Free Essay

Artificial Inteligence Problems

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By psrgomes08
Words 504
Pages 3
Search Quiz
Name___________ ID____________

No text, no notes, no questions. Do the best that you can on each question. No questions will be answered about the quiz questions. If you think a question is ambiguous, write your interpretation and answer your modified question. Be reasonable.

The following abbreviations are used: BF = branching factor, DFS = depth first search, BFS = breadth first search, IDS = iterative deepening search,
A* = A* search, LI = local improvement search, HC = hill-climbing search.


1. For the 8-tile puzzle, what is the average branching factor, assuming the blank is equally likely to occur in any position. Show your work. (4*2 + 4*3 +1*4)/9 = 24/9 = 2 & 2/3.

2. Suppose that you are solving the 8-tile puzzle where it has solution. Which of the methods (DFS, BFS, IDS) is guaranteed to find a solution, assuming no computational limits are reached. List all that are correct. DFS, BFS, IDS

3. For the same puzzle, which of the methods (DFS,BFS,IDS) is guaranteed to find the shortest solution? List all that are correct. BFS, IDS

4. For the same puzzle, which methods are guaranteed to use no more than O(BF * length of solution) amount of memory. DFS, IDS

5. Suppose you apply the A* algorithm to the same problem. You decide to let f = current cost of the path. Would it be appropriate to let h = 0 for all states? Yes or no and why. Yes. h is admissible.

6. Suppose you apply A* to the same puzzle, with f = current cost of path and h = 0. A* would then behave the same as DFS or BFS or IDS? BFS. ------ The next question all relate to the same problem. Suppose you have forgotten everything you learned in your theory classes and decided to apply an AI search technique to the problem of sorting an array of N different integers. There are multiple correct answers.

7. Describe the initial state a) An array (list) of the number. Or b) a pair or similar.

8. Describe the goal state All the numbers are in the right order.

9. Describe a set of legal operators a) swap two values if out-of-order or move out-of-order element b) insert number so that order is maintained (yields insertion sort)

10. What to cost (O notation) of finding and applying your operators. (2pts) a) O(N*N) to find; trivial to O(N) to apply b) O(N) if numbers in a list; O(N*N) if numbers in an array.

The next questions refer to the diagram on page 1. The diagram illustrates a search tree where the oval nodes (10 and 12) are the goal nodes.

11. What solution will BFS find? 10 12. What solution will DFS find? 12 13. What solution will IDS find? 10 14. What solution will depth limited search find, where the search limit is 3. 12.















Similar Documents

Free Essay

Artificial Intelligence

...Artificial Intelligence   Artificial intelligence is an advanced branch of science which enables digital computers to perform complex tasks that are usually associated with requiring human intelligence. These tasks can vary from game playing to robotics. The best way to describe A.I is by comparing it to a human brain, digital computers consist of a network of switches and computers make decisions by using on/off switches. The basic element of the brain, the neuron also uses two state operations. This means that the human thought process can be linked to transistors within a computer. One definition of Artificial intelligence is “The science of making machines do things that require intelligence if done by men” (Marvin Minskey). The important word in this definition is INTELLIGENCE as there can be different perceptions of intelligence such as the ability to learn and acquire knowledge or just plain common sense. Some other researchers believe that A.I is just the duplication of human thought without any intelligence.  Artificial intelligence is different from normal programming by the way it solves a problem. A normal programming language such as BASIC must use a step by step method to solve a problem. This normally means that you will have to flow chart the solution then translate it into the BASIC programming language that carries out the solution. This step by step programming is called algorithmic programming. An algorithm is a well defined set of rules to solve a......

Words: 969 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Artificial Intelligence

...Artificial Intelligence in the military is good for the future because it will allow us to better protect our citizens with a multitude of advances that will help us decipher many situations more effectively and efficiently on the battlefield. Artificial Intelligence will gives the military an opportunity to be a step ahead of its enemies at all times, which allow them to most often diffuse many situations with very minimal casualties. “ Today, the military primarily uses AI to process large amounts of information, including videos, signals and intelligence that must be deciphered and analyzed quickly. As developments in AI continue, these tasks may seem almost menial. “A robot would be able to recognize, from the activities its video cameras capture, what the people it’s observing are doing,” explains Dr. Raymond Perrault, director, Artificial Intelligence Center, SRI. “It can tell you that someone is walking through the door, or that two people have met and exchanged a package or that a person is digging a hole by the side of the road.” A robot like this with sensors could decide what information is pertinent and report the data to a group of warfighters. These intelligence systems can perceive their environment and adjust. “They manage to do [their mission] while the world changes around them,” Perrault says. To accomplish this task, they organize ideas utilizing mathematical logic. Using sensory data, the programs prove simple theorems by plugging the data into the......

