar: Imam
Besar ABIM, Pejuang Islam, Pemimpin Revolusi dan
Penghibur (Anwar: The Leader of ABIM, the Champion of Islam, the Revolutionary Leader and the Entertainer)” with his pictures giving sermon, wearing songkok and dancing with unknown woman. These advertisements might have significant effects to the readers.
Sinar Harian begs to differ when it opened its spaces to both parties to advertise their political campaign. PR who had no access to other mainstream media took the opportunities offered by Sinar Harian. Among the eyecatchy advertisements were “Kita Dahulukan Rakyat
(People First)”, with the picture of smiling PM, Cukai
Mereka Kita Turunkan (Their Taxes will be Decreased) with the man standing near a new car. Since BN already had enough spaces in electronic and press media, they had no excitement to advertise their campaign in

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Barisan Nasional (BN)
Warkah Dari Dato’ Pa (A Letter from Dato’Pa)
Kita Dahulukan Rakyat (People First)
Generasi FELDA Bersyukur (Thankful FELDA Generation)
Mari Pakoh Barisan Nasional (Vote for BN)
Akujanji Kami 5 Tahun Untuk Anda (Our Promises for You in Next 5 Years)

Pakatan Rakyat (PR)
Jom Pakat Balik Mengundi ( Let’s Go Home for Voting)
Surat Untuk Anak Muda dari Rafizi (Letter for Youth by Rafizi)
5 May Bersihkan Undi (5 May is the Day for a Clean Election)
Lebuhraya Rakyat: Dibiayai Kerajaan Kelantan Bersama Rakyat
(People’s Highway: Financed by Government of Kelantan and Its People)
Cukai Mereka Kita Turunkan (We Reduce Their Taxes)
Bukan Anti Melayu, Bukan Anti Islam, Cuma Anti Rasuah
(Not Anti Malay, Not Anti Islam, But Anti Corruption)-Lim Guan Eng
Menjunjung Ketuanan Rakyat (Uphold People’s Supremacy)
Polemik Isu Kalimah Allah oleh Bukan Islam
(Allah: Its Polemics Among non-Muslim)

Fig. 3: Political Advertisements in Sinar Harian (20 April - 5 May 2013)
DISCUSSION

Sinar Harian compared to PR, when only five advertisements were found (Figure 3). PR has fully utilized the openness of Sinar Harian to present themselves as capable future government. The forms of advertisement were appeal letters to the voters, photos, manifestoes in a simpler form, answering the allegations made by the other party and achievements of the government.
Special Guest Columns: There are columns for guests to write their piece of minds. Sinar Harian invited big names such as Tan Sri Abdullah Ahmad, the former Member of
Parliament, Datuk Saifuddin Abdullah, Temerloh Member of Parliament, Karin Raslan, a writer, blogger and lawyer,
Fathul Bari, Ulama’ UMNO, Prof. Dr. Sidek Baba, Dr.
Redhuan Tee Abdullah, Datuk Rejal Arbaee, former editor of NSTP and Dr. Asyraf Wajdi from ISRA’.
Political veteran Abdullah Ahmad wrote on
Wednesday edition, speculated that BN would retain
Putrajaya and wrest Kedah back but hard for Penang and
Selangor. He also deducted there should be no problems for the party stalwarts such as Mohd. Najib Tun Razak,
Muhyiddin Yassin, Abdul Ghani Othman, Muhd. Ali
Rustam, Nik Abdul Aziz and Lim Guan Eng to win.
However, it is unsure for Lim Kit Siang, Hadi Awang, Raja
Nong Chik and Saifuddin Abdullah since their opponents are heavyweights too. Dr. Asyraf Wajdi expressed his dissatisfaction on corruptions that happened openly during elections. A blogger Norden Mohamed asked the readers whether their vote goes to party or candidates.
Ustaz Fathul Bari, supported with Quranic verses, advised the voters to love and respect each other despite political differences. For the record, Ustaz Fathul Bari is the
UMNO candidate for Sanglang, Perlis. He also added that win-lose it the fate from God. Dr. Redhuan Tee agreed that there are problems in BN but that should not be the cause for people to change the government.

