Free Essay

Analyse the Feasibility of Two Different Techniques of Fresh Water Supply in Egypt

In: Business and Management

Submitted By a515385818
Words 2479
Pages 10
1. Introduction
Fresh water supply plays an essential factor in a country, such as development of agriculture, industry and tourism (Khalil, 2001:57). Nevertheless, potable water only constitutes nearly 3% in the world water sources. It means that approximately a quarter of world’s population cannot access a sufficient high quality water including Egypt (Karagiannis and Soldatos, 2008: 448). Egypt suffers from water scarcity due to United Nations (2012) states that water scarcity means less than 1000 m3/year/person, while the figure in Egypt is about 963 m3/year/person.

Although, from the geographic perspective,there are adequate water resources in Egypt, such as Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea and Nile River (CIA, 2012), the Nile water level is decreasing due to the result of evaporation, rainwater supply, hot and dry climate, vast desert and global warming . According to Kashef (1983: 163), comparing with entering water in Nile (35.69 km3/year), the losses are 29.29 km3/year. Thus, Egypt needs to seek some methods to alleviate the problem of water scarcity. Overall, this report offers two alternative measures, desalination and dams respectively.

Generally, this report will analyse and compare the feasibility and differences between desalination and dams from three viewpoints: cost, environmental problems and social impact, by this means attempt to find the most effective and economical method to address the dilemma (water scarcity) in Egypt.

2. Background
Egypt, an agricultural country, is located in the northern Africa (CIA, 2012) with three main water resources, namely Nile water, groundwater and rainwater (Abdel-shafy and Aly, 2002: 4-5). However, the desert region occupies more than 96% in Egyptian total land (Fouly and Khaill,1979:205-206) and the average annual rainfall seldom surpass 200mm (Allam et al, 2002:20). It seems that the geographical feature puts further pressure on water resources.

Desalinating water is an indispensable part in the majority of Arab countries, specifically using plants of Multi-Stage Flash (45%) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) (42%), and it have experienced about 100 years since the first desalination plants introduced in Egypt (El-Sadek, 2010: 876-877). It makes desalination more profitable in terms of coastal country. Historically, there were three different types of Electrodialysis established in Egypt since 1975 (El-Sadek, 2010:878). Nowadays, Egypt not only engages in public sector actively but also encourages private sector to find the most suitable desalination technologies.

High Aswan Dam (HAD) is a giant project which costs the government 11 years to build (Strzepek et al, 2008: 119). It impacts the economy and energy of Egypt, for example the hydropower support and the floods or drought defence. Although it contributes to the development of agriculture, it may break the fragile eco-system and reduce the quantity of Nile water. According to (Abu-Zeid and El- Shibini, 2010:215), the TDS (total dissolved solids) rises at 185 mg/l after construction of the HAD and surrounding environment suffered from increasingly growth of aquatic weeds.
3. Requirements
The first consideration should be cost. According to World Bank (2012), the income level of Egypt is defined as lower middle income. The cost plays one of the most significant factors in water provision.

The second requirement is environment. As bordering Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea (CIA, 2012), the methods took in Egypt should be focused on the eco-system. Environmental problem could influence life of human beings and balance of nature. The authorities cannot implement it at the cost of environment.

The last factor is social impact. Because of complex process and giant project, constructing desalination and dam may cause some social impact. Thus, these methods should consider this indispensable influence.

4. Presentation of option
4.1 Desalination
Younos (2005:1) points out that desalination is a process to remove salts and other substances from seawater so that it can be used as potable water. Some desalination plants use electrical energy, while majority of them use fossil fuels which are associated with CO2 (greenhouse gas) emissions (Lamei: 2007: 1748).

4.2 Aswan Dam
New Hamoshire (2009) claims that “a dam is any artificial barrier which impounds or diverts water which has a height of 6 feet or more”. Precisely, Aswan Dam is a giant project which is constituted by key dam, spillway and power station.

