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BIOLOGY 311CStudy Guide for Exam #3
Cell communication/signal transduction:
What is a signal transduction pathway?
Give an example of a signal transduction pathway in unicellular organisms. In plants and animals (multicellular) describe how direct cytoplasmic connections and cell-cell recognition occur between neighboring cells.
Distinguish paracrine from endocrine signaling.
Define ligand.
Be prepared to describe G-protein coupled receptors and G-protein signaling in some detail. Know general features or receptor tyrosine kinases and ion gated channel proteins.
How do steroid hormones cause changes in target cells? What is a transcription factor?What is a phosphorylation cascade?
Know the function of kinases and phosphatases.What is a second messenger?
Know the role of cAMP in signaling. What is protein kinase A?
Relate each of these to G-proteins.
What are the advantages of a multi-step transduction pathway?
What is apoptosis? When is apoptosis used?

Cell cycle/mitosis:
Define genome, chromosome, chromatin, somatic cell and gamete.
If shown a diagram of a replicated chromosome (with 2 sister chromatids), be sure you can identify and describe the function of the centromere, kinetochore, and chromatid.
Draw the cell cycle identifying interphase, mitosis, G1, S, G2 and cytokinesis. Be sure you know the order and what the cell is doing in these phases.
Be prepared to step through the events of mitosis. What are the stages? Describe the role of the spindle, asters, centrosomes, and microtubules during mitosis. How is cytokinesis different in animals and plants?What is binary fission and in what organisms does it occur?
How does binary fission differ from mitosis?
How is the cell cycle regulated? Know the role of cyclins and cdks using MPF as an example.
Know the role of checkpoints.
How are growth factors involved?
Describe some characteristics of normal cells that change when they become cancer cells.

Meiosis:
Define a gene.
What are homologous chromosomes?
What is a karyotype?
Distinguish between autosomes and sex chromosomes. Distinguish between diploid and haploid.
What is a zygote?
Define meiosis and fertilization.
What are the three main types of sexual life cycles and how do they differ?
Describe the events of meiosis. What are the key steps?
What is the overall purpose of Meiosis I? Meiosis II?
What is crossing over and when does it occur?
Be able to compare and contrast meiosis to mitosis.
How is genetic variation generated?
Give a description of variation due to independent assortment, crossing over, and random fertilization.
DNA structure/replication:
What experiments proved that DNA is the genetic material?
What are Chargaff’s rules?
Know the general characteristics of DNA (antiparallel double helix with each nucleotide base paired to its complementary partner).
Know the complementary base pairs and the number of H-bonds involved in each pairing.
How does DNA structure lead to a replication mechanism? What is meant by semi-conservative replication?
What is an origin of replication? What is a replication fork? Know the roles of helicase, single stranded binding protein, topoisomerase, primase, DNA polymerase, and ligase.
Know the difference between leading strand and lagging strand synthesis. What are Okasaki fragments? Be prepared to draw a replication fork with all of these components.
What are the roles of proofreading, mismatch repair and nucleotide excision repair?
What is a telomere and what is its purpose?
Describe how eukaryotic DNA is organized into chromatin.
Be sure you know the role of histones and nucleosomes. Know the difference between euchromatin and heterochromatin, both structurally and functionally.…...

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