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Anorexia

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Introducción

En este reporte de investigación abordaremos el tema de la anorexia, un trastorno que ha incrementado en una cantidad alarmante durante los últimos años, especialmente en mujeres o niñas que se encuentran en la edad adolescente. En ésta etapa es cuando se empiezan a presentar cambios tanto físicos como hormonales, lo que muchas veces puede llegar a causar confusión e incluso molestia a la persona que los presenta. Teniendo hoy en día a una sociedad que dicta e impone ideales de belleza desarrollados por la industria de la mercadotecnia, los cuales son prácticamente inalcanzables, por ejemplo la promoción de mujeres delgadas y hombres musculosos, y aunando esto a la inconformidad sobre el propio cuerpo anteriormente mencionada, lo cual puede llevar a las adolescentes a distorsionar la imagen y la percepción que tienen de sí mismas, llegando al punto de no aceptar su reflejo frente al espejo, pues se comparan con las figuras que ven en los anuncios, lo que provoca que quieran cambiarlo o “mejorarlo”. Es ahí donde entra en vigor esta enfermedad, comienza con una dieta simple basada en el deseo de bajar de peso, pero poco a poco esta se convierte en cada vez menor ingesta de alimentos, restricción de calorías, ejercicio extremo, todo con la finalidad de alcanzar una meta que va más allá de la realidad. De la misma manera que este trastorno afecta y toma como presa a las mujeres, puede hacerlo con hombres, a pesar de que no sea tan común ese caso, no quiere decir que no sea posible. Por lo que se tienen que tomar las mismas precauciones y mantenerse igual de alerta ante síntomas y características que se presentan en las mujeres. En este reporte, nuestro propósito será brindar la mayor cantidad de información posible sobre el tema con la intención de detectar cuando una persona, ya sea hombre o mujer, de cualquier edad, sufra o se encuentre en riesgo de sufrir este trastorno contar con los conocimientos bases necesarias para orientarlo a solicitar ayuda, acudir con alguien que lo apoye para poder superar la parte psicológica, regresar al peso regular, y seguir con nuestra vida sanamente.
Desarrollo

“El trastorno de la anorexia se ha descrito como un desorden médico hasta la de un trastorno psicológico. La anorexia consiste en la imagen corporal distorsionada que subyace a la fobia al peso y al miedo a engordar.” (Gutiérrez, 2011, p. 57 y 58)

La anorexia no solo es un trastorno basado en la imagen corporal, sino también afecta psicológicamente, ya que debido al miedo por engordar, las personas sufren de depresión y ansiedad. El término anorexia se puede definir como el miedo a ganar peso, la falta de nutrientes y el buen funcionamiento del sistema inmunológico, ya que se deja de comer y el cuerpo no obtiene las vitaminas y minerales necesarios para realizar nuestras actividades cotidianas de manera habitual.

“En este trastorno, las personas se aferran a la báscula, se someten a normas cada vez más duras como ingerir menos calorías y quemar más mediante el ejercicio. Se obsesionan por bajar de peso o no aumentar.” (Galinghoff, 2004)

Cuando se sufre de anorexia, la báscula se vuelve un elemento indispensable, al cual se acude a pesarse todos los días con la esperanza de poder ver en ella un número cada vez más y más bajo. Conforme la enfermedad avanza, ocurren varios cambios que afectan al organismo de la persona, como por ejemplo, se altera el metabolismo, pues este no esta obteniendo alimentos que procesar, lo que lo hace más lento. Su propósito es adelgazar lo más que puedan o, en el peor de los casos, no engordar un kilo más.

Imagen corporal
Rivarola (2005) define imagen corporal de la siguiente manera: “la imagen corporal es la representación mental del cuerpo, que se va desarrollando desde la niñez,y es en la adolescencia, donde resulta esencial para el desarrollo psicosocial del individuo.” Lo que sucede en el cuerpo y la imagen corporal cuando se da a temprana edad, es que dejan de crecer los huesos de manera correcta, a veces crecen mal, y la imagen corporal se distorsiona completamente, ya que no se ve como es realmente, si no que se ve “imperfecta” y ademas afecta que las personas no puedan desarrollarse en la sociedad, por miedo a ser rechazados o que se burlen de ellos, lo que hace que sean anti sociales y desarrollen otros problemas, como lo son los psicológicos, debido a la falta de la socialización y el odio a sí mismo.