5. Comparison of Options
5.1 cost
The most influential factor affecting the total cost in desalting water system is the consumption of energy (Lattemann et al, 2010:15). It is also claimed that the main energy used in RO is electricity. Nevertheless, RO is more economical than Electrodialysis Reverse in a high salinity water area, and the surface salinity in Red Sea is very high (42,000-47,000 ppm). Thus, Egypt became the second biggest user of desalted water RO in Red Sea region (Lattemann et al, 2010:19). Specifically, according to GWI (2006, cited in Lamei et al 2008: 1749), the total capacity of RO in Egypt is around 130,000 m3/d. Moreover, as one of the main technologies, RO is a much less-energy ($0.23 m3) and less-costly ($0.46 m3) plant (Lattemann et al, 2010:15).

Due to the development of desalination technology, the cost of desalination plants is much cheaper and become more competitive choice than traditional measure, such as water conveyance (as shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2) (Allam et al, 2002:24). Additionally, renewable energy (solar, wind and wave) which combines with RO may decrease the consumption of energy (Charcosset, 2009: 215). It means that in the future the cost of construction and production may fall more.

Figure 1: capital cost (Cc) versus long-distance piping from capacity and pipe length (Lamei et al, 2008: 10)

Figure 2: production cost (Cp) versus long-distance piping from capacity and pipe length (Lamei et al, 2008: 10)

Figure 1 and Figure 2 show clearly in comparison between capital /production costs and water conveyance. Specifically, the capital cost of RO desalination is much cost effective when pipelines are longer than 140km and the production cost of RO desalination is much economical when pipelines at least 300km with 2000m3/d capacity. In Egypt, the water supply of most northern cities such as Sinai and Sharm mainly come form the Nile which means high costs, while some tourist cities may relay on desalination (Sanchez, 2007: 69).

The HAD is located 7.3km upriver from the old one (Low Aswan Dam) was constructed from 1960 to 1971 in £ 500 million (Egypt Pounds) (Strzepek et al, 2008: 119). According to WCOD (2000:11), during the 1990s, the annual expenditure on large dams was between $32 and $46 billion and throughout the 20th century it peak to $2 trillion on some dams. Thus, due to the high cost, Egypt experienced great difficulty in that time. The government had to loan some funds form the USA. The further problem such as evaporation is also a severe challenge for Egyptian government. Even though it can afford firm store 55.5 billion m3, the evaporation is 10 billion m3 (Strzepek et al, 2008: 119). Overall, it seems that desalination plants ($ 0.46 m3) is much cheaper and effective than HAD if the government decides to build a new project.

5.2 environmental problems
Even though desalination performs better than HAD in cost respect, it is high likely that it triggers many environmental issues. Firstly, although in many African countries have abundant solar resource, most of RO tends to widely use non-clean energy (Lamei et al., 2008 :1749). With the high capacity of RO which use fossil fuel in Egypt or other Arab countries, they may damage the environment. To be precise, 1m3 transformer in RO plant will produce 3kg CO2. Secondly, over-intake of seawater and groundwater may affect water quality, for instance changing the salinity and temperature of seawater, increasing pollutants and sediments, damaging to aquifer and spreading seafloor (Lattemann et al., 2010:26-31). All of these oceanic changes will influence maritime environment and marine lives. Thirdly, as a tourism-dominated nation, if Egyptian establishes plants near the shoreline and seashores it may affect the marine environment and recreation or tourism atmosphere (Einav et al., 2002:143). It seems that the Egyptian government should balance the environment and profit.

Thanks to the HAD, the Egyptian overcame the great flood in 1964, 1975 and 1988 and drought in 1978 (Abu-Zeid, 1997: 210-211). It is reported that with this water support, the crop yield increased dramatically, specifically from 92,000 acres to 275,000 acres in 1952. It also promotes the development of tourism and industry. However, the silt accumulation drives up the river-bed which increases the potential floods. After the construction of HAD, it changed remarkable the balance of Nile River system. Therefore, desalination may lead to a less environmental degradation than HAD, if it could change to use eco-friendly energy.

