Free Essay

Artificial Sweetener

In: English and Literature

Submitted By krapeykecarg
Words 690
Pages 3
Grace Jung Component 1 English 240 September 10, 2015 Component 3 Research Question: Are artificial sweeteners a safe alternative to sugar? Can they help people lose weight, or can they actually have the opposite affect? Working Thesis Statement: Americans should eliminate the regular consumption of artificial sweeteners because it could have a reverse effect on losing weight and can lead to chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Working Bibliography: Azgad, Y. (2014, September 14). Gut bacteria, artificial sweeteners and glucose intolerance. Retrieved from http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-09/wios-gba091514.php Brookshire, B. (2014, October 1). The sour side of artificial sweeteners. Retrieved from http:// www.sciencenews.org/blog/scicurious/sour-side-artificial-sweeteners Brown, R., Banate, M., & Rother, K. (2010, October 8). Artificial Sweeteners: A systematic review of metabolic effects in youth. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/ articles/PMC2951976/ Conti, L. (2008, May 22). Artificial Sweeteners May Contribute to Metabolic Disorders. Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/artificial-sweeteners-confound-the-brain/

De Chant, T. (2014, September 18). Artificial Sweeteners Don't Mix Well with Our Microbiomes. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/next/body/artificial-sweeteners-dont-mix- well-microbiomes/ D M Briggs, A. (2013, October 31). Overall and income specific effect on prevalence of overweight and obesity of 20% sugar sweetened drink tax in UK: Econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study. Retrieved from http://www.bmj.com/content/ 347/bmj.f6189 Dollemore, D. (2015, March 23). Popular artificial sweetener could lead to new treatments for aggressive cancers. Retrieved from http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-03/acs- pas021915.php Ehrenberg, R. (2014, September 17). Artificial sweeteners may tip scales toward metabolic problems. Retrieved from http://www.sciencenews.org/article/artificial-sweeteners-may- tip-scales-toward-metabolic-problems Ehrenberg, R. (2014, December 14). Year in review: Gut reacts to artificial sweeteners. Retrieved from http://www.sciencenews.org/article/year-review-gut-reacts-artificial- sweeteners Ferro, S. (2013, June 18). Common Sweetener Could Help Treat Parkinson's Disease. Retrieved from http://www.popsci.com/science/article/2013-06/artificial-sweetener-could- help-treat-parkinsons-disease Gertz, E. (2014, September 18). Artificial Sweeteners May Contribute to Metabolic Disorders. Retrieved from http://www.popsci.com/article/science/artificial-sweeteners-may-contribute- metabolic-disorders Hicks, J. (n.d.). Sweet as Saccharin | Chemical Heritage Foundation. Retrieved from http:// www.chemheritage.org/discover/online-resources/thanks-to-chemistry/tcc- food_saccharin.aspx Imamura, F. (2015, July 21). Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: Systematic review, meta- analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction. Retrieved from http:// www.bmj.com/content/351/bmj.h3576 Kakutani, M. (2006, April 3). Problems That Come In Little Packets. Retrieved from http:// www.nytimes.com/2006/04/04/books/04kaku.html?_r=3&sq=%22sweet%20and%20low %20a%20family%20story%22&st=cse&adxnnl=1&scp=3&adxnnlx=1239327453- AedjQA9mj5EkzufM9VDLPg& Ruppel Shell, E. (2015, May 15). Artificial Sweeteners May Change Our Gut Bacteria in Dangerous Ways. Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/artificial- sweeteners-may-change-our-gut-bacteria-in-dangerous-ways/ Stein, L. (2014, February 11). Just Desserts: Artificial Sweeteners Linked to Weight Gain. Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/artificial-sweetener-linked-weight- gain/ Tandel, K. (2011, October 1). Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3198517/ Te Morenga, L. (2013, January 15). Dietary sugars and body weight: Systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. Retrieved from http:// www.bmj.com/content/346/bmj.e7492 Thomson, H. (2014, September 14). Artificial sweeteners linked to glucose intolerance. Retrieved from http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22329872-600-artificial- sweeteners-linked-to-glucose-intolerance/ Weihrauch, M. (2003, June 12). Annals of Oncology. Retrieved from http:// annonc.oxfordjournals.org/content/15/10/1460.full.pdf+html Yang, Q. (2010, June 1). Gain weight by “going diet?” Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/ articles/PMC2892765/…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Artificial Intelligence

