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Bluetooth and Infrared Technology

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Bluetooth and Infrared Technology

Technology has grown so much over the years, thinking back to my childhood when I first saw a remote control and was over the moon with excitement. No more getting up to change the channels, that was my first thought. The first time I saw a cell phone, having to hold that big clunky thing up to your ear throughout an entire conversation was a chore. Now when you do any of these things, you see such advancements that come from two of the most popular technologies that have come to be.
Bluetooth and Infrared, both have been around longer than most of us know. During my research for this paper, I learned that Infrared is where we get our remote controls for TV, for which all 80’s children are grateful, we no longer had to come inside to change the channels for our Moms. I have learned where these technologies came from, what they are used for, the people and companies that buy them, and what we can look forward to in the future.
Bluetooth is a wireless technology that allows data to be exchanged over short distances using short wavelength radio transmissions. This technology is built into of plethora of products that allows them to exchange information over a wireless connection, or in basic terms, it allows one device to talk to another without wires. Two devices must be paired together in order to share. Several devices can be connected to a single Bluetooth, such as PDAs, mobile phones, laptops, computers, printers, controllers to game consoles and digital cameras.
Bluetooth transmits data over radio waves, on frequency of 2.45 gigahertz. Bluetooth uses spread spectrum frequency hopping to keep signals from interfering with one another and this becomes very useful when connecting up to the eight device limit.
Infrared is a band of light found on the electromagnetic spectrum. It is found past red on the visual light spectrum, but before microwave and it cannot be seen by human eyes. This technology also allows devices to communicate over short distances through a wireless signal. However, both devices must be in the line of sight. Network adapters are able to transmit and receive data.
Infrared heats objects without warming the air around them, like sunlight. The majority of the rays that come from the sun are infrared rays. Infrared rays are not harmful to skin as are the UV rays, which can cause sunburn or skin cancer. Infrared is measured in wavelengths or microns. Even our bodies emit infrared energy, you can feel it but you can’t see it.
Though Bluetooth and Infrared allow devices to communicate over short distances, there are some differences between them.
Bluetooth uses radio waves and Infrared uses pulses of infrared light, invisible to the naked eye. Both have a short distance limitation, Bluetooth has a greater range of ten meters, compared to Infrared’s maximum five meters, but most times its closer to one.
Infrared has capabilities to move a bit faster with speeds from 115 Kbps to 16 Mbps with Bluetooth 1 Mbps to 3 Mbps, however, both average speeds of 3 Mbps. Infrared requires each device to have a direct line of sight, Bluetooth does not.
Because infrared devices are required to be in the line of sight of one another, they are usually stationary, like in an office. Bluetooth is not required to be in the line of sight because it uses radio waves, not light.
Bluetooth technology was created by engineers at Ericsson in 1994, then, a group of companies got together and established the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) which manages the research and developments for this technology today. It was designed to be an alternative to RS-232 cables and wires for things like headsets. The name “Bluetooth” was the original name for SIG upon its creation and it just stuck.
Infrared was discovered in the early 19th Century by Sir William Herschel. Herschel took the knowledge of Newton’s theory that sunlight could be separated into different sections using a prism and began his own experiment. During this experiment, Herschel tested the colors, violet, blue, green, yellow, orange and red. It was during these tests is where he discovered just beyond the red, prior to the microwaves or radio waves is where the highest temperature was, this is how infrared came to be. This also the definition of the name, Infra means beyond and red is area on the electromagnetic scale where this was found. Beyond red is the meaning of the name. This light is not visible to the human eye, it can only be detected through special cameras.
The Infrared Data Association (IrDA) has two standards, high speed, point-to-point and control for lower speeds. The IrDA protocol has three defined layers of communication. The physical layer is implemented by hardware. Second is the Infrared Link Access Protocol is designed to control the infrared link. And third is the Infrared Link Management Protocol, a multiplexing protocol.
Bluetooth-By creating the SIG, no one company owns the Bluetooth technology and it has over 15,000 members. A2DP is a profile for streaming audio for music and videos. All information from voice calls, medical information, to banking information was said to be secured using Bluetooth. However, it has been found that may not be case. Hacking, listening to phone calls, sending text messages and other security violations have been found. The names for these security threats are “Bluebugging”, “bluejacking” and “carwhisperer”. This technology will be around for the long haul and Manufacturer’s will have to find a way to better secure consumers while using these devices.
There are three different performance levels, slow, medium and fast, supporting data rates from 115 Kbps to 4 Mbps. There are a variety of products that use infrared technology, some that you may not even be aware of. There are many uses for infrared, such as home electronics, remote controls, wireless keyboards, heaters, backyard grills and mice. Also, there are many medical devices that are powered by infrared technology, making it easier to move devices from patient to patient. Additional uses of infrared include, Night Vision, this technology allows police and military to see without being seen because there is no visible light. Thermography, or taking pictures based on the thermal output, Infrared heating is a radiant heat used for things like de-icing airplanes and tracking, for honing devices, people or pets. Also, communications, remote controls, science, Meteorologists use it to monitoring weather, for tracking severe storms using satellites. Astronomists also use it to learn more about space and research planets, like taking pictures on Mars to find other life forms.