Words: 564 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Artificial Intelligence

...Of all the technological developments of the modern age, none is as complex as artificial intelligence. The idea that a non-human, manufactured entity could advance to a point of emulating human behavior is enough to make people shiver. The idea of something so advanced that we will not be able to tell the difference may be even worse. In 1961 Philip Dick wrote Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?. It portrayed a world with these exact characteristics. Artificial Intelligence had advanced to a point of near-perfect human replication. In creating this world, Dick was echoing the speculations and fears of a.i. that had build up by that time. It would then continue to influence those opinions in the years after. It is necessary to look at the development of artificial intelligence in order to put this idea into context. The concept of intelligent and aware constructs began to emerge in the 1950s and 60s as several scientists in many fields came together to discuss the possibilities of advanced computer research. The first major step was a scientific conference at Dartmouth College in 1956. Here, the general concepts and possible paths of research for a.i. were fleshed out. As described in Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, this conference was “the birth of artificial intelligence.” This was mostly a theoretical stage yet attending experts predicted that with a huge investment, working technology could be available in a generation (16). After being officially......

Words: 1922 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Artificial Intellegence

...Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence is a scientific concept that gives machines the ability to copy and complete human tasks. It was a term that first came into use in 1955 and has come quite a long way since then. According to Stanford University in California, this type of intelligence is created by studying and simulating human actions, not human intelligence, to complete tasks. The actions are then programmed into a computer to allow the computer to complete the same task.It does not actually resemble human intelligence at all. Only in the movements and processing and fina l product or accomplishment. The computer should solve all the tasks with its own methods, similar to the methods in which a person with computer knowledge and know how would use. Artificial intelligence will never possess a creative side such a write an original thought, create an intelligent though or compose anything that has not already been thought or entered into its programming. The science of artificial intelligence is the part of the complex computer sciences, and the technology created by humans. The aim of the science is to create answers and solutions as well on the basis of calculations and artificially made intelligent machines. Artificial intelligence is aimed to make the human life easier and do all the difficult tasks and provide people with acceptable solutions to any problems.  The main problems with Artificial Intelligence include...

Words: 936 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Artificial Intelligence

...Faith Brown September 9, 2014 Artificial Intelligence is something that has been around for quite some time. It is simply the science of making machine imitate human thinking and behavior. There are many types of businesses and organizations that use artificial intelligence. Many of them are government organizations but are not limited to hospitals and local businesses. Artificial intelligence can be used for the simplest of things like counting inventory or to the more complex of things such as reading electrocardiograms. With artificial intelligence, we have been able to reduce the time that it takes an actual human to do something. These systems are in place so that we spend more time on the more critical things. There are four types of artificial intelligence. The four types are expert systems, neural networks (and fuzzy logic), genetic algorithms, and agent-based technologies. All of the these systems have their benefits as well as their not so good features. For starters, we will examine expert systems. Expert systems, which is also referred to as knowledge-based systems, is an artificial intelligence system that applies reasoning capabilities to reach a conclusion. These systems are used for diagnosing problems. They also help with coming up with a solution to the problem. These systems are built for a specific domain that they will be ran on. The knowledge base for these systems contain both factual and heuristic knowledge. This means that the factual information......

Words: 1325 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Artificial Insemination

...Christopher Evans 09/21/2014 Dr. Amoah ANSC 4833 Routes of Fertilization Artificial insemination is a technique that can help treat certain kinds of infertility in both humans and animals. They all have their own unique ways of carrying out their procedure, but all to aid with fertilization in humans and in animals. Justification The reason that the growth of the particular technology is so important is that it can effect so many births animals but particularly focused on humans. From females of older age, with poor egg quality, and severe endometriosis. More factors that lessen chances of success is poor sperm quality or severe damage to fallopian tubes. Females with "unreceptive cervical mucus" are also good candidates for artificial insemination. In these females, the mucus surrounding the cervix is hostile to sperm and prevents sperm from getting into the uterus and fallopian tubes. Artificial insemination allows the sperm to skip the cervical mucus entirely. Doctors also often suggest artificial insemination when they cannot determine the reason a couple is infertile. Description Cervical insemination is the direct introduction of sperm into a female's uterus or cervix for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy through in vivo fertilization by means other than sexual intercourse. Cervical Inseminations’ procedure takes about ten minutes to perform. The health care provider will insert a thin and flexible catheter through the woman's vagina until it reaches......