This paper attempts to gauge the neutrality of Sinar
Harian in reporting election issues during the campaign period of 13th General Election. Sinar Harian aims to provide news without fear and favour and gives spaces to all parties and candidates to present their manifestoes, ideas and visions. Their efforts were well received by the readers when Sinar Harian Online became the most visited site, leaving other traditional media that go online.
Out of 288 articles, 96 articles can be classified as pro- BN. The articles covered the activities of BN candidates during the campaign such as ceramah, door-to-door visits, nomination day, interviews with the candidates and interviews with the public on the performance of the candidate. These reports were supported with attractive photos and captures. There are
104 articles which were pro-PR, with similar coverage to its
BN counterparts. There were 70 neutral articles which cover interviews with police officers, EC officers, voters’ aspirations and local issues faced by voters. The activities of independent candidates received 18 coverage, mostly on their tactics to fish votes due to their limitations of manpower, machinery, materials and financial. The figures proved that Sinar Harian is unbiased newspaper, as there was no appreciable difference in the number of stories of BN or PR. The headlines of Sinar
Harian were neutral, as they would place the valuable and marketable news on their front-page, regardless of parties.
Conclusions and Recommendations: The calls for free, unbiased and neutral newspaper become louder in this age of open information. Traditional media are obviously supporting the ruling government since the ruling party holds its share. This has forced the editors to write positive reports about the ruling party and they act just

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World Appl. Sci. J., 28 (11): 1481-1487, 2013

like a party organ. Online media filled the gap by providing more reliable, accurate and objective coverage.
They are also fast and cheaper. Sinar Harian answered the call by publishing a neutral report, under the tagline
“Telus dan Tulus”. Following Monti [15] Sinar Harian could be categorized as a neutral newspaper. Fifteen editions of Sinar Harian were taken as a sample. Of 288 articles, 33% covered BN, 36% covered PR, 24% were neutral news and 6% went to independent candidates. It is vitally important that newspaper should be free and less bias. The study on neutrality of Sinar Harian should be extended by comparing its way of reporting with other newspapers. This study took Sinar Harian’s reporting style during election. Future research should focus on its reporting on other issues.

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Mustafa K. Anuar, 2003. The role of Malaysia’s mainstream press in the 1999 General Election in New politics in Malaysia, Francis L.K. and Johan
Saravanamuttu (eds.) Singapore: Institute of
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Lee, T., E. Johnson and Aseem Prakash, 2012.
Media Independence and Trust in NGOs: The Case of
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McMenamin, I., R. Flynn, E. O'Malley, K. Rafter et al.,
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Wang Lay Kim, 2001. Media and Democracy in
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...1. ------------------------------------------------- Determine the main objective of the case study. You may be writing a case study to fulfill an academic requirement or to help solve problems in real-life situations. An academic assignment typically will come with a specific objective and instructions, whereas a professional assignment might require you to define the objective. ------------------------------------------------- Ad 2. ------------------------------------------------- 2 ------------------------------------------------- Select the best approach. * Choose an analytical approach to increase awareness. In the preliminary stages of solving management problems, an analytical case study might best meet the goal of alerting upper management to core facts and issues. An analytical case study primarily focuses on what has occurred and why. * Select a problem-solving approach to pinpoint and solve major issues. If the goal is to make solution recommendations, write a problem-solving case study that clearly outlines problems and solutions. 1. ------------------------------------------------- 3 ------------------------------------------------- Conduct research for your case study. Examine the facts, dynamics, communications and all relevant aspects of the particular situation. Research might involve interviewing people in an organization, reviewing written documents or looking up relevant statistics. Method 2 of 5: Set the Scope for Readers ...

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...Select a case study from the University of Phoenix Material: Young and Middle Adulthood Case Studies located on the student website. Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper describing the influence the experiences have made on the person’s development. Address the following in your paper: Discuss the family, social, and intimate relationships of the person in the case study. Identify any role changes that have occurred. Explain the immediate and future effect of healthy or unhealthy habits practiced by this person. Include at least two peer-reviewed resources. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. University of Phoenix Material Young and Middle Adulthood Case Studies Read the following case studies in order to complete the Week Three Individual Assignment. Case Study 1: Jackson Jackson is a 25-year old male who has recently been admitted to a substance abuse program in Chicago, Illinois. He has been arrested several times for possession of a controlled substance but has not served any time in jail. He grew up in a single-parent household with his mother, Tina. Tina, 45, is employed as a high school teacher; his biological father is not involved in his life. Tina’s boyfriend, Michael, often attempts to serve as a father figure to Jackson. Jackson went to college immediately after high school, focused on a degree in chemistry. In high school, he was a good student who earned A’s and B’s in most courses. After a car accident, a slight head......

