Premium Essay

Agriculture Market Reform

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Nilasha
Words 574
Pages 3
NILASHA S. NIRD, HYDERABAD

ASSIGNMENT: ‘AGRICULTURE MARKETING REFORMS’ LEARNING POINTS & PERSONAL REFLECTIONS
INTRODUCTION As Mahatma Gandhi said, "India lives in villages and agriculture is the soul of Indian economy". Nearly two-thirds of its population depends directly on agriculture for its livelihood. Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy. Current agriculture marketing system in the country is the outcome of several years of government. The efforts took place immediately after the independence of the nation. The foundation of markets is the primary means of regulating the behavior of the various parties in the markets and the impacts of their actions. LEARNING POINTS Both the central and state government equally responsible for the matters related with agriculture and agriculture market system. In the initial stages Five Year plans has focuses on the infrastructure development in the specific sector. In 1960’s the focus moved on the institutional building such as Central Warehousing Corporation, Food Corporation of India. The continuous irregularities and dysfunction of the whole system resulted the re-enactment of the legislation (APMC act) with the aim of protecting the interest of the farmers, creating a favorable environment and proper actions in matters of demand and supply. The enactment put forwarded certain amendments in the physical set up of the whole market system. As a result by the end of 50’s regulated market system established in the country. That follows several other market system came into force such as whole sale market, periodical markets etc. The continuous exploitation and over involvement of the intermediaries such as middlemen and moneylenders made the authorities to reconstruct the legislations in favor of the farmers and the clientele group. It provides platform for the farmers in directly involving the marketing…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

State Led and Market Assisted Land Reforms

...and communities under established systems of governance (FAO: 2006). Land reforms involve the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land ownership. Land reforms may consist of a government initiated or government- backed property redistribution, generally of agricultural land. In sight of the above, land reform can therefore refer to the transfer of ownership of land from a relatively small number of wealthy owners with extensive landholdings such as plantations, large ranches, or agribusiness plots, to individual ownership by those who work on the land. Such transfer of land may be with or without compensation; compensation may vary from token amounts to the full value of the land (Esirkepov, T: 1999).Land reforms may also entail the transfer of land from individual ownership even peasant ownership in smallholdings to government- owned collective farms; it has also, in other times and places, referred to the exact opposite: division of government- owned collective farms into smallholdings. The common characteristic of land reform, however, is modification or replacement of existing institutions arrangements, governing possession and use of land. Thus, while land reforms may be radical in nature such as through large – scale transfers of land from one group to another; it can also be less dramatic, such as regulatory reforms aimed at improving land administration (Ibid). State-led land reform is the redistribution of land for farming and residential uses by......

Words: 4318 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Agriculture

...Food, Agriculture, and the Environment Discussion Paper 34 Agricultural Research and Poverty Reduction Peter Hazell and Lawrence Haddad International Food Policy Research Institute 2033 K Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20006 U.S.A. August 2001 INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE ON INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH TECHNICAL ADVISORY GROUP (TAC), CONSULTATIVE GROUP Copyright © 2001 International Food Policy Research Institute All rights reserved. Sections of this report may be reproduced without the express permission of but with acknowledgment to the International Food Policy Research Institute. ISBN 0-89629-639-3 Foreword v Acknowledgments vi 1. Introduction 1 2. The Nature and Extent of Poverty 3 3. How Agricultural Research Can Help the Poor 9 4. Targeting Agricultural Research to Benefit the Poor 18 5. Strategies for Pro-Poor Agricultural Research 26 6. The Role of Public Research and Extension Systems 35 References 37 Contents iii Tables 1. Trends in child malnutrition in developing countries, by region, 1970–95 6 2. Distribution of land types by region 6 3. Distribution of malnourished children by agroecological zone, 1990 7 4. Comparison of low- and middle-income countries 21 5. Priorities for agricultural research to reduce national poverty by type of adopting region 24 Figures 1. Number of people living on less than $1 a day, 1987 and 1998 4 2. Those living with HIV/AIDS and those newly infected: Asia and Sub-Saharan......

