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In sociology, the term ‘social class’ is most often used to refer to the primary system of social stratification found in modern capitalist societies. Social stratification refers to ‘the presence [in society] of distinct social groups which are ranked one above the other in terms of factors such as prestige and wealth’ (Haralambos and Holborn 2004, p.1). The defining feature of a stratified society, then, is that of inequality in terms of the ‘arrangement of individuals…in a hierarchy of advantaged and disadvantaged life chances’ (Fulcher and Scott 1999, p. 601).

It has been suggested that social inequality is a feature of all human societies (Haralambos and Holborn 2004, p.1; Bilton et al 1994, p.34). Sociologists have identified a number of different forms of stratification systems existing in other societies or historic periods, for example, the caste system in traditional India, slavery and feudalism (Bilton et al 1994, pp. 36-41). From a study of other systems it is clear that not all systems of stratification are organised in terms of social class; the caste system for example was stratified in terms of status. In societies where ‘economic relationships are primary’, however, the division of members into groups in terms of similarities in attitudes, lifestyles and occupations is generally termed divisions of class. (Bilton et al 1994, p.36)

For classic sociologist Karl Marx, an examination of the workings of social strata was essential to an understanding of social inequality. Stratification by class was particularly important to him and he in fact argued that ‘all societies, except for the most primitive and tribal ones, were…class societies’ (Fulcher and Scott 1999, p. 605). Marx further argued that ‘The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles’ (Marx and Engels 1848 in Fulcher and Scott…...

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...The purpose of this simulation was to create to determine if JET Copies needs to purchase a back up copier. To begin, information had to be gathered which was given based on research the founders of JET Copies did to determine the length of time between breakdowns, the probability of repair times, and the revenue they would take in daily. Because there is a variance amongst the days it would take to repair the copier as well as the revenue being lost, creating this simulation helps JET Copies make the best decisions considering all the possibilities through sampling and probability. While it would be more accuracy to follow the physical process to make the decision based on true, random occurrences, JET Copies wants to know the number of breakdowns and repair time for a year which calls for this simulation of random numbers. To begin this simulation the repair time table had to be computed because it would give an introduction overview of the probability of the repair time needed to fix any breakdowns; it would also be needed to fulfill some details in the next table as well. Based on this table the following information was gathered: the probability that it would take one to two days to repair a breakdown would be 65 percent whereas for it to take three days or more would be 90 percent. After this table was created it was time to focus on the main table of the simulation which would provide more detailed information from a probability basis. The first column of the......

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...Jet Copies Breakdown Cumulative Prob Time Between Breakdown Probability Cumulative Probability Repair Time (days) Probability (Uniform) Cumulative Probability Sales Vol. F(x) = .0275x2 x = 20*sqrt(r/11) 0.20 0 1 0.143 0 2000 0.45 0.20 2 0.143 0.143 3000 0.25 0.65 3 0.143 0.286 4000 0.10 0.90 4 0.143 0.429 5000 0.143 0.571 6000 0.143 0.714 7000 0.143 0.857 8000 Breakdowns "Random #, r1 ( rand() )" Time Between Breakdowns, x (weeks) Cumulative Time, x (weeks) Random #, r2 ( rand() ) Repair Time (days) "Random #, r3 ( rand() )" Number of Sales Per Day Revenue Lost Per Day, .10s Revenue Lost 1 0.87461092 5.639506491 5.639506491 0.812564485 3 0.618968125 6000 $600 $1,800 2 0.619910638 4.747863204 10.3873697 0.046586853 1 0.732973872 7000 $700 $700 3 0.648856412 4.857445687 15.24481538 0.149309122 1 0.415056638 4000 $400 $400 4 0.202647621 2.714591016 17.9594064 0.93071048 4 0.041572713 2000 $200 $800 5 0.035360553 1.133948101 19.0933545 0.985291726 4 0.84598125 7000 $700 $2,800 6 0.59729191 4.660440518 23.75379502 0.94815507 4 0.822362216 7000 $700 $2,800 7 0.538230976 4.424029326 28.17782434 0.14855159 1 0.120220407 2000 $200 $200 8 0.187726352 2.612740475 30.79056482 0.883373483 3 0.508932837 5000 $500 $1,500 9 0.661050419 4.902876406 35.69344123 0.069376826 1 0.265850047 3000 $300 $300 10 0.031228616 1.065638801...