There are many companies that are members if the SIG, with products on the market. Many you know, such as Ericsson, Intel, Lenovo, Microsoft, Motorola, Nokia and Toshiba. A company called Sanwa has designed a throat microphone that is used by the military and police, but so far has not caught on in the civilian world. Appearing to be a choker, it lays around your neck and the microphone picks of your voice from your throat.
Bluetooth started for cell phone headsets, now expanding to computers, printers, and other hand held devices. There are many products already on the market, with new products constantly being developed and appearing on store shelves all the time. Bluetooth ear pieces for talking on cell phones, they have been around. Now there are so many products made with this amazing technology, Nike sneakers, iPads, iPhones, iPods, Cell Phones, Tablets, Garmin GPS Watches with touch screens and calendars, Fitness Heart Rate Monitors, other Watches designed to notify you when your phone rings or track your exercise activity. Also, there is medical equipment for monitoring patients. Consumers are in love with the convenience of the wireless products and taking advantage of all things Bluetooth.
Funding for new Bluetooth technology is provided by the SIG, they designate funding for development of new products and oversea these matters. They have created a program to draw in new engineers from around the world that are interested in starting businesses. They have set aside funding for entrepreneurs in third world countries to develop new technology. A company named Kiva has been designated to disperse the funds. The SIG has thousands of members, companies whose products we buy everyday and some you may not have heard of.
Due to funding received, Cardio Infrared Technologies, Inc. is bringing their manufacturing back to the United States, whereas previously, all of their products had been produced in Italy or China. The Federal Government does provide funding for all types of research and development, allocating over $7.3 Billion in 2012. Other agencies, such as NASA, do provide funding for various areas of research.
Though I was unable to find details of specific funding initiatives by the Federal Government, we do know they are invested in technology. The Federal Government must maintain the highest level of security for all of the information pertaining to running our country. It is invested in making sure that the technologies are able to keep the highest level of security information from falling into the wrong hands. The National Science Foundation does have around $6 Billion in funding for technology that was dispersed last year.
Where do we see these and other technologies in 5 or 10 years from now? Every day new gadgets are hitting the market, technology is growing at a rapid rate. That is the reason that every year people get new cell phones, new computers or tablets. As soon as you buy one, learn how to use it, it’s almost obsolete already. The possibilities of the future are endless, while we may be able to predict within a few years, long-term, we really can only guess.
If you had told me when I was growing up that we would have the things we have access to now, I would have said you were crazy. Remote controls will become more sophisticated, controlling multiple devices and having touchpad. Home automation is also becoming more popular, the convenience of controlling appliances and other items in the home by a single remote is extremely appealing. Medical equipment for things like diabetes, being able to let you know if your blood sugar is low. Clothing that could speak to you and monitor your activity or change colors. There will be wireless monitors that will be able to stream presentation from a computer or tablet. Wireless payment options are already available but the technology is greatly improving, security is a major concern.
The future of iPhones could have infrared technology to disable cameras in places where video or picture taking is restricted. The near future could contain thermal imaging applications become standard in all cell phones. Infrared heaters have health benefits and will continue to play a major role in the future.
Both of these technologies will continue to grow and will be an even a larger part of our electronic use than it is already. Items like watches with calendars and touch screen, sneakers that track your steps and have GPS built into them, heart rate monitors and jewelry with the technology built in. Also, all automobiles and homes will come standard with Bluetooth built in, not just for opening garage doors but for taking on the phone.
What if you didn’t have to buy remote controls for separate items, telephones and all of your electronics were combined into one centralized device to control things in your home? There will be more products to combine several products into one. The development of these two technologies will bring us closer to a totally automated world. The best part is the development of new medical uses for all of these new technologies, making devices better and portable. To be able to track medical conditions by transmitting information directly to your Physician to better monitor severe conditions, will be a blessing.
As a child I thought the Jetsons cartoon was outrageous, however, we are not far from that now with the speed of which our technology grows. I know I will be looking forward to one day having my own “Rosie” to keep the house and fix dinner. All the things that we thought were just movies or television creations, will become a part of our normal lives. I am looking forward to seeing what other new items come to be a part of our lives. It’s strange that we feel we can’t live without these items that we didn’t grow up with.
So for now, we will just have to watch, wait, and enjoy these wonderful new tech toys as they come. For those of you who are not tech savvy, you should really begin to learn about some of the items that could make your life easier and more fun.

