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Biology and Behavior Worksheet

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Biology and Behavior Worksheet

Respond to the following questions in 150-200 words each.

1. Select a hormone and describe how it affects the mind and body. Describe a situation where you experienced this effect.

One hormone that affects the body and mind is serotonin. Serotonin is responsible for our mood and memory. It can affect many different functions of the body from the way that we feel all the way down to our directional tract. High levels of serotonin can cause a cheerful disposition and help with dealing with everyday stress. Unbalanced levels of serotonin can lead to mental disorders like depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders. I experience the affects of serotonin on daily basis. When working out and exercising, our bodies produce endorphins and serotonin which can improve our mood. Whenever I feel sad or depressed, I force myself to get out and do some sort of physical activity and I find that afterwards I always feel better and I am in a better mood. I may not be completely happy after exercising, but there is always a boost in my confidence and mood.

2. Select an action you perform on a daily basis. Outline which parts of the nervous system are involved and how they work together to perform this action.

Each morning I wake up to the sound of my alarm clock going off. The sound waves from the alarm clock stimulate the specialized sensory cells in my ear, which is then transformed into neural signals that are sent to my brain telling me that there is a sound that I need to react to. The hypothalamus will than send neurotransmitters out as arousal signals to the cerebral cortex. Also, hormones such as adrenocorticotropic are released from the pituitary gland and cortisol from the adrenal gland are released sending a message to my brain that it is time to turn off the alarm clock and wake up.

3. Select a personal experience regarding vision and hearing. For example, you are at a baseball game, see a batter swing, and hear the sound of the ball being hit; or you attend a concert where you see and hear a band perform music. Describe the process your sensory systems go through to interpret this experience.

When you see something, light waves bounce off an object and enter your eye through the cornea, pupil and lens. The cornea and lens focus the light waves towards the retina, which bends the light and projects an inverted image. The light than strikes the retina, exciting photoreceptors. Then, the rods and cones fire which activate bipolar cells in the retina. This activates the ganglion cells, which form the optic nerve that carry the message to the brain. When we hear something, the pinna funnels the sound waves into the auditory canal, which focuses them toward the eardrum. Vibrations in the eardrum active the hammer to push the anvil, which pushes the stirrup, which amplifies the waves. The waves put pressure on the oval window, which causes fluid in the cochlea to vibrate. The vibrating fluid in the cochlea bends hair cells triggering the auditory nerve. This nerve than carries the signal to the auditory cortex in the brain.…...

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