...Artificial Intelligence   Artificial intelligence is an advanced branch of science which enables digital computers to perform complex tasks that are usually associated with requiring human intelligence. These tasks can vary from game playing to robotics. The best way to describe A.I is by comparing it to a human brain, digital computers consist of a network of switches and computers make decisions by using on/off switches. The basic element of the brain, the neuron also uses two state operations. This means that the human thought process can be linked to transistors within a computer. One definition of Artificial intelligence is “The science of making machines do things that require intelligence if done by men” (Marvin Minskey). The important word in this definition is INTELLIGENCE as there can be different perceptions of intelligence such as the ability to learn and acquire knowledge or just plain common sense. Some other researchers believe that A.I is just the duplication of human thought without any intelligence.  Artificial intelligence is different from normal programming by the way it solves a problem. A normal programming language such as BASIC must use a step by step method to solve a problem. This normally means that you will have to flow chart the solution then translate it into the BASIC programming language that carries out the solution. This step by step programming is called algorithmic programming. An algorithm is a well defined set of rules to solve a......

Words: 969 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Artificial Intelligence

...Artificial Intelligence in the military is good for the future because it will allow us to better protect our citizens with a multitude of advances that will help us decipher many situations more effectively and efficiently on the battlefield. Artificial Intelligence will gives the military an opportunity to be a step ahead of its enemies at all times, which allow them to most often diffuse many situations with very minimal casualties. “ Today, the military primarily uses AI to process large amounts of information, including videos, signals and intelligence that must be deciphered and analyzed quickly. As developments in AI continue, these tasks may seem almost menial. “A robot would be able to recognize, from the activities its video cameras capture, what the people it’s observing are doing,” explains Dr. Raymond Perrault, director, Artificial Intelligence Center, SRI. “It can tell you that someone is walking through the door, or that two people have met and exchanged a package or that a person is digging a hole by the side of the road.” A robot like this with sensors could decide what information is pertinent and report the data to a group of warfighters. These intelligence systems can perceive their environment and adjust. “They manage to do [their mission] while the world changes around them,” Perrault says. To accomplish this task, they organize ideas utilizing mathematical logic. Using sensory data, the programs prove simple theorems by plugging the data into the......

Words: 564 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Stevia Sweetener

...Stevia Stevia is an herb found in South America (specifically Paraguay) that has been used as a natural sweetener for at least 1500 years. The leaves of the stevia rebaudiana plant have zero calories, carbs and a zero glycemic index. It is also about 30 times sweeter than table sugar. Studies have shown that these leaves also contain other nutrients such as protein, fiber, carbs, iron, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, vitamins A and C, and other oils as well. The sweet glycosides in the leaves do not break down in heat, which makes this a desirable sweetener to use in cooking/baking. Stevia has been around for many years, and is probably one of the safest sweeteners on the market. Since it boasts a zero glycemic index, it is safe for even diabetics and hypoglycemic to ingest. People with weight problems, blood pressure or blood sugar problems can generally use this sweetener without any problem. Since our body cannot metabolize the sweet glycosides from the leaves, no calories are absorbed from the sweetener. Research shows that Stevia can help to regulate and balance blood sugar. Other studies have shown that Stevia can help to lower blood pressure, without affecting normal blood pressure. It also can prevent growth/reproduction of certain bad bacteria that can cause cavities and gum disease. People have reported significant oral health improvement when adding Stevia concentrate to their toothpaste or using it as a mouthwash when diluted with...

Words: 371 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Artificial Intelligence

...Of all the technological developments of the modern age, none is as complex as artificial intelligence. The idea that a non-human, manufactured entity could advance to a point of emulating human behavior is enough to make people shiver. The idea of something so advanced that we will not be able to tell the difference may be even worse. In 1961 Philip Dick wrote Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?. It portrayed a world with these exact characteristics. Artificial Intelligence had advanced to a point of near-perfect human replication. In creating this world, Dick was echoing the speculations and fears of a.i. that had build up by that time. It would then continue to influence those opinions in the years after. It is necessary to look at the development of artificial intelligence in order to put this idea into context. The concept of intelligent and aware constructs began to emerge in the 1950s and 60s as several scientists in many fields came together to discuss the possibilities of advanced computer research. The first major step was a scientific conference at Dartmouth College in 1956. Here, the general concepts and possible paths of research for a.i. were fleshed out. As described in Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, this conference was “the birth of artificial intelligence.” This was mostly a theoretical stage yet attending experts predicted that with a huge investment, working technology could be available in a generation (16). After being officially......