Síntomas de la anorexia * Pérdida de peso * Bradicardia * Hipotensión * Hipotermia * Sensibilidad al frío * Piel pálida * Debilidad y cansancio * Hiperactividad * Mareos * Un color amarillento producto de la hipercarotemia * En mujeres jóvenes o adultas, la presencia de amenorrea

Cambios conductuales de la anorexia * Preocupación por la comida * Imagen corporal tendiente a la delgadez * Voluntad férrea de no ingerir alimentos * Negación de la enfermedad * Dietas restrictivas * Rechazo a mantener el peso corporal igual o por encima del valor mínimo normal * Alteración de la percepción del peso o la silueta corporales.

(Gutiérrez, 2011)
Tipos de anorexia * Restrictiva
“Se manifiesta a través de la negación hacia la comida por el temor a engordar. Esta actitud tiende a extenderse tanto hasta llegar a los espacios afectivos y sociales.” (Zusman, 2009)

En este tipo de anorexia, como ya se explicó, se le tiene pavor a la comida y a engordar, por lo que las personas dejan de comer, o hacen ejercicio excesivo y esto a la vez afecta las relaciones con la sociedad ya que están obsesionados con bajar de peso, o estar pesándose, y se enfocan solo en ellos mismos, sin importarles los demás.

* Convulsivo-purgativa
“Las anoréxicas intercalan los episodios restrictivos con los vómitos autoinducidos y el uso de laxantes y diuréticos como alternativas para el control del peso.” (Zusman, 2009)

Este tipo de anorexia es uno de los mas peligrosos, ya que se forza el vomito, o se toman laxantes para evitar subir de peso y sólo por provocar eso, puede afectar partes de nuestro cuerpo, ya que aparte de eliminar la comida también se eliminan los ácidos gástricos y esto puede afectar nuestra salud de manera mortal.

Estudios sobre la anorexia

“En varones las actitudes anoréxicas oscilan entre el 3.41% al 1.8%.” (Tinahones, 2003)

Todos pensamos que la anorexia solo se da en las mujeres adolescentes, pero no es así, ya se mencionaron estudios en donde se muestra que al igual que las mujeres, los hombres también sufren de este trastorno.

“La autora Rojo (2003) a partir de una encuesta, obtuvo resultados de 2.500 mujeres de Noruega. La tasa fue del 74.9 %. En la encuesta se indagaba sobre la presencia a lo largo de la vida de un TCA, un total de 154 mujeres fueron incluidas.” (p. 48)

Mediante los dato se observa que este trastorno se da bastante, y a veces solo por seguir un estereotipo o para poder bajar “5 kilitos y estar sana” pero de lo que la gente no se da cuenta es que el trastorno puede llegar no solo a causar que no podamos funcionar correctamente y la con energía suficiente, sino también puede causar otras enfermedades y llegar hasta la muerte. También se muestra que la anorexia no es el único trastorno existente, también existe la bulimia, y otros trastornos no especificados que se dan en muchas personas y todo por seguir un estereotipo o estar fit.

A continuación se muestra una tabla de los autores Rojo (2003) con los análisis de datos sobre la anorexia nerviosa:
Anorexia infantil “Los problemas alimentarios están presentes desde la primera infancia. Una de las principales particularidades de la anorexia en prepúberes son el retraso del crecimiento y la asociación frecuente con estados depresivos.” (Rivas, 2005)

Los trastornos alimentarios pueden empezar desde muy temprana edad, bajo un enfoque o meta de perdida de peso diferente, pero que al final se encuentra estrechamente relacionada con las causas de estos en individuos de mayor edad. Lo que caracteriza a la anorexia particularmente en la etapa de la prepubertad es que su crecimiento se ve atrasado, en esta etapa los estragos de la enfermedad son muy grandes pues en algunos casos el cuerpo no se desarrolla como debe ser: no llega el periodo menstrual, no se desarrollan los órganos reproductivos, no se presenta el aumento de pechos ni ensanchamiento de caderas. Otra es la parte emocional, se presentan cambios muy drásticos en el estado de ánimo, se tienen indicios de depresión e incluso hasta pensamientos suicidas en casos muy extremos.

“En prepúberes, el crecimiento no ha finalizado y la masa ósea es precaria podría determinar no sólo un retraso, sino la imposibilidad de alcanzar una masa ósea y una talla final normal.” (Bello, 2008)

Como es mencionado anteriormente, el hecho de presentar este trastorno en esta etapa en la que el cuerpo no ha alcanzado su punto máximo de crecimiento, sino apenas va comenzando, puede representar un gran riesgo de no alcanzar ese desarrollo, el cuerpo puede quedar con la estructura del de un infante, algunos órganos tampoco alcanzan a madurar, etc. Es por esto que la anorexia infantil es considerada una de las más peligrosas en caso de estar avanzada y no ser diagnosticada o no recibir el tratamiento adecuado a tiempo.

