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Case Project

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Case Project

Case Project
Linux as an operating system is a powerful tool used in businesses for its secure kernel and command line interface. From a small business to a large enterprise, Linux is used to run servers, store vital information and documents. In Outdoor Adventures, this store needs a more efficient computing system. The system will need to keep information available and secure enough to ensure that the information can only be seen by the right people. To help keep things organized, a file structure will also be required to keep all the files with special permissions together for easy access.
To better illustrate the security capabilities of Linux Ed Sawicki of said, “The Linux firewall has functionality that rivals expensive commercial firewalls. Its rules allow fine grained control over stateless and stateful packet filtering. The Linux firewall is extensible, allowing new filtering capabilities as the need arises.” This comparison is powerful when considering what would be the most cost effective direction for a business, but also the safest.
Another advantage of linux is that it is generally free to try before applying it to a commercial setting. The product can in effect speak for its self by allowing itself to be made publicly available so there is no need to consider it a “business risk” when a technician can experiment with it first before applying it on a much grander scale. “Linux…is a freely available multitasking and multiuser operating system. From the outset, Linux was placed under General Public License (GPL). The system can be distributed, used and expanded free of charge.” ( With an edge in security and cost effectiveness, it makes Linux a more attractive prospect for a business owner to consider its application in the workplace.

This structure was created in the command line terminal. On the Desktop there is the directory called “Program Files.” This directory is reserved for the owners of the company and accountants to use. Then within that directory are three more, “Business Reports”, “Data Files”, and “Rich Text Files.” Within the “Data Files” directory are three more directories called, “General Ledger”, “Payable Accounts”, and “Payable Accounts.” The “cd” command was used to navigate through the directories and the “mkdir” command to create the different directories. This is a representation in the GUI desktop for convenience of a visual aid. This is the primary file structure.

In this image above are the command lines used to create a new group especially for the owners of Outdoor Adventures and the Accountants. Next we need to change the permissions of the File system to only be accessible to them.

Here you see that the owner of the file system was given to the user “owners” and the group “Managers.” Now only the users that are a part of the group “Managers” will have access to the files system. The users Jason, User1 and User2 no longer have access to the folder except those prescribed. The group Staff can no longer view the Program Files because they neither own the directory nor have sufficient privileges to view it.

This image is an example of a text editor while in the use of storing customer data. By typing “vi” and the filename in the command prompt this program opens and then your work.

The command “ls” is used to list the contents of the present working directory. Think of it as a road map for the current file the user is accessing. Through “ls” the user can see each directory or program without having to memorize their system’s layout. This command is one of the most used to keep a user’s bearing.

On a directory a mall or large shopping center there is always a big red dot and arrow showing where you currently are with large text “You Are Here.” When navigating the directories of a linux system, the “pwd” command shows which directory the user is viewing exactly.

The command “mkdir” is used to create new folders and directories. Using the syntax: mkdir <newfilename> creates a directory inside the currently viewed directory. In the image above it shows, using the “ls” command, the new directory is placed in the directory that was currently active.

The command “touch” is used to change the timestamp of a particular file. Whether it be the time the file was last accessed or last modified. Also, should the file does not exist the command “touch” can create that file. The month, day and year are modified using the command arguments such as: … atime, mtime, or ctime.

The command “rm” is used to remove certain files from a directory or directories themselves. In the image above there is an example of the command being to remove a directory. “rm” in conjunction with “dir” makes the command to “remove directory.” The syntax being: rmdir <filename>. This command is used to get rid of unwanted or unecessary files.

The command “who” shows which user that a client is logged in as. A variation of the command “who” is “whoami” which shows which user that the client is acting under. This command can be used a reminder which user is being used. Also may prompt for a change of users should a user not meet to permission requirements to perform certain tasks.

The command “ps” is a snapshot of the currently running processes on the system. Much like the Proccesses tab in the task manager of a Windows system, the “ps” command shows the usage and presently running processes. A user can use this tool to discover what applications he left open or what the system is working on.

The “man” command is a reference page specifically dealing with the linux commands. These Manual pages give a description and syntax on how to use the commands. For example : man <linux command> would pull up a page of that command’s arguments. For beginners this command is invaluable in order to quickly look up command functions.

The cat command is considered as one of the most frequently used commands on Linux or UNIX like operating systems.
It can be used for the following purposes under UNIX or Linux: * Display text files on screen. * Copy text files. * Combine text files. * Create new text files.
(Nixcraft, 2010)

The command “grep” is used to search for key words in a particular document. The syntax being: grep <word to search> (Filename). This tool is used for an easy reference or text search to find precisely what the user requires.

The command “su” is used to switch users. In the image above “su” is used to switch from “root” and then back to the user Jason. “su” can be used to act as the root or another administrator without having to log out and manually select a new profile.

Reflection Statement

This project has helped me become more used to navigating around a Linux system. Then using the command line how to set up permissions for certain users and also create a file structure. I learned little tips and tricks on how to use the system more efficiently with some shortcuts to get around. Linux is an important OS to be fluent in for a career in server management and CISCO systems as the command line is bare bones with little to no overhead but enough power to be in complete control of the system and effectively do your job. This project is a good Segway into a deeper understanding of Linux. I understand that this is still just a scratching of the surface of Linux and that these basics open the door to a deeper understanding.


Ed Sawicki (2006, June 6) Windows vs. Linux Security. Retrieved from

Nixcraft (2010, Feb 9) HowTo: Use cat Command In Linux / UNIX. Retrieved from…...

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