5.3 Social impact
Even though both of two measures can cause unavoidable environmental degradation, it seems that desalination have lower negative social impact. According to Water Corporation (2009), the most frequently negative social impact is noise to locals, beach problems and temporary increased population. Specifically, the operation of these high capacity desalination machines may generate noises to the locals. Furthermore, as a tourist resort, building the desalination plants at the nearby beaches may impact the tourism and aesthetics (Monterey Bay, 2006). When establishing a plant, the local services and facilities cannot provide a temporary increased workforce. In addition, another possible impact of society is health aspect. To be precise, during the desalinating water process, it should require chemical in pre-treatment and need to be re-mineralized in post-treatment which may corrode pipes and water (Schiffler, 2004: 9). Thus, the desalinated water exists potential safety hazard.

Even the HAD has an indelible contribute to Egypt, there are some possible social and health impact. Many Egyptians who used to live in a strip of Nile had to move a new place far away from Aswan because of flood causing by increased river-bed (NMMU, 2006). It is reported that the death rate increased from 1.36% (1963) to 2.36 (1965) due to the HAD (NMMU, 2006). Due to the silt accumulation, the river flows slowly which leads the schistosome (blood-flukes disease) increased. Furthermore, Abu Simbel temple had been mover to a high ground gathering in an enormous human, financial and material resources cause of the rising water of Lake Nasser (UNESCO, 2009). Hence, it is more likely that desalination has lower social impact than HAD.

6. Conclusion
From the information provide above, the following conclusions can be: 1) Desalination is more feasible than HAD. 2) It seems that desalination has a slight advantage than HAD in cost respect. 3) Both desalination and HAD have essential environmental problem, but the latter one is more severe. 4) In terms of social impact, desalination has less influential than HAD.

7. Recommendation
Considering the three requirements, desalination method is more likely to be recommended as the main water supply to Egypt. Although it still have problem to environment and society, the scientist have been trying to use renewable energy instead the unclean energy. The relatively better energy is solar energy because El Nokrashy (2005, cited in Lamei, 2008: 1752) pointes that Egypt has abundant solar resource (3000kWh/m2/year). Thus, the cost effective plants should be PV-RO, which has installed in Gran Canaria (Herold et al, 1998 cited in Charcosset, 2009:219). When the government choose site to build a plant, it should consider various factors, such as good electrical network and transport system, low population density and natural disaster, nearby power station.

Word Count: 1800

References

Abu-Zeid, M. A. and El-Shibini, F. Z. (1997). Egypt’s High Aswan Dam. International Journal of Water Resources Development. 13(2),209-218.

Allama, A. R., SaaP, E-J. and Dawoud, M. A. (2002). Desalination of Brackish Groundwater in Egypt. Desalination. 152, 19-26

Abdel-Shafy, H. I. and Aly, R. O. (2002). Water Issue in Egypt: Resources, Pollution and Protection Endeavors. Cejoem. 8 (1), 3-21.

CIA (2012). The World Factbook — Egypt. Retrieved October 14th, 2012 from: http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/eg.html

Charcosset, C. (2009). A Review of Membrane Processes and Renewable Energies for Desalination. Desalination. 245, 214-231.

Einav, R., Harussi, K. and Perry, D. (2002). The Footprint of the Desalination Processes on the Environment. Desalination. 152,141-154.

El-Sadek, A. (2010). Water desalination: An Imperative Measure for Water Security in Egypt. Desalination. 250, 876–884.
Fouly, M. F. E. and Khaill, E. E. (1979). The Water Problem in Egypt. Desalination. 30, 205-212.

Karagiannis, I. C. and Soldatos, P. G. (2008). Water Desalination Cost Literature: Review and Assessment. Desalination. 223, 448-456.

Kashef, A-A. I. (1983). Salt-Water Intrusion in the Nile Delta. Ground Water. 21(2), 160-167.

Khalil, E. E. (2001). Water Technology Development in Egypt. Desalination. 136, 57-62.

Lamei, A., Zaag, P. V. D. and Münch, E. V. (2008). Impact of Solar Energy Cost on Water Production Cost of Seawater Desalination Plants in Egypt. Energy Policy. 36,1748-1756.