Conclusión
Mediante la realización de este reporte de investigación pudimos comprender que la anorexia es un trastorno que no solo afecta a mujeres en la etapa de la adolescencia, si no también a hombres y mujeres de cualquier edad, por ejemplo se puede dar en prepúberes, niños pequeños, adultos e incluso en personas de la tercer edad; cada uno con diferentes causas o razones por las que llegan a padecer el trastorno. La anorexia trae consigo toda una serie de problemas psicológicos como lo son la depresión, la ansiedad, la esquizofrenia, entre otros. Muchas veces las personas juegan y hacen bromas acerca de este trastorno, o bien, dicen tenerlo para conseguir atención, sin pensar en las consecuencias que pueden generar. Algo que de la misma manera notamos es que, debido a que en los últimos años este tema ha sido muy polémico y ha salido a la luz mucha información al respecto, algunas personas lo han tomado como una “moda”, lo cual es algo con lo que estamos totalmente en contra; al realizar esta investigación descubrimos lo dañino que es este trastorno para los que la padecen y la gente que los rodea, no debe tomarse como un juego ni se debe hacer burla de algo que realmente afecta la vida de muchas personas, y que ha ocasionado infinidad de muertes. Por medio de los estudios nos pudimos dar cuenta de que gran parte de la población sufre este trastorno pero no se nota a simple vista, lo ocultan ya que piensan que es algo normal y no aceptan que es una a adicción y sobre todo una enfermedad, que pone en riesgo tu salud. También notamos que cada autor le da un significado diferente a la anorexia, pero todas concuerdan en que es un trastorno físico-psicológico que no solo afecta a la persona que lo padece si no también a toda la familia, ya que al tener en mente que la persona la padece, todos se encuentran con la preocupación de que algo le pueda suceder e intentan ayudarlo a solucionar su problema; pero muchas veces esa ayuda no sirve de mucho, pues las personas con anorexia tienden a estar cegadas sobre su problema. Para concluir, podemos decir que la anorexia es un tema delicado, un trastorno muy fuerte del cual hay que tener cuidado, ya que haciendo “dietas” no vamos a mejorar nuestra salud, si no empeorarla.

Referencias

Bello, D. R. E. (2008). Anorexia nerviosa en jóvenes y niños. España: Revista Electrónica de PortalesMédicos.com. Recuperado de http://www.ebrary.com

Carrillo, D. M. V. (2005). La influencia de la publicidad, entre otros factores sociales, en los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria: anorexia y bulimia nerviosas. España: Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Recuperado de http://www.ebrary.com

Caruana, L., Daini, S., & Mancini, A. (2010). Anorexia Nervosa : A Multi-disciplinary Approach: From Biology to Philosophy. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Gutiérrez, E. (2011). Anorexia nerviosa: ¿La rata o el diván?. Acción Psicológica, Enero, 57-70. Rivarola, M. (2005). La imagen corporal en adolescentes mujeres: su valor predictivo en trastornos alimentarios. Argentina: Red Fundamentos en Humanidades. Recuperado de http://www.ebrary.com Rivas, E. (2005). Anorexia infantil: La hipótesis etiológica. Revista de la Asociación Española de Neuropsiquiatría, Junio-Sin mes, 19-28. Rojo, M. L., & Cava, G. (2003). Anorexia nerviosa. Argentina: Editorial Ariel. Recuperado de http://www.ebrary.com Tinahones, F. (2003). ANOREXIA Y BULIMIA. Una experiencia clínica. España: Ediciones Díaz de Santos. Recuperado de http://www.ebrary.com

Vázquez, M. L. (2010). La historia de Sofía. México: Editores Mexicanos Unidos S.A. Zusman, L. (2009). Los desórdenes de la conducta alimentaria: anorexia y bulimia. Perú: Fondo Editorial de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú. Recuperado de http://www.ebrary.com…...