Words: 847 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Artificial Intelligence

...calls, computers can’t replace people. But with artificial intelligence, computers could be trained to think like humans do. Artificial intelligence (AI) is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. Artificial intelligence allows computers to learn from experience, recognize patterns in large amounts of complex data and make complex decisions based on human knowledge and reasoning skills. Currently, no computers exhibit full artificial intelligence (that is, are able to simulate human behavior). AI research is highly technical and specialized, deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. In 1956, John McCarthy, who is thought to be the father of Artificial Intelligence, organized a conference where intellectuals gathered to learn of this phenomenon. This laid the foundation for the advancements in artificial intelligence today. Artificial intelligence has become an important field of study with a wide spread of applications in fields ranging from medicine to agriculture. The central problems of AI traits are reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, communication, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. The greatest advances have occurred in the field of games playing. Today artificial intelligence is used in our homes and in sophisticated establishments or businesses. There are many advantages and disadvantages of the use of artificial intelligence in business and in our day to day......

Words: 546 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Emotional Inteligence

...intelligence may contribute to the quality of people’s relationships at work because emotions serve communicative and social functions, conveying information about thoughts and intentions, and helping to coordinate social encounters (Keltner & Haidt, 2001). Emotion related abilities should help people choose the best course of action when navigating social encounters. For example, the ability to decode facial expressions of emotion can help one to evaluate how other people respond to one’s words and actions, yielding important information for adjusting one’s behavior (Nowicki & Duke, 2001). The ability to use emotions to guide thinking can help one to consider both emotions and technical information when evaluating an interpersonal problem. References: Goleman, D. (1997). Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga. Goleman, D. (2001). Working With Emotional Intelligence. Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga. Goleman, D., Boyatziss, R., & McKee, A. (2002). Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence. Ljubljana: GV Založba. Kyle, D. T. (2000). The Four Powers of Leadership. Ljubljana: Amalietti & Amalietti....

Words: 2680 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Artificial Intelligence

...Artificial Intelligence: Past, Present and Future Alana Boggan INF 103 Sabahudin Tricic July 25, 2011 Abstract Technology, over time, has become more advanced. As technology has risen, so has man’s curiosity for advancement of what technology can do for mankind. In this exploration, artificial intelligence was created. In researching and exploring the past of artificial intelligence, mankind can make assumptions about the advances in the future. The past, with curiosity of humans, has lent itself to the artificial intelligence we have today and the endless possibilities for artificial intelligence in the future. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is becoming a constant part of life as technology advances. Webster defines artificial intelligence as “the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it” (Wikipedia, 2010). When assessing AI, one must look at the past and present. Acquiring knowledge about the past and present of AI, the future of this ever-changing field of science allows thoughts of endless possibilities and unimaginable devices of the future; therefore, by studying and researching the advancement of this field from its past to its present, predictions for this field can be made. Method I researched information on the past, present, and future for the field of Artificial Intelligence. In researching the past of the scientific and computer field of artificial......

Words: 1718 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Ai -Artificial Inteligence

...I will first introduce what Artificial intelligence means in the world of information systems. I will give points to both its advantages and disadvantages of its uses. Artificial Intelligence is considered the development of machines such as robots and security systems to perform the job of humans. They even have feelings, thoughts, preferences and the ability to understand human speech (Russell, 2009). In 1941, the most intelligent machine was an invention in the form of the electronic computer. Who would have thought 60 years from then that the same computer would be perfected beyond leaps and bounds and be used to control other machines, as well as be part of day to day living? In 1956, John McCarthy, considered the father of Artificial Intelligence, organized a conference where intellectuals gathered to learn of this phenomenon (Lee, 1992). This laid the foundation for the advancements in artificial intelligence today. Today artificial intelligence is used in our homes and sophisticated establishments such as military bases and the NASA space station. NASA has even sent out artificially intelligent robots to grace some planets and to learn more about their atmosphere and habitat, the intention being to investigate if there is a possibility of humans living on other planets. There are many advantages and disadvantages of the use of artificial intelligence in business and in our day to day lives. Some of the advantages of Artificial Intelligence......

Words: 580 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Artificial Intelligence

...1.INTRODUCTION: Artificial Intelligence is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. It includes people,procedure,hardware,software,data and knowledge needed to develop computer systems and machines that demonstrated characteristics of intelligence.It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable. Intelligence is basically the computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world. Varying kinds and degrees of intelligence occur in people, many animals and some machines.There is no solid definition of intelligence relating it to human intelligence. The problem is that it cannot yet be characterize in general what kinds of computational procedures can be called intelligent. We understand some of the mechanisms of intelligence and not others. Sometimes Artificial Intelligence is about simulating human intelligence but not always.On the one hand, we can learn something about how to make machines solve problems by observing other people or just by observing our own methods. On the other hand, most work in AI involves studying the problems the world presents to intelligence rather than studying people or animals. AI textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize......