Lattemann, S., Kennedy, M. D., Schippers, J. C. and Amy, G. (2010). Global Desalination Situation. In M. A. Abraham (Ed.), Sustainability Science and Engineering. (pp. 7-38). London: Elsevier.

Monterey Bay (2006). Desalination Feasibility Study for the Monterey Bay Region. Retrieved October 19th ,2012 from: http://montereybay.noaa.gov/resourcepro/resmanissues/pdf/110806desal_final.pdf

New Hamoshire (2009). New Hampshire’s Definition of a Dam. Retrieved October 15th, 2012 from: http://des.nh.gov/organization/divisions/water/dam/documents/damdef.pdf

NMMU (2006). Pros and Cons of the Aswan Dam. Retrieved October 19th, 2012 from: http://tutor.nmmu.ac.za/uniGISRegisteredArea/intake13/Environmental%20Impact%20Assessment/aswan.pdf

Sanchez, A. S. and Subiela, V. J. (2007). Analysis of the Water, Energy, Environmental and SocioeconomicReality in Selected Mediterranean Countries: Cyprus, Turkey, Egypt, Jordan and Morocco. Desalination. 203, 62-74.

Schiffler, M. (2004). Perspectives and Challenges for Desalination in the 21st Century. Desalination. 165, 1-9.

Strzepek, K. M., Yohe, G. W., Tol, R. S. J. and Rosegrant, M. W. (2008). The Value of the High Aswan Dam to the Egyptian Economy. Ecological Economics. 66, 117–126
UNESCO (2009). Nubian Monument from Abu Simbel to Philae. Retrieved October 19th, 2012 from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/88/

United Nations (2012). Water Scarcity. Retrieved October 14th, 2012 from: http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/scarcity.shtml

Water Corporation (2009). Southern Seawater Desalination Project: Social Impact Management Plan. Retrieved October 19th, 2012 from: http://www.watercorporation.com.au/_files/PublicationsRegister/15/SIA/FINAL_Social_Impact_Management_Plan.PDF

WCOD (2009). Dams and Development. London and Sterling: Earthscan.

World Bank (2012). Egypt. Retrieved October 15th, 2012 from: http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/egypt

Younos, T. (2005). Desalination: Supplementing Freshwater Supplies Approaches and Challenges. Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education. 132, 1-2.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Two Different Lifestyles

...Valerie Mayer Professor Zoel Kelly English 1301 21 September 21, 2012 Two Different Lifestyles We all have friends who are different. Not everyone can be the same. It’s interesting to see just how some people can be the same and yet so different. They might have the same taste in music, or in clothes. People often misunderstand why some friends hang out together. They might have many of the same qualities and yet be very different from each other. A few of the differences between countries, for example, are a good way to start. Lifestyles in one country are very different from another. In the journal article, “Health Lifestyles in the United States and Canada: Are We Really So Different? “, authors Krueger, Bhaloo, and Rosenau state that one major difference here in the U.S is the smoking age. The U.S smoking age is 18, while Canada’s smoking age is 12. Another lifestyle difference is what the U.S conducted a study where questions on binge drinking were asked every thirty days, whereas in Canada, the question was associated for every twelve. Here in the U.S, our mortality rate among HIV survivors is very high. In Canada, the mortality rate is lower due to the high number of teenagers. These are just a few examples of “friendly” countries with similar, yet huge lifestyle differences. But not all friendships fall into the same category of lifestyles.......

Words: 700 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Water Supply

...Mike DeFelice -42 Water Supply Summary In this chapter we learned about water supply. Understanding water supply principles is key to fire fighting for a number of different reasons. Knowing the different types of fire hydrants, their water pressure, and how far apart they will be from one another is important in a hazardous situation. There are 4 key principles to water supply systems. These principals are the source of water supply, means of moving water, water treatment facility, water storage and distribution. Sources of water supply in a jurisdiction can be obtained from surface water, ground water, or both. Some examples of surface water are rivers, and lakes. Most ground water supply comes from wells drilled into underground aquifers. The means of moving water has three key methods. These methods are direct pumping system, gravity system, and combination system. Direct pumping systems are water supply systems supplied by a system of pumps. These systems are typically found in industrial and agricultural settings. Gravity systems are water supply systems in which gravity is the driving force that moves the water. Water is elevated above the system in a tank. Combination systems are combinations of both gravity, and direct pump systems. Combination systems are the most common type of municipal water supply systems. Water treatment facilities are places the water goes through to get filtered, and decontaminated so that water can be consumed without......