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...Anorexia Nervosa is a severe eating disorder that mainly affects teenage girls, however, it can affect men and women of all ages. There are many factors that contribute to a girl becoming anorexic, including low self-esteem and depression. Common features of anorexia include weight loss and behavior changes. The weight loss is gradual and often starts with a “perfectly normal weight reducing diet.”(Rowan) Although the only person who can cure anorexia is the person that suffers from it, there are some treatment options available today. Many factors contribute to a girl becoming anorexic. A main one is an attempt to lose excess weight. Most anorexic girls do not have “excess weight” to lose, they only think they do. In fact, most often they are unhealthily thin. Oftentimes, the girl disregards the opinions of others and focuses on losing as much weight as she can. Attempts to make her stop are often met with hostility and even violence.(Rowan, Shelly) Another key factor that can lead to anorexia is depression. This can be associated with stress/pressure at school, home, or in relationships. Usually, an anorexic teenage girl comes from a family where the pressure to succeed is great. This leads to constant anxiety over big tests such as finals and S.A.T./A.C.T. exams. Because the girl has so much anxiety, problems in relationships often arise. If she has a boyfriend, he tends to feel neglected because the girl is constantly worried about her academics.(Rowan, Shelly) A...

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Anorexia

...Anorexia Nervosa Vs Binge Eating Society’s set standards are the reason we have beautiful girls deceived into thinking they’re not good enough. Constantly retouching photos in magazines, applying lots of makeup and performing plastic surgery on models and celebrities has formed an unachievable ideal body image that many strive to possess. Living in a world full of fake perfection introduces us to low self-esteem and a dysmorphic body image as we desperately imitate those we identify with, perceive as prestigious or rewarded by society. Anorexia nervosa and binge eating are both disorders where eating becomes a way of satisfying an emotional or psychological need instead of a physical one. They have opposite effects on the shape of the body; however, both eating disorders cause serious mental and health problems that may eventually result in either suicide or death. Anorexia nervosa is an irrational obsession with losing weight and an unreasonable fear of gaining it. Anorexic people eat very little and tend to have intense exercise routines in order to avoid weight gain. Shockingly, it’s not about food in reality; they just associate being thin with being worthy. You can’t really blame them. The media is always mocking curvy celebrities like Adele, Kate Winslet and Jessica Simpson while glorifying super skinny (rumored to be anorexic) ones like Victoria Beckham, Ariana Grande and at some point Audrey Hepburn. J.K Rowling once expressed: “is ‘fat’ worse than......

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Anorexia

...their bodies and themselves. As girls reach a certain age, they begin to look at their bodies differently and want to see a change. These girls will try anything like dieting, diet pills, or even starving themselves to see this change, but the emotional and physical effects are never thought of when trying to lose weight a certain way. Average sized people should be portrayed more in the media because of the medias impact on body image perception of young women. Anorexia is a disease that involves unusual eating habits and self-starvation. The people who are affected are mostly young women, but people of either gender can become anorexic at any age. The most common cases of anorexia are found in young females, athletes, and people portrayed in the media. There are many physical effects that an anorexic person will experience. Weak bones are a common negative effect which really hurts an athlete. Hair loss and skin discoloration are other effects that effect both men and women. Other diseases can result from anorexia such as anemia or heart disease. All eating disorders have physical effects that are not portrayed from the media. There are also emotional effects that take a toll on people that have an eating disorder. Many people start to feel depressed. After a while, they actually can be diagnosed with depression by a doctor. Another effect is guilt for any reason. If a person begins to eat too much, she may start to feel guilty about eating so much. She then can......

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Anorexia

...Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia Nervosa is a widespread disease that many men and women are dealing with in their lives. It has affected an increasingly large number of people, especially young women. Categorized as a psychological disorder, many people assume that weight must be controlled in order to feel accepted in society. How is this disorder gaining popularity with its life-threating consequences and severe side effects? Is there any real way to fix Anorexia or will it always be part of a vicious cycle in today’s society? Anorexia Nervosa is a type of eating disorder that affects approximately 95% of teenage females (medicinenet.com). People who have anorexia have an intense fear of gaining weight, therefore, limiting the amount of food they eat (webmed.com). It is a way of using food or starving oneself to feel more in control of their life and to ease tension, anger, and anxiety (womenshealth.gov). A person with anorexia often begins dieting to lose weight. Over time the weight loss becomes a sign of mastery and control (medicinenet.com). The individual continues the ongoing cycle of restrictive eating, accompanied by excessive exercising or the overuse of diet pills to induce loss of appetite, or diuretics, or laxatives in order to reduce body weight, often to the point close to starvation in order to feel a sense of control over her body (medicinenet.com). Anorexics lives become focused on controlling their weight (womenshealth.gov). There is no single known cause of...

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