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American Airlines/ Marketing

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MERCADOTECNIA
Caso 3 American Airlines

INTRODUCCION
En esta presentación, definiré los aspectos básicos de lo que es una investigación de mercado y su uso para las empresas, aplicándolos al caso de American Airlines y los resultados obtenidos en 1992 con sus estrategias y el impacto que tuvo la introducción de la competencia en el mercado, aunado a un análisis FODA de la empresa. La mañana del 15 de abril de 1926, un joven aviador llamado Charles A. Lindbergh cargó una saca de correo en su pequeño biplano DH-4 y despegó de Chicago hacia San Luis. Ese mismo día, más tarde, él y otros dos pilotos transportaron tres cargas de correo desde San Luis hasta Chicago.
Lindbergh era, a la sazón, piloto jefe de la empresa Robertson Aircraft
Corporation, radicada en Misuri, que fue la segunda empresa de aviación en recibir un contrato del correo aéreo de los Estados Unidos. Esta fue una de la veintena de empresas que, con el tiempo, llegarían a conformar la actual American
Airlines.
La unificación comenzó en 1929, cuando se formó The Aviation Corporation para adquirir empresas de aviación jóvenes, incluida Robertson. En 1930, las filiales de
The Aviation Corporation se incorporaron a American Airways, Incorporated. En
1934, American Airways pasó a ser American Airlines, Incorporated.
En 1991 la estructura de precios del sector se había vuelto demasiado compleja
En 1992 American Airlines Inc, era la mayor línea área de Estados Unidos, con una flota de 662 aviones, realizando 2,450 vuelos diarios, con 182 destinos en
Estados Unidos y Hawaii, 14 a Europa, 38 a Latinoamérica y otros 22 destinos.
Cabe resaltar que anteriormente las líneas áreas estaban reguladas, en 1978 el congreso aprobó la desregulación de las líneas áreas, con esta medida, los precios de los pasajes bajaban y el número de pasajeros aumentaba sustancialmente. Entre 1980 y 1990 el volumen de pasajeros creció casi un 80%.

DESARROLLO
La investigación de mercados, como un concepto, lo podemos definir como la recopilación y análisis de información realizados de forma sistemática o expresa, para tomar decisiones con lo que respecta a la empresa y de su entorno.

MERCADOTECNIA
Caso 3 American Airlines

Es una potente herramienta que debe permitir a la empresa, obtener la información necesaria para establecer sus planes, programas, políticas y estrategias que más se adecúen a sus objetivos y establecer una correcta política de mercado.
OBJETIVO DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN DE MERCADOS
El principal objetivo de la investigación de mercados es proporcionar información útil para la identificación y solución de diversos problemas de la empresa, así como una toma de decisiones adecuada en el momento oportuno y preciso.
Los objetivos básicos se pueden dividir en:
1) Objetivo social:
Satisfacer las necesidades del consumidor final.
2) Objetivo económico:
Determinar el grado de éxito o fracaso que pueda tener la empresa dentro del mercado real o potencial y así diseñar un plan a seguir. 3) Objetivo Administrativo: Ayuda a la empresa en su desarrollo al hacer una planeación estratégica, organización, manejo adecuado de los recursos, para que el producto correcto llegue en tiempo al consumidor final.
La investigación de mercados







Es de suma relevancia para las empresas ya que en base a ella se pueden gestar y tomar decisiones adecuadas para alcanzar los objetivos planteados. Se puede aplicar a cualquier empresa y es una fuente valiosa de información que permite tomar decisiones con bases reales.
Se puede hacer ya sea dentro de la empresa, con un departamento especializado o externamente con una agencia que se dedique a ello.
Es una investigación aplicada con los siguientes fines: o Proporcionar información que ayude a comprender el mercado y el entorno o Identificar oportunidades y problemas o Desarrollar y evaluar cursos de acción alternativos
Es necesaria por las siguientes razones: o Conocer al consumidor: Para desarrollar un plan de mercadotecnia que pueda satisfacer las necesidades, costumbres, deseos y/o motivaciones del consumidor o Disminución de riesgos: Ayuda a predecir el futuro mediante un análisis del pasado o Informar y analizar la información:
Ya que es una fuente de información que permite valorar las ventajas e inconvenientes de las alternativas de acción

A cambio presente los siguientes beneficios:

MERCADOTECNIA
Caso 3 American Airlines











Proporciona información real y expresada en términos precisos para la solución de problemas y crecimiento de la empresa
Ayuda a determinar el producto a fabricarse o servicio que ofrecer con base a las necesidades manifestadas por los consumidores.
Define las características del consumidor
Define dimensión del mercado, perfilamiento, segmentos y ayuda a evitar desperdicios en la inversión
Ayuda a conocer el mercado potencial cuando se quiere lanzar un nuevo producto, tamaño, etc
Determina el sistema de ventas más adecuado, conforme a lo que el mercado está demandando
Ayuda a que la toma de decisiones se lleve a cabo con un mayor grado de certidumbre.
Ayuda a analizar las perspectivas de la oferta y la demanda
Ayuda a ver cambios en el mercado, gustos y preferencias de los clientes, para que la empresa pueda responder y adaptarse a ellos y no quede fuera del mercado.