Words: 1922 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Artificial Sweetner

...Ira Remsen discovered the artificial sweetener, saccharin. He tasted something sweet while eating rolls at dinner and realized it came from the coal tar he was working with earlier in his lab. Remsen did not get credit for discovering the artificial sweetener, Constantin Fahlberg did by patenting it. Artificial sweeteners such as, saccharin, is supposed to be a substitute for sugar. It has fewer calories than sugar. With it having fewer calories than naturally, it will help a person dieting with weight loss. Psychologists at Perdue University experimenting with rats showed the opposite effect. Artificial sweeteners may lead to weight gain instead of weight loss. Before the psychologists conducted the research, consumption data for soft drinks and data on the rise of obesity showed the consumption of artificial sweeteners and weight gain in the United States increased at the same time. Therefore, further research needed to be done to conclude which came first, artificial sweeteners or obesity. Terry Davidson and Susan Swithers conducted the animal model. One group of rats were fed yogurt sweetened with sugar and another group of rats were fed yogurt sweetened with the artificial sweetener, saccharin. Both groups of rats were also fed chocolate Ensure before each yogurt meal. The results showed the rats that ate the yogurt containing saccharin gained more weight than the other rats. One reason for this is the rats eating the yogurt containing saccharin ate more chow. The rats......

Words: 347 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Artificial Moon

...topic to research. I am fascinated with the celestial bodies that encompass our solar system. The Moon, being such an influential entity on our planet, has also one of the most mysterious findings our scientists have discovered. The Artificial Moon Justin Jones EN1320 Andrew A Bowen Abstract This paper analyzes several works on the Moon and its characteristics and geological features. The Moon is the largest satellite of a planet in the Solar System relative to the size of its primary, having 27% the diameter and 60% the density of the Earth, resulting in 1/81 its mass. The Moon is a paradoxical celestial body, raising questions about its composition and origin. Isaac Asimov wrote, there is no astronomical reason why the moon and the sun should fit so well. It is the sheerest of coincidences, and only the Earth among all the planets is ‘blessed’ in this fashion” (Samone 2012). Nobel chemist Dr. Harold Urey suggested the moon’s reduced density is because of large areas inside the moon where is “simply a cavity” (Regehr 1995). Carl Sagan also writes, “A natural satellite cannot be a hollow object” (Sagan 1999; Shklovskii 1999). Accompanied by the information that is available and reviewed one can affirm the moon is an artificial planetoid. Moon Origins The origin of the Moon has many theories, which are popularized but not confirmed by scientists today. The Fission Theory: proposes the Moon was once part of the Earth and somehow separated from the Earth early......

Words: 1982 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Artificial Intelligence

...Faith Brown September 9, 2014 Artificial Intelligence is something that has been around for quite some time. It is simply the science of making machine imitate human thinking and behavior. There are many types of businesses and organizations that use artificial intelligence. Many of them are government organizations but are not limited to hospitals and local businesses. Artificial intelligence can be used for the simplest of things like counting inventory or to the more complex of things such as reading electrocardiograms. With artificial intelligence, we have been able to reduce the time that it takes an actual human to do something. These systems are in place so that we spend more time on the more critical things. There are four types of artificial intelligence. The four types are expert systems, neural networks (and fuzzy logic), genetic algorithms, and agent-based technologies. All of the these systems have their benefits as well as their not so good features. For starters, we will examine expert systems. Expert systems, which is also referred to as knowledge-based systems, is an artificial intelligence system that applies reasoning capabilities to reach a conclusion. These systems are used for diagnosing problems. They also help with coming up with a solution to the problem. These systems are built for a specific domain that they will be ran on. The knowledge base for these systems contain both factual and heuristic knowledge. This means that the factual information......