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...A Case Study by any Other Name Cathy Foster Liberty University   A Case Study by any other Name Researchers have different methods of observing their subjects. Among the most popular is the case study. Case studies are used a lot in psychology and one of the most famous psychologists that used case studies to detail the private lives of his patients was Sigmund Freud. What is a Case Study? “A case study is an observational method that provides a description of an individual” (Cozby & Bates, 2012). During a case study the individual is usually a person however that’s not always the situation. The case study can also be a setting, which can include a school, business, or neighborhood. A naturalistic observational study can sometimes be called a case study and these two studies can overlap (Cozby & Bates, 2012). Researchers report information from the individual or other situation, which is from a “real-life context and is in a truthful and unbiased manner” (Amerson, 2011). What are some Reasons for Using a Case Study Approach? There are different types of case studies. One reason to use a case study is when a researcher needs to explain the life of an individual. When an important historical figure’s life needs explaining this is called psychobiography (Cozby & Bates, 2012). The case study approach help answer the “how”, “what”, and “why” questions (Crowe, 2011). What are Some Advantages and Disadvantages to the Case Study Approach? Some......

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...The Case Study Approach Linda P. Williams Liberty University Online Author Note Linda P. Williams, Department of Psychology, Liberty University Online Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Linda P. Williams, Department of Psychology, Liberty University Online, 1971 University Blvd, Lynchburg, VA 24515, E-mail: lwilliams91@liberty.edu The Case Study Approach Introduction At some point during the pursuit of a degree psychology, the time comes when a student must learn various research techniques. One of the many approaches is case study, which this paper will focus on. Areas of discussion include reasons for using a case study, advantages/disadvantages to the approach, and ways acquire information to perform a case study. The essence of a case study A case study is used to offer a mental accounting of a person, school, neighborhood, business, or group of individuals over the course of time, way of research. It is sometimes referred to as naturalistic observation, but does not always follow the same protocol. Mental accounting is done by means of observation of various behavior or mind sets operating in their natural environment. This is noteworthy, especially when participants have a distinct disorder worthy of being studied to further the cause of research and development. Depending on the purpose of the investigation, the case study may present the individual’s history, symptoms, characteristic behaviors, reactions to......

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...Tanglewood Case Study 2 Ratings: (0)|Views: 6|Likes: 0 Published by Megan Purdy Tanglewood Case Study 2 See more Tanglewood Case Study 2 Page 1 Tanglewood Case Study 2Megan PurdyHRM 594Keller Graduate School of Managementr! CardenMay 2"# 2$%4 Tanglewood Case Study 2 Page 2 Recru&tment Gu&dePos&t&on' Store Associate Re(orts To' Shift Leader and Department Manager )ual&f&cat&ons' Prefer to have some ac!ground in customer service or retail" no specific list of minimal educational ac!ground re#uired Rele*ant +a,or Mar-et' Pacific $orthwest% ®on and 'ashington T&mel&ne' This is a continuous recruiting effort with no set timeline% however the ideal process from initial contact with the applicant to the final hiring decision would ideally e within a month(s time) .ct&*&t&es to underta-e to source well /ual&f&ed cand&dates' *se of media" such as regional newspaper advertisements" online +o postings on oth pulic wesites as well as the company wesite" !ios!s in the stores" +o services groups and staffing agencies" Staff Mem,ers 0n*ol*ed' ,- -ecruiting Manager" Assistant Store Manager" Department Manager 1udget' .etween /1000 and /000 Tanglewood Case Study 2 Page  n loo!ing to the est targets or applicants for the position of store associate" it would e ideal to recruit individuals with some prior ac!ground" !nowledge or e3perience in the customer service or retail fields) &ne of the ig complaints from our......