Words: 754 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Water Supply and Sanitation

...ASSIGNMENT WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION DONE BY: NEENU ALI B110770AR PLUMBING FIXTURES WATER CLOSET FIXTURES A water closet is a room which contains a flush toilet, usually accompanied by a washbowl or sink. The term may also be used to refer specifically to a flush toilet. The development of the flush toilet revolutionized human sanitation, and contributed a number of interesting developments to plumbing and architecture as structures began to be built to accommodate such toilets. Water closets come in various shapes, designs, and colors. The device is designed to receive human waste and dispose of the waste properly in a sanitary sewer system.  Most  water  closets  mount  on  the  floor,  but there are models that are wall hung. Modem water closets have various design features which create different flushing actions. TYPES: THE WATER CLOSETS ARE OF TWO TYPES: 1: Eastern Water Closet (Indian Water Closet) 2: Western Water Closet 1: Eastern Water Closet: This is most commonly used in eastern part from world from Pakistan, to Bangladesh including, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. It is shaped in a way that one has to sit by foot on it. Its basin has inverted slop towards the back side of the closet where a trap excludes the sewer pipe (drain) from it. 2: Western Water Closet: It is very popular and commonly used in western part of the world. It is shaped......

Words: 1123 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Compare and Contrast Fresh and Salt Water Fishing

...As an avid shore fisherman who enjoys fishing, I have the unique opportunity to choose between two similar, but two very different, types of fishing. These two types of fishing are fresh water fishing and salt water fishing. With that being said, in the state where I reside, there are two distinct attitudes towards fishing. There are those anglers who prefer fresh water fishing, and there are those anglers who prefer salt water fishing. Both types of fishing ultimately deal with utilizing a fishing pole, fishing line and bait (or a fishing lure) to catch fish. However, in the same way they are similar; in contrast, they are both very much different. In a fresh water lake, the water rises with the amount of rainfall and falls due to evaporation and drainage; on the other hand, ocean the water rises and falls with the lunar tide. Unlike fresh water fishing, where an angler would use “lighter” fishing tackle due to catching smaller fish, salt water fishing requires much “heavier” tackle due to the vast difference in size from fresh water fish to salt water fish. For instance, the State record for a fresh water largemouth bass caught in a lake is 10 pounds 14 ounces; whereas, a Great White shark can weigh more then a car! So as you can see, although fresh water fishing and salt water fishing are similar, in some ways, they are very much different. Works Cited Houch, R. (September 3, 2013). NJ Saltwater Fisherman. Retrieved from http://www.njsaltwaterfisherman.com/index.php...

Words: 310 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Impact of Trade on Egypt

...Characteristics of Egypt’s Economy Water Resources and Growing Population Pressure Oil and Natural Gas Geographical Location Egyptian Culture Higher Education Socialism and Its Aftermath Egypt’s Comparative Advantage in the Global Economy Changing Global Economy Egypt’s Economy in Relation to Three Waves of Globalization Revealed Competitive Advantage Analysis v vi viii xi xiv xvi 1 5 5 5 7 8 10 12 13 14 14 16 16 16 17 18 19 19 22 25 II 3. Trade Policy and the International Trade Regime Current Trade Regime in Egypt Tariff Structure Non-tariff Barriers to Trade Multilateral, Regional, and Bilateral Agreements Multilateral Agreements Regional Agreements Bilateral Agreements Trade Regimes of Major Trading Partners Economic Impacts of Trade Agreements Anticipated Economic Effects of Trade Agreements Developing Country Trade Agreements with the United States and the European Union Impacts of Egypt’s Trade Agreements Observed Economic Impacts of Trade Agreements 4. Impact of Trade Regime Changes on Subsectors Purpose of Subsector Analysis Summary of Subsector Analysis Fresh Flowers, Fruits, and Vegetables Processed Food Poultry Cotton Textiles and Clothing Furniture and Wood products Pharmaceutical Products Construction Materials—Marble and Ceramic Tiles Motor Vehicle Assembly Information Technology General Constraints Common to All SubSectors 5. Conclusions and Next Steps Conclusions Next Steps References Appendix A. Subsector Studies A1. Fresh Fruits and Vegetables 31......