Words: 1325 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

The Potential Dangers of Using Artificial Sweetener

...the ingredient before they buy products and they usually choose artificial sweeteners over natural sugar. They think artificial sweeteners will not add extra calories to the body and help them to control their weight. However, many health experts doubt the safety of artificial sweeteners after doing research about it. They have discovered several dangerous elements in artificial sweeteners. This paper reports the types of common artificial sweeteners, the reason why they are harmful, their bad influences on the body, and why they are not helpful to control our weight. The first artificial sweetener, saccharin, was discovered in 1879 in America. In the beginning, artificial sweetener was only used by diabetics who couldn’t absorb too much natural sugar (de la Pena, 2010). Since 1980, people have started to use chemical sweeteners to control their weight and improve their health. Suddenly, artificial sweetener products became very popular in the United States (de la Pena, 2010). Millions of Americans use chemical sweeteners instead of natural sugar in order to enhance their health. However, it does not mean that chemical sweeteners are health foods. Actually, they are not. They are not like vitamins, whole grains, or proteins that can contribute to our health (de la Pena, 2010). In fact, investigators found many potential dangers of using artificial sweetener. Sucralose is one kind of chemical sweetener that is used most extensively in the marketing of......

Words: 1235 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Truth About Sweeteners

...11, 2013 The Truth about Sweeteners When you go to the store do you ever notice that all of these sweet foods and drinks are claiming to have no sugar and zero calories? And if all these foods and drinks are claiming to have no sugar in them, then why are our obesity numbers in this country continuing to rise? The American Heart Association says in their 2013 Statistical Fact Sheet that 23.9 million children ranging the ages of 2 to 19 are either overweight or obese, 154.7 million adults (ages 20+) are overweight or obese. (American Heart Association) Everybody knows that if you eat too much sugar or too many processed foods and don’t get enough exercise the result is weight gain. But in a society that is next to obsessed with weight loss and trying to find the quickest way to get rid of the weight and to keep it off without truly changing the look or taste of the food we have had to become creative with what we are now including in food. For a food to be sweet but not contain any sugar or calories, it needs to contain a type of sweetener, typically an artificial sweetener or a sugar substitute. There are many sugar substitutes on the market right now, and even though they help lower the amount of calories and eliminate the sugar, those sweeteners will actually have a negative effect on your body and your children’s body so much so that you’re better off consuming the calories and sugar by using either the real thing or a natural sweetener. Sweeteners are in almost every......

Words: 664 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Truth About Sweeteners

...11, 2013 The Truth about Sweeteners When you go to the store do you ever notice that all of these sweet foods and drinks are claiming to have no sugar and zero calories? And if all these foods and drinks are claiming to have no sugar in them, then why are our obesity numbers in this country continuing to rise? The American Heart Association says in their 2013 Statistical Fact Sheet that 23.9 million children ranging the ages of 2 to 19 are either overweight or obese, 154.7 million adults (ages 20+) are overweight or obese. (American Heart Association) Everybody knows that if you eat too much sugar or too many processed foods and don’t get enough exercise the result is weight gain. But in a society that is next to obsessed with weight loss and trying to find the quickest way to get rid of the weight and to keep it off without truly changing the look or taste of the food we have had to become creative with what we are now including in food. For a food to be sweet but not contain any sugar or calories, it needs to contain a type of sweetener, typically an artificial sweetener or a sugar substitute. There are many sugar substitutes on the market right now, and even though they help lower the amount of calories and eliminate the sugar, those sweeteners will actually have a negative effect on your body and your children’s body so much so that you’re better off consuming the calories and sugar by using either the real thing or a natural sweetener. Sweeteners are in almost every......

Words: 664 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Artificial Intelligence

...Artificial Intelligence: Past, Present and Future Alana Boggan INF 103 Sabahudin Tricic July 25, 2011 Abstract Technology, over time, has become more advanced. As technology has risen, so has man’s curiosity for advancement of what technology can do for mankind. In this exploration, artificial intelligence was created. In researching and exploring the past of artificial intelligence, mankind can make assumptions about the advances in the future. The past, with curiosity of humans, has lent itself to the artificial intelligence we have today and the endless possibilities for artificial intelligence in the future. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is becoming a constant part of life as technology advances. Webster defines artificial intelligence as “the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it” (Wikipedia, 2010). When assessing AI, one must look at the past and present. Acquiring knowledge about the past and present of AI, the future of this ever-changing field of science allows thoughts of endless possibilities and unimaginable devices of the future; therefore, by studying and researching the advancement of this field from its past to its present, predictions for this field can be made. Method I researched information on the past, present, and future for the field of Artificial Intelligence. In researching the past of the scientific and computer field of artificial......