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...Case Study Guidelines A case study gives you the opportunity to review Modern Management concepts and apply them to a specific scenario. The analysis should be in summary form and in proper APA format. • With a minimum of 3 full pages and at least 3 academic sources, prepare a summary analysis of the assigned case study. • The first paragraph should identify and summarize the key point(s) or problem(s) presented in the case. • Then type and answer each question posed at the end of the case. • Describe specific principles from the chapter that can be applied to the case study. • Try to relate a personal experience that is pertinent to the case study issues. • You must use at least two additional resources (your text and two others for a total of three) to support your thoughts. Be sure to properly cite your references. • All papers must be submitted as a document through the Assignment Dropbox. Assignments must be prepared in .doc, .docx, or .rtf format. APA Guidelines For the purpose of written case study assignments – all papers must be in proper APA format which includes at least the following: • A properly formatted header on the upper right corner that includes your name and page number. • All papers must be double-spaced, with a Times New Roman, Courier New, or Arial size 12 font. • All paragraphs must be indented 5 spaces. • References must be properly formatted, double-spaced, with the first line of the entry left justified, and following lines of the......

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...Case Study The case study of a 6 year old boy, who brought a gun to school and shot a first grade classmate, then was later found hiding in a corner, has brought multiple psychological issues to the forefront. According to the law a child under the age of 7 is not criminally responsible. The prefrontal cortex of the brain is the area where high-order cognition, planning, goal-directed behavior, impulse control and attention are centered. This portion of the brain is not considered mature until much later in life. The Limbic system of the brain controls and regulates emotion and contains three parts: the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the hypothalamus. According to researchers, the amygdala is the portion of the limbic system that registers emotions, especially fear (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2010, p. 214). According to this fact, high levels of fear and stress negatively affect other areas of the limbic system including the hypothalamus, which is responsible for activating hormones that produce responses from other brain and body parts as well. An overproduction of hormones can cause permanent damage to learning and memory. Perseveration is a tendency to stick to one-thought or action. This, along with impulsiveness is believed to occur in children with still immature prefrontal cortex as well. This is evidenced by temper tantrums, and immature emotional responses to name a few. From a cognitive developmental standpoint, according to Jean Piaget, a 6 year-old is on the...

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...for the achievement of sustained competitive advantage. Your discussion is to be based on three suitable published case studies. This means case studies published in the academic literature – for example, the series of case studies in the textbook or in equivalent textbooks. You may not use Yahoo! as one of the case studies and short articles in newspapers, magazines, website opinion pages and the like are definitely not acceptable, although such materials may be used to supplement the published case study and your analysis. All sources must be properly referenced. If in any doubt about the suitability of a case study, seek an early ruling from your tutor. This is a substantial piece of scholarly work and will require extensive engagement with both unit theory and at least three detailed case studies. Process: 1. Choose your three cases. They all need to be published cases in academic sources (e.g. textbooks, journal articles). It is obviously important that each case represents an instance of a company achieving sustained competitive advantage (check your materials to be clear about what that means). 2. Analyse and locate evidence. Begin to analyse each case in terms of the two questions – particularly question one. It is vital that you respond to both questions, but the evidence for sustained competitive advantage is more likely to be in the case material itself. It is in this part of the process that you might bring in supplemental material from company......

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...Running Head: Case Study 1 Case Study #1 Clinical Psychology: Severe Depression Princess Coles ABS 200 Introductions to Applied Behavioral Sciences Instructor Weniger 08/4/2015 Severe depression is one of the many mental illnesses that affect one out of ten Americans. Severe depression involves, extreme or constant feeling of sadness, loss of interest in activities and even relationships. Those suffering from depression might even struggle with the feeling of worthlessness and repeated thoughts of suicide. Therefore the effects are not only psychological but physical as well. According to Kessler author of Twelve-month and lifetime prevalence and lifetime morbid risk of anxiety and mood disorders in the United States International Journal Of Methods In Psychiatric Research, (3), 169. About 17% of people are likely to experience some kind of depression at some point in their lives. I have chosen this topic of interest because it is important to help those suffering from depression understand that there is help and that with treatment they can lead a more positive way of thinking. Some mental health problems are caused by dysfunctional ‘ways of thinking’-either about self or the world (e.g. in major depression) and many anxiety disorders are characterized by a bias towards processing threatening or anxiety relevant information. Cognitive behavioral therapy is generally perceived as an evidence based and cost effective form of treatment that can...