References:
Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) (N.D.) http://www.bluetooth.org/apps/content/ Wikepedia (2012) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluetooth
Danny Palmer (2012) TechRadar http://www.techradar.com/us/news/phone-and-communications/mobile-phones/what-is-bluetooth-1063913 Mike Sharsky (2010) Bluetooth http://www.bluetooth.com/Pages/fast-facts.aspx
Leslie Sharpo (2009) Dvice http://dvice.com/archives/2009/03/sanwa-throat-mi.php
NSA.gov (N.D.) http://www.nsa.gov/ia/_files/factsheets/I732-016R-07.pdf Bradley Mitchell (2012) Infrared

http://compnetworking.about.com/od/homenetworking/g/bldef_infrared.htm

Tony Dennis (2012) Bluetooth SIG Microfinancing Initiative Gets

Extended, GoMo News

http://www.gomonews.com/bluetooth-sig-microfinancing-initiative-gets-extended/

Sudhakar Kuruvada (2011) What is the difference between

Bluetooth and Infrared Technology?

http://in.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20111202210638AApMQmY

References Cont’d:

The History of Infrared & Infrared Technology (N.D.)

http://www.biosmartsolutions.com/heaters/portable/history-infrared-infrared-technology

Cameron Laird (2012) the Future of Bluetooth: What It Can and

Can’t Do http://h30565.www3.hp.com/t5/Feature-Articles/The-Future-of-Bluetooth-What-It-Can-and-Can-t-Do/ba-p/1296

Guest Author (2011) The Future of iPhones to use Infrared

Technology

http://www.idownloadblog.com/2011/06/02/iphone-infrared-camera/

Alek Kacik (2012) FLIR Sees Bright Future in Infrared Technology

http://www.noozhawk.com/article/071812_flir_sees_bright_future_infrared_technology/

Naima Manal (N.D.) How is Infrared Used?

http://www.ehow.com/how-does_4912552_how-infrared-used.html

P. Megowan, D. Suvak, C. Knutson (N.D.) IrDA Infrared

Communications An Overview http://dogbert.mse.cs.cmu.edu/charlatans/References/Overview.pdf W. Bailey, (2011) Cardio Infrared Secures Funding for US
Manufacturing Launch http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CFgQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.reuters.com%2Farticle%2F2011%2F07%2F27%2FidUS274771%2B27-Jul-2011%2BMW20110727&ei=0NPQUK-2AYra0QG9-oHYBg&usg=AFQjCNF3QeZzMMnNYpc0nX6wXyunx4jsuw&bvm=bv.1355534169,d.dmQ
C. Franklin, J. Layton (N.D.) How Bluetooth Operates
http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/bluetooth4.htm…...

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...Bluetooth 4th communication Presented to: Ahmed Shalash Name: Mina Samir Ibrahim Sec.: 4 BN: 11 Table of Content Introduction 2 What is Bluetooth technology? 3 Bluetooth technology differs from other radio technologies: 3 Bluetooth Architecture: 4 1. Piconet 4 2. Scatternet 5 Bluetooth Frame Format: 6 Bluetooth Security 7 List of applications 8 Introduction The aim of this report is to explain the Bluetooth technology. Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices and building personal area networks (PANs). Invented by telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994[1] .it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization. Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), which has more than 25,000 member companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumer electronics. The IEEE standardized Bluetooth as IEEE 802.15.1, but no longer maintains the standard. The Bluetooth SIG oversees development of the specification, manages the qualification program, and protects the trademarks. A manufacturer must make a device meet Bluetooth SIG standards to market it as a Bluetooth device. Network of patents apply to the technology, which are licensed to individual qualifying devices. The name "Bluetooth" comes from the 10th century Danish King Harald......

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Blue Eye Technology

...SEMINAR REPORT ON BLUE EYES TECHNOLOGY Submitted by BINYAMIN M In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of B-TECH DEGRE in COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING COCHIN UNIVERSIY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY KOCHI-682022 JULY 2010 Division of Computer Engineering School of Engineering Cochin University of Science & Technology Kochi-682022 _________________________________________________________ CERTIFICATE Certified that this is a bona fide record of the Seminar work entitled BLUE EYES TECHNOLOGY Done by BINYAMIN M of VII semester Computer Science & Engineering in the year 2010 in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Computer Science & Engineering of Cochin University of Science & Technology Dr. David Peter S Head of the Division REVATHY .R. Seminar Guide BLUE EYES TECHNOLOGY ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I express my sincere thanks to Dr. David Peter (Head of the Department, Computer Science and Engineering), Mr. Sudeep P.Elayidom (Staff incharge) and my seminar guide Miss Revathy R. for their kind co-operation for presenting the seminar. I also extend my sincere thanks to all other members of the faculty of Computer Science and Engineering Department and my friends for their cooperation and encouragement. BINYAMIN M DIVISON OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING BLUE EYES TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACT Is it possible to create a......

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