Free Essay

Architectural Comparison

In: English and Literature

Submitted By jwillrich
Words 914
Pages 4
Architectural Comparison Paper

Jacob Willrich


General Humanities

Architectural Comparison

Throughout the centuries architecture has changed dramatically. Time is not the only factor of why buildings look so different; location/culture is also a reason for buildings shape and design. Technology available is one major aspect of how buildings are designed and built. Century after century humans have came up with new ways to design structures, in the beginning they were built with sticks and stones and now they are built with man made steel and other strong substances that allows us to build roughly 1,700 feet into the air. Roman Architecture is the second longest lasting structures, only behind the Greek’s structures, that are still standing. The Roman Era was from 500 B.C.E. to 500 C.E. The most significant architectural structure from the Roman Era would have to be the aqueducts they built throughout their cities. These aqueducts delivered over forty million gallons of water to each of their cities. The Roman’s used arches in almost everything they made. They improved the design of them and placed arches all next to each other to form tunnels for their aqueducts. Some other architectural structures of importance from the Roman Era are the Circus Maximus, Colosseum, and the Pantheon. The Pantheon inspired more works than any other Greco-Roman monument. The Early Renaissance from the years 1300 to 1600 was devoted to the ideas of Roman structures and as well as the engineer Vitruvius Pollio. [Fiero, 2013 p. 189] It followed the gothic era, which was the most influential in the designs of this era. The most famous architect from this time period is definitely Brunelleschi, who won an award for the dome of Florence Cathedral. The dome was the largest dome since the Pantheon. African Architecture flourished from 1400 to 1650 C.E. Many of the structures are not standing anymore because of the materials that they were built out of. They used impermanent materials such as sticks, mud, and stone, which obviously do not last long over the centuries. Along with the materials they used they also did not have a need for “monumental” type architecture. However they did have one are where large structures were present. In the trade center that is Zimbabwe there was a “House of Stone” which has huge stonewalls and towers that remain which indicates there used to be a royal presence. In other areas of Africa, the Muslim dominated areas, they had very large magnificent structures. The adobe mosque of Mali almost looks like sandcastles by how they were constructed of sticks and wooden beams with sand and mud covering them. Since these materials are very impermanent the structures have been rebuilt continually since the twelfth century. The Italian Baroque architecture era was one designed to reflect the ideals of Counter-Reformation. The churches of the time featured wide naves, huge domes, and magnificent altarpieces. The most magnificent of the time is the monumental basilica of Saint Peter’s in Rome. The entire Saint Peter’s cathedral is the most known structure from the Italian Baroque era. From the cathedral itself, to the dome designed by Michelangelo, or to the piazza out front designed by Bernini all show the wonderful design from this time period. The dome on top of Saint Peter’s Cathedral is one of the most known structures of human kind because of its sheer size. Outside the cathedral the piazza designed by Bernini is a sight to see as well, with its 284 columns and 96 sculptures makes it almost better than the cathedral itself. The contemporary/modern era is one of simplistic yet intriguing designs. The era spans from the mid 1900s to today. Some of the most impressive structures of the modern era are actually the museums that hold the magnificent art from the previous eras. The Guggenheim Museum designed by Frank Gehry is probably the most known museum of our time with its very odd shape and design that it stands out. Another architect from the modern era is Alden B Dow, whose designs throughout Midland stand out to all the people who pass bye. These designs stand out so much because of the geometrical shapes they use. The basic shapes are interpreted in the most intriguing ways. [Robinson & Associates Inc, 2003] The five eras that was described are all very different in different ways. The time span was over roughly 2000 years. The Roman architecture is very elegant and impressively done with the type of technology that they had back then. As time progressed the style of architecture slowly started to get less and less complex. Modern Architecture is the most basic and intriguing of all, the way the architects used basic geometric shapes like squares and circles in such amazing ways impresses people all around the world. There is not comparison to the Pantheon, which is one of the most recognizable structures in human history. If only some of these old structures could have made it longer then we would still have something to marvel over all these years.

Reference Page

Gloria K. Fiero, (2013). Landmarks in Humanities. 3rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Robinson & Associates Inc (2003). Growth, Efficiency, and Modernism. [ONLINE] Available at: e.g. [Last Accessed November, 10 2013].