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...Case Study Complete Case History The patient in this case study reports being ‘sick with flu’ for 8 days. She has been vomiting, and cannot keep any liquids or food down. She also reports that she has been using antacids to help calm the nausea. After fainting at home, she was taken to the local hospital, severely dehydrated. Upon looking at her arterial blood gas result, it would appear that this patient would be suffering from metabolic alkalosis. This patient’s pH is greater than 7.45 (normal: 7.35-7.45) and her bicarbonate (HCO3) is greater than 26 (normal 22-26). Blood gases indicate that case study patient is suffering from hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Focused Assessment The case study patient reports being “sick with flu” for eight days. She reports vomiting several times a day and taking more the recommended dose of antacids. She reports that she fainted today at home and came to the hospital. The case study patient reports that this all started approximately eight days ago. The case study patient also reported taking excess amounts of antacids. Ingesting large amounts of this medication can cause metabolic alkalosis. When antacids are taken in large doses, the ions are unable to bind, and therefor the bicarbonate is reabsorbed and causes alkalosis (Lehne, 2013). Renal and Respiratory systems response Hypochloremic Metabolic alkalosis occurs when there is an acid loss due to prolonged vomiting which causes a decrease in the extracellular...

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...Case studies Name: Tutor: Course: Institution: Date: Flying to the Auto Bailout on a Private Jet Basic problems In this case study, there is wastage of resources. The CEOs of the nation's three largest automobiles uses private jets to attend the corporate public relations congress. This is wastage of resources since they are using private jets to travel when their companies are struggling to stay afloat. Ignorance is another basic problem evident in this case study. These CEOs are very ignorant. They attend the corporate public relation congress in Washington unprepared and thus appear to know nothing about their problems. The three companies, GM, Ford and Chrysler, lack the concepts of public relations. The main issues American economy is melting down. Most of the workers are losing their jobs since the companies cannot handle many workers anymore. The companies have got inadequate cash. Bankruptcy is another main issue experienced in this case study. The General Motors Company and the Chrysler can no longer pay their debts. Key decisions * According to the case study, the leaders have to come up with a new public relations strategy. * The CEOs should correct any mistakes they have made before such as using private jets to travel. * Introduce innovation in products * The auto industry of the US should promote its products. * Ensure transparency in business operations. SWOT analysis Strengths * Availability of resources for the......

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...[pic] OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT MGCR 472 CASE STUDY ASSIGNMENT Due on November 23 in class INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Make sure to write down the name, student # and section # for each student in the group on the cover page of the case study report. 2. This assignment counts for 14% of your final grade. 3. Late submissions and submissions by e-mail will not be accepted. 4. You have to work in this assignment in groups. The number of students that can be in a group is 5. Group members can be from different sections taught by other OM professors. Each group should submit only one case study report. Reports can be submitted to any instructor. 5. Good luck! CASE STUDY REPORT In the Delays at Logan Airport case, there are different proposals for reducing congestion. One of the methods proposed to tackle the impact of delays was peak-period pricing, PPP. The other one was to build a new runway. In this case study, your objective is to evaluate these alternatives using waiting line models and to provide a recommendation to FAA to solve the delay problem at Logan Airport. Make sure you demonstrate that you have thought through your recommendations and the effects on other related activities. Also demonstrate that you understand the concepts and tools from the class that apply. Prepare an action-oriented advisory report, which presents concisely your analysis and recommendations for solution of the primary management problems. In order to assist you in......

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...ASSIGNMENT GUIDANCE – NRSG258 ASSESSMENT 1: CASE STUDY Dear students here are some guidelines to assist you in writing Assessment 1: Case Study. If, after reading through these, you still have questions please post on the relevant forum. If you are still unsure then please contact your campus specific lecturer to arrange to discuss your assignment. We ask that you bring these guidelines to any meeting and highlight the areas about which you are still unsure. In this case study you do not need an introduction or conclusion for this case study of 1500 WORDS ± 10% due by midnight 8th April Turnitin. Just answer the questions. Turnitin is located in your campus specific block. Although we suggest you do your background reading in the current textbooks for basic information, the case study also requires you to find current literature/research/articles to support your discussion throughout the case study. Do NOT use Better Health Channel, WedMed, dictionaries, encyclopaedias etc. These are NOT suitable academic sources. If you use these you will not meet the criteria for this question and you will lose marks. You must follow the APA referencing format as directed by ACU in your case study and in your reference list. The Library website has examples of how to do this referencing and you can find the correct format at the end of your lectures and tutorials as well as in the free Student Study Guide. This essay should have approximately 10 relevant sources.......

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