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Ataturk

In: Business and Management

Submitted By ahmetyildirim
Words 1356
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Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (May 19, 1881 – November 10, 1938) was an army officer, revolutionary statesman, and founder of the Republic of Turkey as well as its first President. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was born in the Ottoman city of Salonika in the spring of 1881.He graduated from the War Academy on January 11, 1905.Mustafa Kemal established himself as an intelligent and extremely capable military commander while serving as a division commander at the Battle of Gallipoli. He later fought with distinction on the eastern Anatolian and Palestinian fronts, making a name for himself during World War I. Mustafa Kemal led the Turkish national movement in what would become the Turkish War of Independence. Having established a provisional government in Ankara, he defeated the forces sent by the Entente powers. His successful military campaigns led to the liberation of the country and to the establishment of the Republic of Turkey.
The purpose of this paper is to examine to extent to which Mustafa Kemal was an effective military leader.

Leadership behavior; The study of the actions, or behaviors, that define a leader is known as behavioral leadership. First developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in 1964, this theoretical approach to understanding leaders creates categories of styles, which are aligned with the actions the leader may take, or the methods they use to reach their goals.
In the following paragraphs, I will give a example of Mustafa Kemal’s leadership behavior.
Mustafa Kemal knew the psychology of the Turk, and the dogged fanatical fighting spirit of which he was capable once he had faith in his leaders and his blood was roused. Mustafa Kemal knew how to arouse Turk’s blood. This is how Mustafa Kemal and the Turkish soldiers saved the Gallipoli.

Leadership traits; is defined as integrated patterns of personal characteristics that reflect a range of individual differences and foster consistent leader effectiveness across a variety of group and organizational situations (Zaccaro, Kemp, & Bader, 2004). The theory of trait leadership developed from early leadership research which focused primarily on finding a group of heritable attributes that differentiated leaders from nonleaders. Leader effectiveness refers to the amount of influence a leader has on individual or group performance, followers’ satisfaction, and overall effectiveness (Derue, Nahrgang, Wellman, & Humphrey, 2011).

Second, Mustafa Kemal’s leadership traits;
Vison: Mustafa Kemal had a clear vision. His vision was to change the Ottoman Turkey, which was seen as the ‘sick man of Europe’ at the time, to a sovereign, democratic, self-reliant, secular and a modern Turkish State. This vision was a call for a total revolution encompassing political, social, and technological changes. Mustafa Kemal knew that war of independence was the first step towards the achievement of this vision.
Courage: Mustafa Kemal’s courage in the battlefield is renowned. Gawrych refers to the following incident during the Dardanelles Campaign. ‘Mustafa Kemal, when commanding the 19th Infantry Division, moved his division to Conkbayiri without awaiting approval from higher headquarters, in anticipation of the main attack occurring in that area. Yet, success resulted from this bold and very risky move, but not without Mustafa Kemal inserting himself into the battle to rally his men, who had lost courage, with the words: “There is no flight from the enemy. There is only fighting with the enemy. If you have no ammunition, then you still have your bayonets.” Such courageous words sparked his troops into regaining their confidence and holding to their position under attack’
Rhetorical skills; Although silent and of a reserved disposition in private, Mustafa Kemal was an eloquent and fluent public speaker. Throughout his nation-building journey, he articulated his vision and his strategy to his supporters with clarity and passion. He also had the gift of being able to tailor his messages to the situation and the audiences. He used this ability to inspire his troops in the battlefield to fight the enemy at all costs.

Adaptive and Innovative Thinking; is defined in order to explain cognitive tendencies and problem – solving styles. Adaptors desire to do things better; innovators seek to do things differently.

In this paragraph is about Mustafa Kemal’s innovation and how to adopted to followers.

Gender equality and ubiquitous public education are the remaining two cornerstones of Atatürk’s visionary reforms. In 1934, he granted full political rights to women, ahead of some European nations. Equal marriage rights for women were included in the Turkish civil code of 1926. Atatürk believed, arguably ahead of his time, that no nation could advance without half its population, and therefore disenfranchisement of women must be a thing of the past for Turkey.[vi] This belief formed a part of education reform as well, as seen in the introduction of mixed-sex education at Istanbul University in 1933. Atatürk ordered modernization in the allocation of education to all children, including measures to increase financial aid, unification of education under a state system, and the remaking of the Turkish alphabet. The central goal of these reforms was to alleviate poverty through literacy, and prepare those in schools for positive contribution toward public life and a civil community.[vii]
The revolution survived challenges early on, from attacking Greeks and death sentences from the Ottoman government on Atatürk himself. Considering this, it is almost shocking how swift and sweeping were the blue-eyed Turkish leader’s reforms. A main concern was creating a nation based on law and equality, and not religion: Islamic sharia law is abolished in 1924, traditional clothing was ordered abandoned in 1925, and Atatürk declared Turkey to be a secular state in 1928.[iv] As President of the new republic, Atatürk also focused reforms on government itself, instituting Western-style democratic systems like a parliament, a modern bureaucracy — in short, a government responsible to its people, and not the other way around.[v]
Gender equality and ubiquitous public education are the remaining two cornerstones of Atatürk’s visionary reforms. In 1934, he granted full political rights to women, ahead of some European nations. Equal marriage rights for women were included in the Turkish civil code of 1926. Atatürk believed, arguably ahead of his time, that no nation could advance without half its population, and therefore disenfranchisement of women must be a thing of the past for Turkey.[vi] This belief formed a part of education reform as well, as seen in the introduction of mixed-sex education at Istanbul University in 1933. Atatürk ordered modernization in the allocation of education to all children, including measures to increase financial aid, unification of education under a state system, and the remaking of the Turkish alphabet. The central goal of these reforms was to alleviate poverty through literacy, and prepare those in schools for positive contribution toward public life and a civil community.[vii]
All these accomplishments point to the powerful leadership qualities of modern Turkey’s founding father. Also worth noting is his apparent belief in learning as a lifelong process of personal growth. Kemalist reforms drew from study of several other systems, including British, Italian, American, and Swiss ideas. Atatürk himself lived his life as somewhat of a role model for the modern, cosmopolitan ideals he advocated. He adopted twelve daughters and a son after his divorce to Latife Uşaklıgil in 1925, and in his leisure time kept up a diverse rotation of interests, including writing, reading, horseback riding, chess, swimming, and dancing of all forms.[viii]

In conclusion, I think Mustafa Kemal Atatürk is the one of the global Leader because he embodies qualities of both “Leader” and “Manager,” He displayed leadership qualities in his vision, innovation, and popular appeal; he displayed management qualities in the effective institution of these reforms. His Kemalist theory was based in realism, technology, equal civil rights and, when possible, peace. Because of his lifelong quest for the modernization of Turkey, the nation is now a growing power and occupies an unique place on the world stage: culturally Islamic in many ways, yet politically secular and modern. While Turkey’s current domestic status is by no means perfect, and though Atatürk himself did not please everyone with his leadership style, his contributions remain among the most outstanding of the 21st Century.…...

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