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Applying Organizational Psychology

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Applying Organizational Psychology
Rebecca Rafferty
PSYCH/570
Dr. Moore
November 4, 2013

Applying Organizational Psychology When we as individuals begin searching for employment within any organization or company the application of organizational psychology is initiated. This process can be both demanding and overwhelming for not only the individual but companies as well. For any person seeking employment they are often looking for the best company that will fulfill their needs and the same applies to the organization. Companies are searching for the right individual to fit the position within the organization. Starting with the recruitment and hiring process, to the first day of work the principles of organizational psychology are important within any organization. The purpose of this paper is to assess the recruitment process from the perspectives of both an organization and applicant, explain how the principles of organizational psychology can be used in the recruitment process, discuss the concept of organizational socialization and examine how the principles of organizational psychology can be applied to organizational socialization.
The Recruitment Process
Organizational Perspective The concept behind the recruitment process is to assemble a sizeable group of qualified applicants for a potential job. This process allows an organization to evaluate which potential applicants will be the best fit for the company, has the most potential to become successful within the company and will stay with the company for a long time (Jex & Britt, 2008). Recruitment intertwines with socialization because effective recruitment warrants that new employees will fit in with the culture of the company and thus are more likely to be successfully socialized (Jex & Britt, 2008). Recruitment planning is the initial stage within the recruitment process. In this stage potential applicants are not normally randomly selected, in other words a company’s recruitment process is more focused on strategic planning. Strategic planning helps a company to set goals, attain the goals by focusing on where they want to go and how they are going to get there. Organizations select applicants based on various aspects such as, the amount of employees that are needed, the start date that the employees are needed for, and the quantity of both present and future employees within the workplace market (Jex and Britt, 2008). Another step in the recruitment plan is that of succession planning. Succession planning specifically aids in the projection of the possibility of turnover in various job categories. There are numerous factors that are considered such as an employee’s projected retirement, employees who will leave to attend school, and those employees who are in limited-term positions (seasonal positions). Once this type of information is collected and examined companies can then plan the recruitment process around the positions that need to be filled. The third step within the recruitment process is for companies to assess the skills and qualifications that current employees possess. Sometimes companies will have the current employees complete a skills inventory which is a three prong process that summarizes an employee’s past development within the organization, while highlighting an employee’s work experience, plans for continued education, competencies and special skills (Lawrie, 1987). If an employee demonstrates that they possess specific skills that the company is looking for in regards to a particular position the company is less likely to higher from outside the company which could then lead to a promotion or more employee incentives.
Applicant Perspective Throughout the recruitment process an applicant is trying to determine which organization is the best fit for them as an individual. While evaluating potential employers, the applicant is wondering if they can picture themselves doing the job that they are applying for and then being able to be successful at it. More often than not the applicant also makes an assessment as to whether they possess the specific skills and abilities that are required of the position to appropriately match the job requirements. Also at this stage the applicant takes time to assess the company or organization in order to predict future work behaviors and work environment (Hulsheger & Anderson, 2009). Recent research within the field of organizational psychology has also revealed that applicants are more attracted to companies that they perceive to be compatible with their culture, values, and personalities. It is also reported that employees report having higher job satisfaction when they are placed in a work environment where their coworkers have similar skills, education, beliefs and values (Jex & Britt, 2008).
Principles of Organizational Psychology with in the Recruitment Process The principles surrounding organizational psychology are clearly implemented throughout the entirety of the recruitment process. Organizations must develop and design recruitment programs that involve a series of well integrated stages that are reinforced and convey a consistent message about the jobs and the culture of the organization (Saks & Uggerslev, 2010). Utilizing the principles of organizational psychology in the recruitment process in regards to applicants is most beneficial if the applicant feels as though the interviews is knowledgeable about the advertised position and if the applicant is treated both professionally and respectfully. The image that companies portray within the recruiting materials such as company websites, and advertisements is very important because it can negatively influence an applicant thus causing them to not want to apply for a position or even accept a position if offered.
Concept of Organizational Socialization Throughout the recruitment process, socialization is needed to transform the “outsider” as a successful member of the organization. According to Helena and Anderson (2006), organizational socialization is the process through which a new employee adapts from being an outsider to an integrated and effective inside member of the group. The concept of organizational socialization includes changes and enhancement of skills, abilities, attitudes, values and relationships. To fully adapt to the new group an individual must learn the culture of the company. Socialization involves how well an individual does within the group and how they interacts with others (Helena & Anderson, 2006). Research into organizational socialization has proposed that there are six different features and they are: history, language, politics, people, organizational goals and values and performance proficiency (Jex & Britt, 2008). History is the first proposed feature and as new employees becomes acclimated within their new company they become familiar with the history (Jex & Britt, 2008). Language is when new employees begins using the language or jargon of the organization. The third feature is that of politics and this is when new employees begin to learn and understand the unwritten rules that govern the organization. People is the fourth feature and it is crucial that new employees develop positive working relationships with their coworkers (Jex & Britt, 2008). In the fifth feature of organizational goals and values new employees must embrace the goals and values of the company. Lastly, is that of performance proficiency, where new employees must learn to do their job proficiently or they will not stay with the organization or company for long (Jex & Britt, 2008).
Applying the Principles of Organizational Psychology to Organizational Socialization The principles of both organizational psychology and organizational socialization are intertwined within organizations and directly impact both organizations and applicants. Organizational psychologists focus their attention to helping individuals effectively interact with others to achieve positive outcomes (Jex & Britt, 2008). In organizational socialization, individuals are required to learn and engage in the ways of the group/organization and its culture. These elements combine to result in success of an organization which is the ultimate goal in both organizational psychology and organizational socialization (Jex & Britt, 2008). Another aspect of organizational socialization which is comparable to the principles of organizational psychology is that of neglecting to socialize new members (Helena & Anderson, 2006). This clearly demonstrates the risk of negative impacts with new employee’s regularly showing higher levels of expectations, which are not met and in turn, associated with poor attitudes and negative behaviors which can lead to higher turnover among employees in an organization (Helena & Anderson, 2006).
Conclusion
As you can see if there is no employee within an organization that meets the qualifications for a position the recruitment process is initiated. As stated previously when organizations engage in the recruitment process three recruiting efforts are used: the number of employees needed, when the employee will be needed and future supply of potential employees in the labor market (Jex & Britt, 2008). Once ads for a job are posted potential applicants start applying for the open position and this is when both the companies and applicant develop questions about one another. Once a new employee is hired, they are the outsider however the socialization process beings which aids is the transition from an outsider to becoming an organizational member. The process can be demanding and overwhelming for both the organization and applicant however if the applicant is a good fit for the position and the organization is a good fit for the applicant then everything should work out.

References
Helena D., Neil Anderson, (2006) Organizational socialization: A new theoretical model and recommendations for future research and HRM practices in organizations, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(5) 492 - 516
Hulsheger, U.R. & Anderson, N. (2009). Applicant perspectives in selection: going beyond preference reactions. Internal Journal of Selection and Assessment, 17(4), 335-345.
Jex, S.M., & Britt, T.W., (2008). Organizational psychology: A scientist-practitioner approach (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Lawrie, J. (1987). Skill inventories: A developmental process. Personal Journal, 66(10), 108.
Saks, A. M., & Uggerslev, K. L. (2010). Sequential and combined effects of recruitment information on applicant reactions. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(3), 351-365. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10869-009-9142-0…...

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