Words: 20568 - Pages: 83

Premium Essay

Agriculture

...Agriculture, growth and poverty reduction This paper was produced by the Agriculture and Natural Resources Team of the UK Department for International Development (DFID) in collaboration with Anne Thomson of Oxford Policy Management, Oxford. The authors are grateful to the UK Food Group for their additional contributions and comments. The paper reflects work in progress towards the development of new thinking on agricultural policy in DFID. It does not necessarily reflect the views and policy of DFID. This (working/supporting) paper is intended to stimulate public discussion. It is not necessarily DFID or UK Government policy. October 2004 Contents Executive Summary...................................................................................................... 3 1. What is the issue? .................................................................................................... 4 2. Agriculture, growth and poverty – what we know of the relationship ............................ 5 2.1 The context – the state of world poverty............................................................... 5 2.2 Agriculture’s recent performance – a picture of mixed progress............................... 7 2.3 Agricultural growth and poverty reduction – the evidence....................................... 9 2.4 Understanding how increased agricultural productivity reduces poverty ................. 10 3. Emerging issues and questions................................................

Words: 10970 - Pages: 44

Premium Essay

Agriculture

...Zambia’s agriculture has the potential of enhancing economic growth and reducing poverty. Good agricultural policies and a well performing agricultural sector translates into significant improvements in the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), employment generation, and broadens the country’s tax base since the livelihoods of the majority of Zambians depend on agricultural-related activities such as farming. The sector, if well developed, should contribute significantly to welfare improvement. In the colonial period, the government paid particular attention to provinces which were accessible by railways and also to large estate farmers within these provinces. After independence, attempts were made to redress the imbalance between these provinces and the less accessible ones. This essay sets to highlight certain agricultural policy considerations which were taken into account in the evolution and development of Zambia’s post independence. It will further indicate which policy direction the author would have taken if he were part and parcel of the Zambian team responsible for policy formulation. In trying to discuss this, the author will start by defining what an agricultural policy is, highlight agricultural policy considerations in the post independence regime of the Second Republic (1964-1991) and also the policy direction the author would have taken if he were part and parcel of its formulation and draw a conclusion. An agricultural policy usually comprises a...

Words: 1707 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Agriculture

...SPECIAL ISSUE Kenya Gazette Supplement No. 25 (Acts No. 13) REPUBLIC OF KENYA KENYA GAZETTE SUPPLEMENT ACTS, 2013 NAIROBI, 25th January, 2013 CONTENT Act— PAGE The Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Authority Act, 2013 lkikNONAL COUNCIL. FOR LAW REPORTING 183 RECEIVED 1 3. E33x 1.044; 0'3 00 VOROBi. 712694 2719231 PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY THE GOVERNMENT PRINTER, NAIROBI THE AGRICULTURE, FISHERIES AND FOOD AUTHORITY ACT No. 13 of 2013 Date of Assent: 14th January. 2013 Date of Commencement: 25th January', 2013 ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS Section PART I—PRELIMINARY 1—Short title and commencement. 2—Interpretation. PART II—ESTABLISHMENT, FUNCTIONS AND POWERS OF THE AUTHORITY 3—Establishment of the Authority. 4—Functions of the Authority. 5—Board of the Authority. 6— Powers of the Authority. 7—Conduct of business and affairs of the Authority. 8—Delegation by the Authority. 9—Remuneration of members of the Board. 10— The Director General. 11—Organization of the Secretariat of the Authority. 12—Staff. 13—The common seal of the Authority. 14—Protection from personal liability. 15—Liability for damages. PART III—FINANCES OF THE AUTHORITY 16—Funds of the Authority. 17—Financial year. 18—Annual estimates. 19—Accounts and audit. 20—Investment of funds. 184 No. 13 Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Authority 2013 PART IV—POLICY GUIDELINES ON DEVELOPMENT, PRESERVATION AND UTILIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND 21—Land development guidelines. 22—Rules......

Words: 9455 - Pages: 38

Premium Essay

Capital Market Reforms

...“CAPITAL MARKET REFORMS VIS A VIS CORPORATE GOVERNANCE” The Indian regulatory and supervisory framework of securities market has been adequately strengthened through the legislative and administrative measures in the recent past. However the capital market remains seriously flawed because of the fact that three key ingredients are still missing. These are adequate supervision, strict accountability, and appropriate punishment. As a result, the markets have remained shallow and stunted and have lurched from one financial scandal to another over the last decade. Corporate governance has been emerged as an important reform in capital market because of various scandals in the field of capital market. After this reform, the markets have become transparent and accessible uniformly to everyone in the country, without bias to caste, religion, gender or location. However, it has been a central issue in developing countries even long before the recent spate of corporate scandals. The various corporate scandals in India include: Ketan Parekh scam, Harshad Mehta scam, CRB scam, Satyam scam etc. Security scams and financial scandals have lead to the manipulation of large amount of money, bloating stock markets and sensex. Even the financial markets having regulatory authority and empowered legal sections have failed in providing good corporate governance to some extent. But corporate governance and economic development are interrelated. Poor corporate governance hinders the......