Words: 2505 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Artificial Intelligeence

...In conclusion, artificial intelligence systems have been useful tools in solving complex problems that are seen to be beyond the level of human thinking. Although the characteristics of these systems are drawn from human intelligence, they exhibit more intelligence than the human beings themselves. This is just the beginning in computer revolution and more improvements are likely to be seen in the near future.The computer revolution has influenced everyday matters from the way letters are written to the methods in which our banks, governments, and credit card agencies keep track of our finances. The development of artificial intelligence is just a small percentage of the computer revolution and how society deals with, learns, and incorporatesartificial intelligence. It will only be the beginning of the huge impact and achievements of the computer revolution. A standard definition of artificial intelligence, or AI, is that computers simply mimic behaviors of humans that would be regarded as intelligent if a human being did them. However, within this definition, several issues and views still conflict because of ways of interpreting the results of AI programs by scientists and critics. The most commn and natural approach to AI research is to ask of any program, what can it do? What are the actual results in comparison to human intelligence? For example, what matters about a chess-playing program is how good it is. Can it possibly beat chess grand masters? There is also a......

Words: 910 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Artificial Intelligence

...CS 771 Artificial Intelligence Introduction to AI Outline • • • • Course overview What is AI? A brief history State of the Art Course overview • • • • • • • • • • • • • Intro to AI (chapter 1) Intelligent agents (chapter 2) Goal based agents and uninformed search(chapter 3.1-3.4) Informed Search : A* (chapter 3.5-3.6) Beyond classical search (chapter 4) Adversarial search alpha-beta pruning (chapter 5) Constraint satisfaction problem (chapter 6) Midterm 1 (chapter 1, 2, 3,4,5,6) Logical agents and propositional logic (chapter 7) First-order logic (chapter 8) Inference in first order logic (chapter 9) Midterm 2 (chapter 7, 8, 9) Quantifying uncertainty (chapter 13) Probabilistic reasoning using Bayes net (chapter 14) Probabilistic reasoning over time (chapter 15) Where is AI in Computer Science? Computer science : problem solving using computers • Computer Architecture and Operating System study how to build good computers. • Computation and Complexity Theory study what can be computed, what cannot be computed, i.e., the limits of different computing devices. • Programming Languages study how to use computers conveniently and efficiently. • Algorithms and Data Structures study how to solve popular computation problems efficiently. • Artificial Intelligence is relevant to any intellectual tasks, e.g., playing chess, proving mathematical theorems, writing poetry, driving a car on a crowded street, diagnosing......

Words: 1948 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Artificial Inteligence

...MULUNGUSHI UNIVERSITY Pursing frontiers of Knowledge CENTRE FOR ICT EDUCATION ICT 352 Artificial Intelligence and Prolog Topic: Intelligent Agents Lecturer: M. Simfukwe Monday, 20 May, 2013 Outline • Agents and environments • Rationality • PEAS (Performance measure, Environment, Actuators, Sensors) • Environment types • Agent types Agents • An agent is any system that gets in some input and processes it to get some output. • Software agents in classical computer science • Hardware agents (robots), with sensors and actuators. Agents • An agent is anything that can be viewed as perceiving its environment through sensors and acting upon that environment through actuators • Percept refers to agents perceptual inputs • Percept sequence: Complete history of everything the agent has perceived and stored in KB. • Performance Measure: Criterion for success for agent. Agents (cont..) • Rationality: determined by 4 factors 1.performance measure 2.prior knowledge of environment 3.actions that the agent can perform 4.percept sequence to date. Rational Agent: For each possible percept sequence, a rational agent should select an action that is expected to maximize its performance measure, given the evidence provided by percept sequence and whatever built-in knowledge the agent has. Agents and environments • The agent function maps from percept histories to actions: [f: P* A] Vacuum-cleaner world • Percepts: location......

Words: 887 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Artificial Intelligence

... ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN BUSINESS Introduction Business applications utilize the specific technologies mentioned earlier to try and make better sense of potentially enormous variability (for example, unknown patterns/relationships in sales data, customer buying habits, and so on). However, within the corporate world, AI is widely used for complex problem-solving and decision-support techniques in real-time business applications. The business applicability of AI techniques is spread across functions ranging from finance management to forecasting and production.  In the fiercely competitive and dynamic market scenario, decision-making has become fairly complex and latency is inherent in many processes. In addition, the amount of data to be analyzed has increased substantially. AI technologies help enterprises reduce latency in making business decisions, minimize fraud and enhance revenue opportunities. Definition of AI  AI is a broad discipline that promises to simulate numerous innate human skills such as automatic programming, case-based reasoning, neural networks, decision-making, expert systems, natural language processing, pattern recognition and speech recognition etc. AI technologies bring more complex data-analysis features to existing applications. There are many definitions that attempt to explain what Artificial Intelligence (AI) is. I like to think of AI as a science that......

Words: 4049 - Pages: 17