Words: 75620 - Pages: 303

Free Essay

Two Different Phenomena or Application

...Mirage is a misleading appearance. Most mirages occur on seas and deserts. Mirage is caused by different temperature. It happens when the ground is very hot and the air is cold. The hot ground warms a layer of air just above the ground. Cold air is denser than the warm air, therefore it has a higher refractive index. That means when light passes through a medium with a high index, it will bend more. On the other hand, as light passes through from a low index to a high index, it bends toward (perpendicular line) to the medium boundary. Conversely, when light travels from a high index to a low index, the light bends away from the line. For example, if you are lost in the desert. You have been walking for hours and you are running out of water. On the horizon, you see a puddle and you think you are saved. Unfortunately, it is not a puddle. It is a mirage. That is because the sunlight hits the warm air then it bends upward. The reason is because the warmer air is less dense than the cooler air. However, light will follow a curved path toward the cooler air. The explanation of this phenomenon is the colder air has a higher index of refraction than the warm air does. The human brain assumes that light travels in a straight line. We think that there is a puddle on the desert because water reflects light from the sky....

Words: 250 - Pages: 1

Premium Essay

Fresh Water Issues

...hand, the threats to freshwater are grave, with climate change and an increasing global population that requires food and clothing, not to mention safe drinking water. Water is simply becoming scarcer. On the other hand, impending crisis is often a great motivator. Savvy and responsible companies from nearly all sectors, along with investors and insurers, are taking action to secure their bottom lines. Becoming an efficient water user "inside the factory fence" is only the first step of the journey. Those further down the water stewardship path are engaging with local, regional and national authorities to help ensure that water resources are managed sustainably. The future security of freshwater resources around the world is of increasing concern. Due to our interlinked global economy, waterscarcity in many parts of the world could harm the global economy in ways we had not thought of. Shortfalls in crop yields and more variable food prices could be an early impact. Our demand for water is closely linked to economic growth. As we grow wealthier, the more freshwater we require to supply cities, power plants, factories and the production high protein food such as dairy, meat and fish. It is not just a question of more people requiring more water. Rather, it is a case of more wealthy societies demanding much more water. During the 20th century, while population grew by a factor of four, freshwater withdrawals grew by a factor of nine. If we take these past patterns and look......

Words: 323 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Water Supply Issues

...and a vast area of land. Indirectly, this issue could affect the entire world. The amount of fresh water is limited, and there is conflict over the allocation of this necessary resource. People need an adequate supply of freshwater with good quality, affordable prices and consistent reliability. The survival of human life is contingent on the availability of water. There is no guarantee that water will always be there, and this is becoming more and more evident as population increases and the supply decreases. Two major means for freshwater in the western United States are the Colorado River and the Ogallala Aquifer. These bodies of freshwater have had a vast history of disputes over how they should be allocated, maintained and treated. Up until now, there have been no agreements that have satisfied everyone. The allocation of fresh water resources in western America needs to be secured because if the status quo is maintained, the consequences will be enormous to humans and the environment, as well as the economy, whom are all dependent upon freshwater for survival. The Colorado River has had a long history of water allocation controversies. It is a major river that runs through seven states including Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, New Mexico, Arizona, California and Nevada. It then continues into Mexico and empties into the Gulf of California. This river is 1,450 miles long and supplies water to over 40 million people. (Imperial Valley) The seven states the river runs through......