Words: 3212 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Agriculture

...Scenario of Agriculture in India Agriculture in India is a major economic sector and it creates plenty of employment opportunities as well. India agriculture has an extensive background which goes back to 10 thousand years. At present, in terms of agricultural production, the country holds the second position all over the world. In 2007, agriculture and other associated industries such as lumbering and forestry represented around 16.6% of the Gross Domestic Product of the country. In addition, the sector recruited about 52% of the entire manpower.  Regardless of the fact that there has been a gradual slump in its contribution to the gross domestic product of the country, India agriculture is currently the biggest industry in India. On the whole, it has a key role in the socioeconomic growth of the country.  In terms of agricultural contribution, the following states in India are the most developed states: • Punjab • Uttar Pradesh • Madhya Pradesh • Haryana • Bihar • Andhra Pradesh • Maharashtra • West Bengal All these states play a key role in the agrarian development of India. The total arable territory in India is 1,269,219 km2, which represents about 56.78% of the overall land zone of the country. Arable land in India is diminishing because of continuous strain from an ever-increasing number of inhabitants and growing urbanization. The overall water surface area of the country is 31440 km2 and the country experiences a mean......

Words: 2580 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Agriculture

...Topic: Agriculture Personal notes Outline: * Land Reform & Econ Dev * Explaining the poor performance of African Agric * Assessing the Impact of Agric Policy Reforms * Exploiting the synergy between price and non-price factors 1. Land Reform * Means alot: redistribution/reclamation/reforestation & policies affecting land * For us – narrow focus. SO: redistrib of prop /land rights for benefit of landless / tenants and farm labourers * Agrarian refors – embraces improvement in tenure and agric organisation Property rights: * Establishment or PR system is nb public good * Large info on benefits from public invest in securing and maintaining prop rights to land: in Afr is one of most nb assets Land Tenure: * Must change if agric g and improvement is to happen * Set of rights to det who owns land and who has rights to use and how it be used * Issues: marriage, inheritance, sale, mortgage, size of farming, operation, water, pasture, and tenancy * Types: Communal, Pvt/Freehold, State * Communal most popular Issues in communal land system: * Use and conservation given degradation, agroforestry, cultivation * Security of tenure & investment – what you control determines level of your investment into land * Exclusivity of tenure – if not exclusive use, and you cant control mgt of – not invest * Land as asset for credit – if not own/control, not get finance *......

Words: 1292 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Agriculture

...economic security continues to be predicated upon the agriculture sector, and the situation is not likely to change in the foreseeable future. Even now, agriculture supports 58% of the population, as against about 75% at the time of independence. In the same period, the contribution of agriculture and allied sector to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has fallen from 61 to 19%. As of today, India supports 16.8% of world’s population on 4.2% of world�s water resources and 2.3% of global land. And per caput availability of resources is about 4 to 6 times less as compared to world average. This will decrease further due to increasing demographic pressure and consequent diversion of the land for non-agricultural uses. Around 51% of India’s geographical area is already under cultivation as compared to 11% of the world average. The present cropping intensity of 136% has registered an increase of only 25% since independence. Further, rain fed dry lands constitute 65% of the total net sown area. There is also an unprecedented degradation of land (107 million ha) and groundwater resource, and also fall in the rate of growth of total factor productivity. This deceleration needs to be arrested and agricultural productivity has to be doubled to meet growing demands of the population by 2050. Efficiency-mediated improvement in productivity is the most viable option to raise production. The country recorded impressive achievements in agriculture during three decades since the onset of......