Words: 1718 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Artificial Intelligence

...1.INTRODUCTION: Artificial Intelligence is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. It includes people,procedure,hardware,software,data and knowledge needed to develop computer systems and machines that demonstrated characteristics of intelligence.It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable. Intelligence is basically the computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world. Varying kinds and degrees of intelligence occur in people, many animals and some machines.There is no solid definition of intelligence relating it to human intelligence. The problem is that it cannot yet be characterize in general what kinds of computational procedures can be called intelligent. We understand some of the mechanisms of intelligence and not others. Sometimes Artificial Intelligence is about simulating human intelligence but not always.On the one hand, we can learn something about how to make machines solve problems by observing other people or just by observing our own methods. On the other hand, most work in AI involves studying the problems the world presents to intelligence rather than studying people or animals. AI textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize......

Words: 2505 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Artificial Intelligeence

...In conclusion, artificial intelligence systems have been useful tools in solving complex problems that are seen to be beyond the level of human thinking. Although the characteristics of these systems are drawn from human intelligence, they exhibit more intelligence than the human beings themselves. This is just the beginning in computer revolution and more improvements are likely to be seen in the near future.The computer revolution has influenced everyday matters from the way letters are written to the methods in which our banks, governments, and credit card agencies keep track of our finances. The development of artificial intelligence is just a small percentage of the computer revolution and how society deals with, learns, and incorporatesartificial intelligence. It will only be the beginning of the huge impact and achievements of the computer revolution. A standard definition of artificial intelligence, or AI, is that computers simply mimic behaviors of humans that would be regarded as intelligent if a human being did them. However, within this definition, several issues and views still conflict because of ways of interpreting the results of AI programs by scientists and critics. The most commn and natural approach to AI research is to ask of any program, what can it do? What are the actual results in comparison to human intelligence? For example, what matters about a chess-playing program is how good it is. Can it possibly beat chess grand masters? There is also a......

Words: 910 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Holland Sweetener Case

...Holland Sweetener Case Write Up 1.How should Holland Sweetener expect NutraSweet to respond to its entry into Europe and Canada? Ultimately Holland Sweetener should expect NutraSweet to aggressively defend the entry into Europe and Canada. This defense is based primarily on the fact that this entrance will give NutraSweet the ability to show Holland Sweetener how it plans to subsequently defend the US Market. In 1986 Canada and Europe combined made up 550 tonnes of demand for aspartame. While this certainly was growing (expected to be 1,800 tons by 1991) it paled in comparison to the current demand in the United States market of 5,100 tonnes (expect to be 8,000) tonnes in 1991. If Holland Sweetener had cost structures comparable to NutraSweet, efficiency was gained at 2,000 tonnes of aspartame production, nearly four times greater than their current capacity. In addition, NutraSweet had done a fantastic job of building up brand awareness, quoted in the case study at 98% recognition of the NutraSweet logo. This is something that certainly Holland Sweetener would have no access to, making their launch even more complex. Given the overall market size and Holland Sweeteners small and likely expensive cost of production, Holland Sweetener should expect NutraSweet to engage in an all-out price war. The European and Canadian markets are not the ultimate prize; it is the United States Market. NutraSweet needs to get Holland America to go bankrupt before......

Words: 1019 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Artificial Intelligence

...http://www.slideshare.net/ajaysuman/artificial-intelligence-in-business ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN BUSINESS Introduction Business applications utilize the specific technologies mentioned earlier to try and make better sense of potentially enormous variability (for example, unknown patterns/relationships in sales data, customer buying habits, and so on). However, within the corporate world, AI is widely used for complex problem-solving and decision-support techniques in real-time business applications. The business applicability of AI techniques is spread across functions ranging from finance management to forecasting and production.  In the fiercely competitive and dynamic market scenario, decision-making has become fairly complex and latency is inherent in many processes. In addition, the amount of data to be analyzed has increased substantially. AI technologies help enterprises reduce latency in making business decisions, minimize fraud and enhance revenue opportunities. Definition of AI  AI is a broad discipline that promises to simulate numerous innate human skills such as automatic programming, case-based reasoning, neural networks, decision-making, expert systems, natural language processing, pattern recognition and speech recognition etc. AI technologies bring more complex data-analysis features to existing applications. There are many definitions that attempt to explain what Artificial Intelligence (AI) is. I like to think of AI as a science that......

Words: 4049 - Pages: 17