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...Jet Copy Simulation Prepared by Joe Miller Prepared for February 7th 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION SUMMARY JET COPY SIMILATION CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS APPENDIX INTRODUCTION The purpose of this report is to examine the feasibility to for Jet Copy to purchase a second copy machine. Based on copies produced and lost with only the use of one copier. In this report I will use data from a simulation to assist in the determination of an additional copier for Jet Copy. As a reminder that this is a random simulation and the information in the simulation will only assist between when the test stop and 52 week will not have great affect on the outcome of the in the decision making. The simulation that was run was base on a 52 week scenario. The actual results are based on 51 week trial. The difference between the 51 week test and the actual 52 weeks will not have any great impact on the recommendation. ------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY This report creates a simulation that shows one possible outcome for Jet Copier when there one copier is out for repair for up to 4 days. It will also aid in the decision to ad d or not to add a second copier. This report will answer the following questions: 1. Using Excel to generate the number of days needed to repair the copier. 2. Using Excel to generate the interval between successive breakdowns according to continuous distribution. 3. Using Excel, use a suitable method......

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...JET Copies Case Problem In analyzing the case, JET Copies Case Problem, the following categories will be addressed: Model number of days to repair 1. In Excel, use a suitable method for generating the number of days needed to repair the copier, when it is out of service, according to the discrete distribution shown. JET copies needs to know the number of days they need to repair, when the copy machine is out of service. Using the given table, there are three columns of probability, repair time and cumulative. I used the figures given in case problem for probability and repair time days but for the cumulative column we started at 0.00 cumulative, then added the 0.20 to that to get the cumulative for day 2. For each probability subsequent to the previous we added, so for the 0.45 probability we added the 0.20 to get 0.65. Then repeating the same for the rest of probabilities, after 0.65 the cumulative resulted in 0.90. Then we used the table with ten columns. In the first column starting at A5, the formula entered was the =RAND() function to create random number for the first cell. That function formula was then dragged down to the below cells and locked to have the values be fixed. In the next column, I use the numbers copied from my first column. Then in the G5 column, we entered the function VLOOKUP to find the number of days needed to repair =VLOOKUP(F5,Lookup,2) and dragged the cell to have the same formula for the below cells in the column. Look up, in......

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...monitoring data should provide direct feedback to those most able to implement the changes. Often this requires that recording instruments be installed in a number of departments in addition to the meters required by the utility company. The additional expense is justified by increased employee awareness of the timing and amounts of energy consumed, and usually this awareness leads to a reduction in energy costs. Metering at each department also enables management to determine where the energy is consumed and, possibly, what is causing the energy consumption. Such metering also helps each department manager to understand and control the consumption of his or her own department. Monitoring should result in more action. Find what is good, and copy it elsewhere. Find what is bad, and avoid it elsewhere. If the goals are too high, lower them. If the goals are too low, raise them. Wherever the difference between the planned objectives and the achievements is great, initiate an analysis to determine the reasons and then develop new objectives, initiate new action, and monitor the new results. In this way, the analysis, action, and monitoring process repeats itself. 2.4 SUMMARY In this chapter, we have explained the mechanics of performing and implementing the energy audit as well as the reasoning behind the energy audit process. The energy audit process should be a dynamic feedback loop. The process starts with the analysis of past data. Then each energy system is examined for......

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...any) at the end of the case. 2. Read the assigned chapter or article(s) making brief written notes of ideas and issues related to the case. These notes should be brought to class and can serve as a basis for your participation in discussion. (Some students find that it's best to perform the first two steps in the reading procedure a day or so before the last two steps.) 3. Read the case carefully; as you read, extend and embellish your notes. 4. Cases may require calculations and schedules. These should be attempted by everyone and brought to class for discussion; they will not be collected by the instructor unless listed as a “solve” item on the syllabus. EXAMINATIONS Examinations will be a mixture of computational problems and essay questions. The examinations will emphasize the fundamental ideas, analyses, and issues of cost accounting. The final examination may include a number of multiple choice questions. COMPOSITION OF GRADE First Examination 100 Second Examination 100 Comprehensive Final Examination 150 In-Class Quizzes 100 Homework 100 In-Class Discussion 50 Total 600 Note: Recorded points may be rescaled to reflect these weights in the final grade determination. NOTE: Fisher College Policy prohibits food and drink in the classrooms of Schoenbaum Hall; an exception is made for bottled water. ASSIGNMENTS Winter 2003 Session 1: Monday, January 6,......