Words: 2608 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Critical Analyses of Two Works of Landscape Architecture Art in Egypt

...Egypt developed very early and among the most notable areas is their early development in architecture. This is mostly attributed to… this paper will focus on critically analyzing two ancient works of Egyptian architecture; the Egyptian pyramids and the great temple of Ammon, Karnak. Design The ancient Egyptian pyramids are pyramid-shaped structures that were built as tombs for Pharoahs. The ancient Egyptians believed that the Pharaohs were chosen by God to serve as mediators between humans and gods, hence they were treated with a lot of respect. After their death, they were buried in pyramid together with their possessions that would be useful to them in their afterlife. The shape was also influenced by the belief that they were “launch pads” for the soul of the dead Pharaoh to the sky to live with the imperishable stars. Others believed the pyramids were a stairway for the souls of the Pharaoh to climb to the sky. There are no existing records of the building plans used to build the pyramids, and as a result most of the design schemes that people have come up with over the years are speculative. Different theories have been put forward as to why they were built in the shape of a pyramid.the most common is that this shape reflects the rays of the sun. In his book The Keys to the Temple, David Furlong (1997, pp ) believed that the ancient Egyptians worked on the plan of the pyramids in the form of a triangle, basing their calculations on the basic properties of a......

Words: 1046 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Water Supply in California

...hits he mountains, it rises and cools, dropping most of its water as both rain and snow. This is the western part of the "rain shadow effect." So in the north, water is not only dropped by being north and cold, but it's collected and funnelled by the mountains. The Central Valley / San Joachim Valley is in between the extremes, which is what makes it the "Bread Basket of the United States," and almost the entire world. More than half of the entire US food supply (agriculture, dairy, and livestock) comes out of our Central Valley. Where do they get it from? Southern California, home to half of the state's population, depends on the State Water Project, the Colorado River Aqueduct and the Los Angeles Aqueduct supply for about half of its supply. California's vast agricultural industry is also dependent on water projects, both large and small. The California State Water Project is the largest multipurpose, state-built water project in the United States. The SWP transports water from the Feather River watershed to agriculture, and some of the water goes to industrial and urban users. More than two-thirds of Californians receive some water from the SWP. The system was designed and contracted to deliver 4,200,000 acre feet but in an average year delivers only 2,300,000 acre feet because many of the original planned features were never built. The CVP’s original purpose was to tame seasonal flooding and to direct water to the south to irrigate 3 million acres of......

Words: 442 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Fresh Water Ecosystem

...Winter 2003 Sustaining Healthy Freshwater Ecosystems SUMMARY Fresh water is vital to human life and economic well-being, and societies extract vast quantities of water from rivers, lakes, wetlands, and underground aquifers to supply the requirements of cities, farms, and industries. Our need for fresh water has long caused us to overlook equally vital benefits of water that remains in stream to sustain healthy aquatic ecosystems. There is growing recognition, however, that functionally intact and biologically complex freshwater ecosystems provide many economically valuable commodities and services to society. These services include flood control, transportation, recreation, purification of human and industrial wastes, habitat for plants and animals, and production of fish and other foods and marketable goods. Over the long term, intact ecosystems are more likely to retain the adaptive capacity to sustain production of these goods and services in the face of future environmental disruptions such as climate change. These ecosystem benefits are costly and often impossible to replace when aquatic systems are degraded. For this reason, deliberations about water allocation should always include provisions for maintaining the integrity of freshwater ecosystems. Scientific evidence indicates that aquatic ecosystems can be protected or restored by recognizing the following: • Rivers, lakes, wetlands, and their connecting ground waters are literally the “sinks” into which......

Words: 11042 - Pages: 45

Premium Essay

Water Supply Report

...the developing world is facing a water-supply problem. The government is looking for an affordable solution to this problem and has asked you to investigate different methods of water provision. | Tutor Name: | | Student ID Number: | T0048411 | Date of Submission: | | Word count: | 1075 | Introduction Water is very important for every human being; it is not only used for drinking, as well as to satisfied people’s essential needs. Earth is huge, but there is a limited amount of water that humanity can use. Of all the water on Earth, only 4% is fresh, and only 0.0067% can be used by people (Gleick, 1993). Fresh water are distributed very unevenly around the globe, which is why some countries or entire regions will be left without water. One of these countries is Taiwan. It is very important to find a way to resolve the situation in the field of water supply. Next described will link Taiwan is faced with the problem of water shortages, and will also describe some of the ways to combat this problem. Fresh water is distributed very unequally around the globe, so some countries or entire regions are without fresh water. One of those countries is Taiwan. It is very important to find a way to solve the situation in the field of water supply. Follows will describe a developing country , Taiwan, which faces the shortage of water with its some plans to deal with it. Problems for water supply have to take it seriously, preventing from no water sources in the future is......