Sir Banister Fletcher; Cruickshank, Dan, Sir Banister Fletcher's a History of Architecture, Architectural Press, 20th edition, 1996 (first published 1896). ISBN 0-7506-2267-9.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Architectural Design Process

...Architectural Design Process Programming Phase -Programming is the activity of determining the "program", or set of needs that a building needs to fulfill. Any project should begin with a thorough examination of these needs, goals and constraints, to form as complete as possible an understanding of these issues. This includes an examination of who the users of the building will be, what use they will make of the building, what rooms/spaces they need, what mood the building should create, and any other goals of the project. It also includes an examination of constraints, such as cost, zoning and building code restrictions, and locally available materials. During the programming phase, it is normal to identify what rooms/spaces are needed. For each space, consider at least the following requirements: * Who will use the space * Use(s) of the space; what activities will take place there * How private or public should the space be * Which other spaces should be adjacent or most accessible from that space * What type of mood should the space create * How large should the space be Schematic Design Phase After establishing the program for a project, the focus in the architectural design process shifts from what the problems are to how to solve those problems. During schematic design, the focus is on the "scheme", or overall high-level design. Here, minor details should be ignored to instead focus on creating a coherent solution that encompasis the......

Words: 362 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


... Comparison on Public Health and Community Health. Shelly Shew NUR/408 October 29, 2012 Kim Oatman Comparison on Public Health and Community Health Nursing. This paper will reflect the history of public health and significant events related to these agencies. The difference between public and community health will be acknowledged. Also information included on county, state, and national public health resources. There has been measurable growth and expansion over the years in regard to public health and its creation. Identification of Public health goes as far back as the 14th century. Towns and cities created a system known as quarantine to deter the bubonic plague (Black Death). Travelers and merchandise from places known to carry infections put in isolation. This procedure was in use until the 19th century to protect the public from the smallpox, syphilis, and cholera epidemics. Public health established services in 1798 as the Marine Hospital Service. This came about by early efforts of the federal government to provide health care to merchant seamen, protecting seaport cities from epidemics. In 1813 charitable services started by the Ladies Benevolent Society of Charleston, South Carolina, health care to the sick and poor. Another step toward the improvement of public health was the creation of the American Medical Association in 1847. Shortly after their existence this group formed a hygiene committee to conduct sanitary surveys and to develop a system to......

Words: 794 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Architectural Communication

...Corporate Communications II Architectural Communication IMUK 5 Sabrina Felk | Alicia Hunter | Christine Mangold | Daniela Reh Corporate Communications II – IMUK 5 - 04.12.2012 Sabrina Felk | Alicia Hunter | Christine Mangold | Daniela Reh Table of Content 1.  What  is  Architectural  Communication?  .......................................................   2   1.1  Communicative  Messages  ..........................................................................  2   1.2  How  Architectural  Psychology  affects  our  human  body   .............................  2   2.  Short  excurse:  Corporate  Architecture  ........................................................   3   3.  Analysis  ......................................................................................................   4   3.1  Image  of  the  branch  ...................................................................................  4   3.2  HypoVereinsbank  Munich  ..........................................................................  4   3.3  Deutsche  Bank  Frankfurt  ............................................................................  6   4.  Feng  Shui  as  a  design  concept  .....................................................................   8   4.1  Definition  .........................

Words: 4634 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Architectural Practice

...Drawings    - 50% 4.  Retention           - 20% = 3 months after the acceptance of the Architect     UAP Doc 202 Design Services: Regular Architectural Services   “PWSP” “SDCC” - Sequential   1.    P-reliminary Design/S-chematic Design 2.    W-orking Drawings/D-esign Dev’t Phase 3.    S-pecifications and Other Contract Documents/C-ontract Documents* 4.    P-art-Time Supervision/C-onstruction Phase*   *Under Contract Doc. Phase (Refer to UAP Doc 301 General Conditions of a Contract)   “GASSD”   1.    G-eneral Conditions – Execution, Intent – satisfaction to finish the proj., Correlation                        2.    A-greement 3.    S-pecifications 4.    S-pecial Provisions 5.    D-rawings   *Under Construction Phase Important Milestones of Construction   “RERCF”   1.      R-eference – Horizontal, Vertical 2.      E-xcavation – min. depth .60m until stable – w/ signature of the Architect, must have a permit 3.      R-ebars 4.      C-oncreting 5.      F-inishes – Mock up (samples)   5 M’s of Construction 1.    M-achines 2.    M-oney 3.    M-anpower 4.    M-aterial 5.    M-inutes   PROJECT CLASSIFICATION UAP – degree of difficulty/complexity of design FCP – risk of occurrence of Fire NCP – use and occupancy   ARCHITECTURAL PROJECTS (SCHEDULE OF MINIMUM BASIC FEE)   “SMERM” “RHEAC”   GROUP DEFINITION MINIMUM BASIC FEE S-imple......

