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Bonding

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Bonding
Topic 4 IB Chemistry

What is a bond?


A force that holds atoms together and makes them function as a unit Atoms bond to achieve a noble gas electron configuration (8 electrons in the outer level - octet rule)




H and He are notable exceptions - only need 2 electrons (duet rule) The valence electrons (electrons in the outermost energy level) are the ones involved



Ionic Bonds


The electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions (cation = +; anion = -) Results from the transfer of e- from a low electronegative atom (cation, metal) to a high electronegative atom (anion, non-metal) so both achieve complete outer shells (inert gas econfiguration)





Ionic bonds occur if the difference in electronegativities is 1.8 or greater

2.8.1


2.8.7

Chlorine has a stronger attraction for the electrons than sodium; the valence electron moves from sodium to chlorine, resulting in the formation of oppositely charged ions (both atoms achieve a stable electron configuration of the closest noble gas); ions attract to one another

2.8

2.8.8



The charge of an element is determined by its location on the periodic table



Some ions are formed from a group of atoms behaving as a single entity called polyatomic ions; the group has a single charge
Ion NH4+ PO43NO3OHName ammonium phosphate nitrate hydroxide Ion CO32HCO3SO42Name carbonate hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate)

sulfate



Ionic substances must be neutral so the total charge of anions must equal the total charge of cations; the formula of the ionic compound states the ratio that must exist to create this balance The structure that is formed as a result of this attraction of ions is a 3-dimensional crystalline structure known as an ionic lattice (fixed arrangement of ions based on a repeating pattern)




For sodium chloride, each Na+…...

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