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...Animal Interactions Essay Of course there are numerous stories of animals viciously attacking other animals and news segments showcasing how brutal animals can be to humans, but all animals aren’t competitive (when organisms try to obtain food, water, space, sunlight, and other resources at the same place and time) in nature. If one were to hear that statement, they might think that animals are only agreeable within their own population of species, but this is also not true. Undomesticated animals have a bad reputation of being very competitive, which is a common misconception among many people. Symbiosis, the predator-prey cycle, and mimicry are all three common forms of organism interactions that are not competitive. No organism lives in complete isolation, which means that there will always be some sort of interaction between organisms. This can be described as symbiosis, a Greek rooted word meaning “living together”. Symbiosis entails the many relationships an organism can have with another organism; the one that is most beneficial to this essay would be mutualism. Mutualism is an interaction between two or more organisms where both/all organisms are benefited. Sea anemones and anemone fish have great mutualistic relationships such as how the sea anemones use their tentacles to protect the anemone fish away from predators while the anemone fish protect the sea anemones from butterflyfish. Even though animals may consume each other, they still help one another......

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...JET Copies – Case Description University students James, Ernie and Terri are opening a new copy center business called JET Copies. They borrowed $18,000 from Terrie’s parents to purchase their main copy machine. After the copy machine was purchased Ernie found out from a friend that the copy machine had frequent breakdowns; a breakdown between 1 and 6 weeks and often took 1 – 4 days for repair. In order to keep the business running between repairs the business owners are evaluating whether to purchase an $8,000 back up copy machine. The owners decided that if revenue lost per year was greater than $12,000 the additional copier purchase would be made. JET Copies’ owners are putting together a simulation model to determine whether the purchase of another copy machine is necessary. They have the following information: • Time between breakdowns is 1- 6 weeks with probability of a breakdown increasing the longer the copier went without a breakdown • repair time probabilities Table 1: Probability of the days to repair copier Repair Time (days) Probability 1 0.20 2 0.45 3 0.25 4 0.10 • Loss of revenue during repair of the copier: approx. 2000 – 8000 copies/day at $0.10/copy Again, if revenue lost/year was greater than $12,000 then the purchase of a second copier would be warranted. A simulation model using MicroSoft Excel was run to determine lost revenue due to copier breakdowns. To compute the simulation analysis we will run 1000 random numbers (trials) in a......

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...Copy Editing and Proofreading Symbols Symbol Meaning Example Delete Close up Deltete and close up the gap. Insert Space The box is inserted correctly. # Theprocedure is incorrect. Transpose Remove the fitting end. Lower case The Engineer and manager agreed. Capitalize A representative of nasa was present. Capitalize first letter and lower case remainder / or lc The tolerances are with in the range. Delete and Close up # Remove the end fitting. GARRETT PRODUCTS are great. not Let stand stet Remove the battery cables. New paragraph The box is full. The meeting will be on Thursday. Remove paragraph break The meeting will be on Thursday. no All members must attend. Move to a new position All members attended who were new. Move left Remove the faulty part. Flush left Move left. Flush right Move right. Move right Remove the faulty part. Center Table 4-1 Raise 162 Lower 162 Superscript 162 Subscript 162 Period . Rewrite the procedure Then complete the tasks. ‘ Apostrophe or single quote ‘ The companys policies were rewritten. ; Semicolon stet ¶ no ¶ . He left however, he returned later. ; Symbol Meaning Example : Colon There were three items : nuts, bolts, and screws. , Comma Apply pressure to the first, second and third bolts. -| Hyphen A valuable byproduct was created. Spell out The info was incorrect. sp Abbreviate The part was twelve feet long. Align Personnel Facilities Equipment Underscore The part......

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...JET Copies Patrick Prophet Quantitative Methods – MAT 540 Dr. LaTasha Thompson 10/22/10 1. Write a brief description of how you implemented days-to-repair. When looking at the days it took to repair the copier, all that the JET Company had to go by was the average number of days that it took for the company to repair the copier if it broke down. The average was between 1 and 4 days to have the machine repaired. For this data, a probability distribution table was developed and programmed into excel. Once the probability table is loaded into excel, they are averaged into a random number range that generates numbers from 0.00 to 1.0. The system then generated an average number days it would take to repair the machine base to the random number generated. 2. Write a brief description of how you implemented the intervals between break downs. When the company looked at the number of intervals between breakdowns, there was no exact numbers to go by to create a probability distribution. What they did instead was to talk to the college who already owned one and go by their data. It was then determined that the average repair days would be between 0 and 6 days. This time the formula took the maximum number of and averaged it with the square root of the random numbers generated again from 0.00 to 1.0. Excel would then come up with the average number of days it would be between machine break down based on these numbers. 3. Write a brief description of how......