Words: 1822 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

A Comparison

...A Comparison of Values In today’s society, having a moral obligation to others is essential when interacting with individuals or growing a successful organization as Kudler Fine Foods. Valuing and respecting individuals creates an environment in which everyone can live and work together in a more harmonious environment. Upon completing the Williams Institute Ethics Awareness Inventory self assessment, reflecting on the results and my own personal values, I believe that Kudler Fine Foods and I possess similar values and moral obligations. As a manager of Kudler Fine Foods my ability to perform my duties that coincide with my values would allow me to further the growth of the organization and create an environment that is both positive to all stakeholders at Kudler Fine Foods. According to the Williams Institute Ethics Awareness Inventory self assessment my ethical profile was said to be most closely aligned with Obligation. I have always believed that it is my obligation to do what is morally right. The assessment summarized me as believing everyone has a right to individual respect, which in most cases is true and I do believe that most people have a right to individual respect. However, when individuals fail to respect others, the right to individual respect is no longer a right. I do have a strong belief that in order to become a person of good moral character I have to do what is right for not only me but others around me. The self assessment was insightful, and I do...

Words: 635 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...Analogy The clear message from the writer here is that caress Cashmere Luxury Body Wash will stimulate your senses. The feel and smell will be luxurious and extraordinary. The analogy is Cashmere Luxury Body Wash compared to being wrapped in a silky soft pashmina surrounded by the blend of white orchid milk and warm vanilla essence. Incidentally, ‘pashmina’ is said to be the finest cashmere wool. It would be difficult to say that this is a strong comparison. Cashmere wool, vanilla and orchid milk are a tough sell when compared to body wash. On the other hand, the comparison does provoke a strong desire to actually be wrapped in pashmina while inhaling the warm essence of vanilla and orchid milk, white orchid milk nonetheless. The smooth supple feel of the body wash could be compared to the feel of cashmere. Textures are easily compared so I could imagine the feeling on the skin may be similar. Fragrances too can be duplicated and used in perfumes, shampoos, and body washes. A direct and believable association can be made there. Vanilla is a somewhat familiar fragrance as it is used in cooking as well. Orchid milk however, is another story. I suppose orchids are popular and may be a recognizable smell. Orchid milk though perhaps not so recognizable. I think perhaps the figure of speech could relate more specifically to cashmere as opposed to pashmina. Cashmere is more recognizable when referring to fine wool. Perhaps the reference to orchid milk is to compare the......

Words: 306 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...introduced Classic Revival Style Architectural Characteristics. * A more monumental type of state capitol was developed. Ex. a. Capitol, Washington D.C. - by William Thornton, assistedby Stephen Hallet and                                                                  Benjamin Latrobe. b. Capitol, Richmond, Virginia- by Thomas Jefferson -The early classical revival followed the Roman tradition rather than the Greek. - By 1830, Greek details reigned supreme Architects who contributed to the classical revival style in the U.S. * Major Charles Pierre L’Enfant- the city planner for Washington D.C. and the architect of the U.S.                                                       Federal hall, Washington D.C. * William Thornton- an English architect, designer of the U.S. Capitol * Benjamin H. Latrobe- One of the first U.S. architects. He received his training in England and                                        worked in the Greek idiom. * Robert Mills- Famous as a designer of churches and as the architects of the Washington monuments in Washington D.C. and Baltimore; an architect for the U.S. government and is responsible for many national public buildings. * William Strickland -Architect for many important buildings (ex. Philadelphia exchange) * James Hoban - an Irish architect; designer of the state capitol in Columbia and the white house in  Washington D.C ARCHITECTURAL EXAMPLES 1. The White......