LIMITANTES DE LA INVESTIGACION DE MERCADOS








Alto costo de aplicación
Tiempo y costos que en ocasiones las empresas no están dispuestos a invertir Falta de personal especializado para su aplicación
Dificultad para valuar los resultados en pesos y centavos
Dificultad para obtener resultados cien por ciento confiables, debido a la falta de cooperación tanto de factores internos como externos
El desconocimiento y no entender bien los beneficios de una investigación de mercados.
El tiempo que lleva una investigación de mercados

SELECCIÓN DEL MERCADO META
1. Identificar los posibles segmentos de mercado a los que se pretende llegar.
2. Seleccionar el mercado meta, analizando lo atractivo de cada uno aunados a los productos o servicios que ofrece la empresa
3. Analizar las características del mercado meta
4. Planear el posicionamiento para cada segmento del mercado
5. Crear la mezcla de mercadotecnia (4p’s – Producto, precio, plaza y promoción) Teniendo AA servicio de transporte de carga, así como vuelos para pasajeros, estos se dividen en los clientes de negocio y los de placer, cada uno con requerimientos diferentes, por mencionar algunos: horarios de ida y vuelta,

MERCADOTECNIA
Caso 3 American Airlines

obligación de pernoctar en sábado, vuelos directos vs vuelos con escala. Con la nueva política de precios, AA busca generar nuevos clientes, especialmente viajeros de negocios.

FODA AMERICAN AIRLINES
FORTALEZAS
Línea aérea más grande del mundo

OPORTUNIDADES
Puede tomar ventaja de fracasos de otras líneas y abrir otras rutas constantemente Capacidad de expansión

Flota de aviones renovada Programas como viajero frecuente
En viajes largos hacerlos sin escalas
Alianzas con otras líneas aéreas del Promociones a clientes que compran mundo cierto número de boletos
Compromisos con el medio ambiente con un programa de ahorro de combustibles y responsabilidad social
DEBILIDADES
La edad promedio de su flota es menor a otras líneas
Vulnerabilidad a la depreciación de sus activos Cambios en los niveles de seguridad
Reducción excesiva de precios por parte de los competidores
Alta rotación de personal y que tenga personal con suficiente experiencia

AMENAZAS
Alianzas entre otras líneas aéreas entre si Restricciones de espacio para autorizaciones de despegue y aterrizaje
Alzas en los combustibles
Crisis de liquidez por aumentos en las pérdidas de la industria
Intensa competencia, constantemente en precios y márgenes escasos de ganancias Productos tecnológicos sustitutivos con teleconferencias y videoconferencias

IMPACTOS DE LA COMPETENCIA







El desarrollo de sistemas de reservas informatizados
Redes de cubos y radios con beneficios tanto para las líneas aéreas como a los consumidores
Programas de viajeros frecuente
Complejidad en las tarifas aéreas
Práctica de ofrecer una amplia variedad de tarifas con descuento por debajo de la tarifa turista vigente
Política de overbooking

MERCADOTECNIA
Caso 3 American Airlines

POLITICA DE PRECIOS
Uno de los factores para poder sobresalir en un mercado es poder ofrecer el mejor precio, en el caso de las líneas aéreas, esta no es tarea fácil. Crandall en 1992 quiso establecer una política de precios subrayando “sencillez, equidad y valor”
La nueva política incluía 2 conceptos claves:
1. En cualquier vuelo había solamente 4 tarifas distintas
a. Primera clase
b. Turista regular
c. Turista con descuento, compra con 7 días de anticipación
d. Turista con descuento, compra con 21 días de anticipación
2. Todas las tarifas debían guardar relación con las millas recorridas
3. Las nuevas tarifas se fijaron por debajo de las tarifas existentes y por tanto más viajeros de negocios y de placer dispondrían de precios mas bajos Con esta nueva política en un inicio los ingresos se podrían ver mermados, pero en el año en conjunto se esperaba un impacto positivo y que se mantuviera a largo plazo. American Airlines identificó 4 efectos como fuentes de ganancias
1. Cambio en la mezcla de tarifas regulares y con descuento
2. Cambio en la participación de mercado previendo captar otro medio punto del 11% del mercado estadounidense total
3. Generación de nuevos clientes, especialmente viajeros de negocios.
4. Se predijeron ahorros en los costes de 25 millones de dólares al año.

CONCLUSIONES
El plan “política de precios” no era una promoción AA siempre había sido competitivo en precios, quería que la estructura fuera permanente.
La gran competencia en los precios hizo que el value Plan resultara inviable y la compañía se vio obligada a cancelarlo.
Constantemente se tiene que estar analizando el mercado, y evaluar las situaciones en su momento para poder aprovechar ventajas y oportunidades, como es la de adquirir nuevas rutas.
Uno de los impactos que tiene AA es el precio y la complejidad de los mismos, el viajero busca la mejor tarifa, de preferencia con vuelos sin escala y en la medida de lo posible con alguna ventaja (maleta incluida, alimentos incluidos, puntualidad, etc.) MERCADOTECNIA
Caso 3 American Airlines

BIBLIOGRAFÍA
Rodan, Katie (2006) The Value of Effective Market Research. Stanford University's
Entrepreneurship Corner
Recuperado de http://ecorner.stanford.edu/authorMaterialInfo.html?mid=1452
Proceso de Investigación de Mercados, Presentación, Pearson
Kotler Philip, Armstrong Gary. (2008) Principios de marketing. 12ª Edición.
Editorial Pearson.
Garnica C.H., Maubert C., (2009) Fundamentos de marketing. Primera Edición.
Editorial Pearson.
Naresh K. Malhotra. (2008) Investigación de mercados. Un enfoque aplicado. 5ª
Edición, Pearson Prentice Hall
Market Research for Eco-Innovation: Lessons from Residential Energy www.oecd.org/env/consumption-innovation/43373168.pdf Recuperado el 30 de agosto de 2013, OCDE…...

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