Words: 1319 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Feasibility of Two Fresh Water Supply Techniques in Sudan

...FEASIBILITY OF TWO FRESH WATER SUPPLY TECHNIQUES IN SUDAN 1.0 INTRODUCTION Access to clean water is considered a basic human right and in many countries when sustainable development is considered, water is at the top of the list of priorities (Omer, 2008). The value of water is increasingly felt in areas such as Sudan, where precipitation is inadequate while temperatures are high resulting in dry or arid conditions (Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), cited in USAID, 2010). Two-thirds of the country is arid and rainfall is less than 400mm annually. Regardless of the fact that about 60% of Sudan lies within the Nile basin, it only draws 18.5x109 m3 from the Nile’s annual flow of 84x109m3 and added to its internal supply of 12x109m3, the water availability falls considerably below the water stress limit of 1000m3 per head (ibid). According to FAO, (cited in USAID, 2010), in Sudan the renewable water resource per capita at 2008 stood at 726m3/person/year and is projected to be 617m3/person/year in 2015. It is low and rapidly dropping every year (ibid) and unless measures are taken, many citizens will be living without a basic human right. Since Sudan cannot rely on rainfall which is sporadic and concentrated in 4 months for most areas (Omer, 2008), water management techniques need to be implemented to ensure availability of potable water. Sudan is bordered by the Red Sea to the east which makes desalination a viable option but the cost implications and......

Words: 2036 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Water Supply

...Introduction Water is a basic human necessity. It is an essential natural resource for all aspects of human existence. Unfortunately in many countries water is scarce or contaminated. It was reported that shortage of water is one of the two most worrying problems of this century. This lack of access to safe water increases outbreak of waterborne diseases. To control these diseases a sufficient amount of safe drinking water is important. This implies not only improve the design and planning of water supplies, but also sanitation and hygiene behaviour. This report aims to compare different methods in which safe water can be supplied and access in a local community and it is divided into several sections, firstly options and requirements are going to be presented, followed by comparison of those options or requirement, next the best possible solution for the water supply project is going to be recommended and finally give a conclusion. Background Somalia is among the five least developed of 170 countries listed in the 2012, Human development index. The country was created in 1960 from an Italian colony in combination with British protectorate. It went into anarchy following the overthrown of the military regime of President Siad barre in 1991 (BBC, 2016). According to United Nations, 2012 Somalia has a population of 9.8 million in an area of 637,657sq km. There are substantial challenges in the country including water scarcity. Located in a very advantageous region......

Words: 1114 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Water Drainage Techniques

...Water drainage techniques, materials, processes and maintenance (Name of Student) (Name of Institution) Water drainage techniques, materials, processes and maintenance Under ordinary conditions rain water seeps into the ground and forms underground water. Most of the water that falls as rain soaks into the ground or gets carried away by rivers. But in urban areas, the built environment alters the natural drainage of water, with hard surfaces increasing both the rate and amount of rainwater that turns into run-off. And it has to go somewhere. Traditional piped ‘drains’ have a limited capacity to cope with the high levels of surface water generated by extreme rainfall events. And, when the capacity of one or more parts of the drainage system is exceeded, the worst happens. For example, in the floods of June 2007, extreme rainfall in the Midlands and the north of England led to large-scale urban flooding, with over 55,000 properties affected: two thirds of these were from surface water run-off overloading drainage systems. In addition to flood risk, large amounts of surface water run-off can cause water quality problems. As water runs over hard urban surfaces, it picks up pollutants that are washed into water courses. For example, run-off from roads contains heavy metals and hydrocarbons which can seriously impact on water quality. A well planned drainage infrastructure helps to manage water run-off by preventing......

Words: 1695 - Pages: 7