Words: 1176 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Architectural Innovation and ideas spread by either direct copying, called “blueprint copying,” where an existing system is modified for use, or by “idea diffusion,” where the basic idea of it is imported but people invent their own details. Today, when linguists design a writing system for an unwritten language they use blueprint copying with modifications. We know who invented some current systems—e.g. Cyrillic (Russian) was an adaptation of Greek and Hebrew letters by St Cyril, a Greek missionary in 9th century AD; the first Germanic texts were in the Gothic alphabet created by Bishop Ulfilas, a missionary to the Visigoths in the 4th century AD, with borrowed letters from Greek and Roman and a few invented ones. But usually we don’t know. However, comparisons of newly emerged alphabets with previously existing ones allow us to deduce the models—e.g., Linear B of Mycenaean Greek was adapted from Linear A of Minoan Crete about 1400 BC. Blueprint copying almost always needs adaptation, as the new language would not often the same sounds used in the old. Unused letters might dropped or used for a different sound. New sounds might use a combination of letters (like English “th”); add a distinguishing mark (like Spanish tilde ñ or German umlaut ü); co-opt needed letters to a new sound (Czech uses “c” of Roman alphabet for the sound “ts”); or invent a new letter (j, u, w in English). The alphabet apparently arose only once, among speakers of Semitic languages in the area from modern Syria to......

Words: 18440 - Pages: 74

Free Essay

Architectural Safety

...ARCHITECTURAL SAFETY An objective conceptual planning should be to create an environment in which the user can be as safe as possible. Although this is a tall order, many of the accidents that frequently occur in homes, offices, schools, factories, and elsewhere are due as much to the facility design as they are to user errors. The following typical safety considerations are applicable to all architectural systems: 1. Use non-flammable, non-toxic materials. 2. Eliminate sharp edges, corners, etc. that could cause injury. 3. Create properly designed stairs, ramps and walkways. 4. Do not use large ceiling-to-floor glass windows or doors without appropriate barriers to prevent people from walking through them when they are closed. 5. Ground all electrical controls, cover outlets and otherwise prevent people from receiving electric shocks. 6. Provide adequate illumination so that people can see where they are going to avoid tripping over walkway obstruction or step. 7. Use non-skid materials on floors, walkways, and stairs, especially if there is a possibility of their becoming wet. 8. Provide appropriate handrails around balconies and alongside stairs and use railing designs that children cannot fall through or get their heads caught in. 9. Cover moving parts of machines to prevent people from getting their hands or clothing caught. 10. Avoid locating heaters where they can be touched inadvertently or where pilot lights could ignite......

Words: 321 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Architectural Innovation

...importance of architectural innovation. Much of the authors’ argument surrounds the notion that there is a much more noteworthy type of innovation than radical or incremental that may determine the future of a company more imminently than realized. The author suggests that the failure of some companies to realize the uniqueness of an architectural innovation, because it deals with the same core components that they are used to, and pass it off as an incremental innovation leads to their demise. First the authors describe and provide examples of architectural innovation. Architectural innovation is described as a re-organization or re-combination of components that were previously used in similar technological products or services. The authors state that the level of “innovativeness” may be modest and that the core components or design concepts are left unchanged. The examples of company failure due to architectural innovation span from Xerox’s loss of market share in the copier industry to the photolithographic aligner (semiconductor) industry. The authors explain that these companies failed in part for a few key reasons. First, they didn’t see architectural innovations as a major innovation, so they didn’t realize that they had to view the innovation in a different light. This meant that they treated the innovation as they did with their current products, and did not seek further knowledge or training regarding its new architectural design. ......

Words: 448 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...Comparison among the monopoly and oligopoly Competition in the market. A monopoly market contains a single firm that produces goods with no close substitute, with significant barriers to entry of other firms. An A monopoly and an oligopoly are economic market structures where there is imperfect oligopoly market has a small number of relatively large firms that produce similar but slightly different products. Again, there are significant barriers to entry for other enterprises. In a monopoly, the seller charges high prices for the goods because there is no competition. In an oligopoly, the prices are moderate due to the presence of competition. However, they are higher than they would be in perfect competition. Barriers to entry in a monopoly market are high due to technology, high capital requirement, government regulation, patents and high distribution overheads. In an oligopoly market, the barriers to entry are high due to the economies of scale. A monopoly draws power from the fact that it is the only viable seller of the product in the industry. However, in an oligopoly, firms can influence the market by setting their prices, marketing strategies and customer service. In oligopoly, firms may collude rather than compete. The cooperation makes them operate as though they were one firm. This changes the market structure from being an oligopoly to a monopoly. There must be some measure of competition in an oligopoly market structure. The geographical size of the......