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...Jet Copies a Case Study Jet Copies is a small business that was started by three friends to provide copy services to students at State University. To accomplish this they borrowed from one of the partners parents to purchase a high end copy machine. But after purchasing the copy machine they found that it was not as reliable as they were led to believe. The partners wanted to find out how long and how often the copier would be out of service. They also wanted to know how much money they would lose when the copier was out of service. If the copier was out of service so long that they would lose more than 12,000 dollars they would purchase a backup unit. To accomplish this we will use Microsoft Excel to create a statistical analysis of a year of operation of the copier. Number of days to repair the copier probability days .45 1 .20 2 .25 3 .10 4 Based on the data provided above we see that the probability for a repair to the copier to take one day is 45%, two days is 20%, three days is 25%, and four days is 10%. To compute this in Excel we will use the random number feature and the lookup function. First we create a table to account for the probability of the duration of repairs based on the data provided. probability days 0 1 0.45 2 0.65 3 0.9 4 As you can see 0-.44 is a 1 day repair, .45-64 is a 2 day repair, .65-89 is a 3 day repair, and .9- 1 is a 4 day repair. We then use a random number generated by Excel by using the RAND () function. This will......

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... Quantitative Methods -MAT 540 JET Copies Case Problem Assignment #1 Days-to-repair Terri was able to gather data from the college which allowed them to develop a table for the probability distribution of the wait for repair services on JET’s copier. To model the probability of wait times in the JET Copies simulation, the JET partners generated a random number representing the probability of an occurrence of a breakdown. They then programmed a VLOOKUP function to match this breakdown probability to the corresponding “Repair Time in Days” column of the table. The result is the simulated time to get repair service for each breakdown occurrence. Interval between breakdowns The James, Ernie, and Terri purchased a copier just like the one used at their college office. When Ernie talked with someone in the dean’s office at State, he was told that the University’s copier broke down frequently often for 1 to 4 days. The partners became worried that their machine would also frequently break down. Although they could not get an exact probability distribution, James was able to determine that breakdowns occurred between 0 and 6 weeks apart. The probability of a breakdown increased as time passed. To model the time between breakdowns in their simulation, JET created a list of random numbers. Next, they applied the probability function f(x) = 2x/a2 0≤ x ≤ a. For this situation, the formula used is x = a √r. Since James estimated breakdowns occur zero to six......

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...| | ABSTRACT James, Ernie and Terri decided to open a copy center to fulfill a need for closer access to copy machines in their community. After buying their first copier, they learned some of the pitfalls associated including the breakdown of the machinery and the potential loss of revenue associated with the breakdown. Before borrowing the additional funds needed to purchase a backup copier, they wanted to get a reasonable estimate of what the potential loss of revenue would be to determine if buying the backup copier made sense. This paper will describe the steps necessary to run a simulation of weeks between one equipment failure and another, the downtime in days due to repair and the lost revenue over a year period of time due to the simulated equipment failure. METHODOLOGY The first step in this process is simulating the time between breakdowns. Without explicit information on frequency of breakdowns, some assumptions have to be made. In this case, the assumption is between 0 and 6 weeks with the probability of a breakdown increasing as time between breakdowns increases. I was given a probability distribution graph that showed time in weeks on the x axis from 0 to 6 with a y value of 0.33 where x = 6. The graph looked something like this: From that information, I calculated that area under the line to ensure that this could be considered a continuous distribution function. For this to be true, the area under the curve must equal 1. The calculation...

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... | |Author Information | |Questions, Essay Topics | |Complete Free Text | | | |. | |By Michael J. Cummings...© 2005 | |Revised and Enlarged in 2009 | |Type of Work | |......."A Modest Proposal" is an essay that uses satire to make its point. A satire is a literary work that attacks or pokes fun at vices, abuses, | |stupidity, and/or any other fault or imperfection. Satire may make the reader laugh at, or......

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...The purpose of the JET Copies Case Problem was to develop a simulation that would help identify the number of times that a copier machine would break down over a year’s time, the average repair time days, and lastly the estimated loss of revenue that occurred when the machine broke down each time. The owners of the company needed this information to make a decision on whether or not to purchase a backup copier. I decided to start with the table on page 679, which identified the probability of the days that it took the copier to get fixed each time that it broke down. I calculated the cumulative probability before beginning my simulation. I figured that in a year’s time with a max of six weeks between breakdowns according to the information given, that the copier would break down approximately 15 times. In Excel, I created fifteen random numbers (RN1) based upon my cumulative probability and probability distribution given. After which, I determined an average number of repair days for each break down which calculated to be about 2 days. The second step taken to begin this simulation was to determine the frequency of how often the copier would break down. The probability given was based upon speaking with staff members from the college of business and notating that the probability of the break downs increased the longer the copier went without breaking down. In looking at the visual provided on page 679, I was able to use the formula y=mx+b in order to find the......

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