Words: 334 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Humanities Comparison

...Name Suzanna K Kirk Professor Belal Course HUMN 1101 Date 3-14-16 Significance of ancient sculpture and architecture in everyday life Introduction Architecture refers to the process that comprises of planning, designing and construction of buildings and any other project (Encyclopædia Britannica 2). Architectural sculpture, on the other hand, is the term that makes use of the sculpture by either an architect or sculptor. In many occasions, the use of architectural sculpture has been a component for many builders within the history and also almost virtually in each corner of the globe except the pre-colonial Australia (Encyclopædia Britannica 4). This essay will present a description of the sculpture, a relief sculpture, and an architectural design as well as samples of each. Sculpture photo and its description A sculpture is a three dimensional form of artwork that is created from many different mediums, such as stone, rock, marble, metal or wood. Some sculptors may create by carving while others may use a type of assembly process. . I am comparing the above sculpture with the roman sculpture Doryphorus (Spear Bearer)( Sayre, Henry M., and Henry M. Sayre. "Page 63." Discovering the Humanities. Boston: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2013. N. pag. Print.) The two sculptures vary in many ways. Doryphorus is made of marble, while the above sculpture is simply concrete. Doryphorus stands......

Words: 772 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Architectural Research Methods

...2012b). For the past 30 years, he has collaborated with his wife, the architect, planner, author, and educator Denise Scott Brown, born on October 3rd 1931 in Zambia, and later on raised in a suburb of Johannesburg in South Africa. As a partnership, they created the firm Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates (VSBA) (Craven 2012a). As told in the “That Old Thing Called Flexibility: An Interview with Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown,” their classic books Learning from Las Vegas and Complexity and Contradiction remain unmatched for their aptitude to concern current architectural thought. The methods in regard in this article are about their “present thinking about iconography, transparency, spectacularisation, architectural pornography and the contemporary architectural avant-grade.”(Proto 2009) In Learning from Las Vegas (1972) the famous diagram of ‘The duck and the decorated shed’ was introduced into the architectural vocabulary; the duck represents a special building that is a symbol, whereas the decorated shed is the conventional shelter that applies symbols (Venturi 1977, 87). The classic understanding of symbolism was overturned after the revelation of the decorated shed found along the Las Vegas strip. The decorated shed would literally be a billboard in front of a simple, undecorated building as for example, some of the Las Vegas casinos, where the façade is disconnected from the building and congested with commercial signs (Proto 2009). Venture noted that the......

Words: 590 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Website Purpose and Architectural Design

...Website Purpose and Architectural Design The purpose of designing a website is to promote a business online. The design of any website is dependent only to its purpose and intent, so that a clear understanding of its goal will dictate its design. All the layout, information, functionality and its content should focused only to its main purpose. For this report, let us design a photographer’s website for a portrait studio specializing in family and children, even newborn babies, and event photography. Photo sessions can be taken in a studio location or to the clients’ homes, or to any location of their choice. The intended target for this website is primarily for families, but also caters to anyone who wants to have their pictures taken, whether on a formal studio setting or on any place of their choice. The content of the website will include the Homepage, Portfolio, Galleries, About, Contact, and Blog. The Homepage will have a grid layout of images from the most recent photography sessions. The Portfolio will have two menu selections for Portraits and Events, to showcase the photographer’s image processing ability. The Galleries section will show selected images that may or may not show under Portfolio, to promote the photographers versatility in every kind of special events and occasions. The About section is the photographer’s resume, qualification and maybe his current photography tools and gears. Contact section is the clients section to contact the photographer......

Words: 372 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Neo-Classicism Is an Architectural Moment

...The neo-classicism is an architectural moment that was flourished after the American and the French Revolution. In this period explorers study the past and distant civilizations for an understanding of other cultures; to find new ways how to create mechanical devices to facilitated transportations and commerce. Historian got a closer look to the dates in which important architectural events happened and also became aware of the accomplishment of the various western civilizations. Foremost among these were ancient Greece and Rome, architect will travel to this ruins to study and measure; and after published their findings. It was the century of change, colonial expansion, age of enlightenment, and technological revolution. Neo-classicism was a reaction against the Rococo style, this new language of architecture is evocative and picturesque, a recreation of distant and lost civilizations, framed within the Romantic sensibility that later influence modern architecture and took it to a new direction. The neo-Palladian in England was the first movement to study the revival of classic architecture from the past; its leader was Colen Campbell (1676-1729), a Scottish architect and editor of book “Vitruvius Britannicus”. He designs the Mereworth castle (1723) in kent, like a near replica of the Palladio’s design of Villa Rotonda, but in a larger scale. Campbell attached four Ionic porticos to a simple cube and crowned it with a pyramidal roof and dome. Mereworth also has an......

Words: 1969 - Pages: 8