Words: 7588 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

Agriculture

...Agricultural Land Use plan for Project 3 Quezon City Metro Manila Requirement for Soils 201 Submitted by: Emmanuel Victor Buniao Submitted to: Aurora Waing Introduction Land is the solid surfaces of the earth that is not permanently covered by water. Human activity occurs in land area that support agriculture, industrial, commercial and residential. Land is a limited resources that must be conserve and be use responsible. As the population increases, the need for food supply will get bigger. As the human population increase the land for food sources will decrease. Quirino 3-A or Project 3 is one of the major districts in metro manila. Project 3 has a total land area of 5.4443 hectares, it is used for different land uses such as residential and commercial. . It expands to Agobo street & and Tindalo street from the north, Dapdap & Narra Street in the east, Buaya Street in the west, and Aurora Boulevard in the south. The District is created in June 25, 1975. It is ordered by the (executive order no. 28) Pds 86 & 210. Demographic Characteristics Population and population density The barangay has a total population of 1,104 with the total of 217 as of September 1995. 828 registered voters as of May 11, 1998. Dialect Most people in this community speaks Filipino. Livelihood Most of the people in the community are employees. Aside from commercial jobs many of them are establishing sari-sari store, tailoring, dress shop, being tricycle......

Words: 998 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Agriculture

...Unit 5 Agriculture– Basic Vocabulary and Concepts Create flash cards for the following terms. Each term should have its own card with the definition/explanation on the back, including one real world example. Economic Activities 130-131 1. Primary Sector 2. Secondary Sector 3. Tertiary Sector | 4. Post-industrial societies 5. Quaternary sector 6. 5 Countries with large % of primary | 7. 5 Countries with large % of secondary 8. 5 Countries with large % of tertiary | Origin and Spread of Ag 131-136 9. Agriculture 10. Religious impact 11. Hunters and gathers 12. Neolithic Revolution 13. Agricultural hearths 14. NR changes 15. Patriarchal systems 16. Matriarchal systems | 17. Vegetative planting 18. Vegetative hearths 19. Seed agriculture 20. Seed Hearths 21. Animal Domestication 22. Hearths 23. Innovations in Seed Ag | 24. Columbian Exchange 25. Eastern Hemisphere items 26. Western Hemisphere items 27. Second agricultural Revolution 28. Enclosure 29. Crop rotation 30. Seed drill 31. How did 2nd AR lead to Industrial Revolution? | Major Ag Regions 136-142 32. Subsistence agriculture 33. Commercial agriculture 34. Agribusiness 35. % of farmers (LDC v MDC) 36. Use of machinery impact 37. Scientific advances 38. Farm size (LDC v MDC) 39. Intensive subsistence 40. Wet or lowland rice 41. Shifting cultivation 42. Intertillage 43. Pastoral nomadism | 44. Nomadism 45. Extensive......

Words: 421 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Urban Agriculture Baseline and Market Survey Proposal

...URBAN AGRICULTURE BASELINE AND MARKET SURVEY PROPOSAL Prepared for Farm Africa By Charles Karani; Email: karani.char@gmail.com Table of Contents STATEMENT OF INTERPRETATION OF TERMS OF REFERENCE 3 PROPOSED METHODOLOGY 4 Survey approach 4 Data 4 Proposed sample size 5 Sampling methods 7 Data collection and proposed survey tools 8 Data analysis 8 WORK SCHEDULE 9 DETAILED PLAN OF ACTIVITIES 9 STATEMENT OF INTERPRETATION OF TERMS OF REFERENCE The project’s implementing organization (Farm Africa) seeks to ascertain the situation of urban agriculture in Dagoretti district, Nairobi City County as a basis of understanding its current contribution and potential in reduction of extreme poverty and food insecurity among households. In this respect, the survey is geared towards the development of an intervention model as an avenue for the integration of urban agriculture with other livelihood enhancing components such as healthcare, access to clean water, environment, protection and social education and creation of income generating activities. The data generated from survey will be a yardstick in informing entry points for interventions and subsequent assessments of the project as well as a basis of understanding the likely environmental impact resulting from the project implementation. The survey intends to map the players participating in the enhancement of urban agriculture including but not limited to households and schools, the market, state and non state actors. On...

Words: 2783 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Agriculture

...breeding, housing and marketing. Of great importance is the making of the financial arrangements necessary to the successful carrying out of each enterprise in the light of the market conditions for the sale of the end products. Agricultural Arts. This refers to the part of the general education programs that aims to develop knowledge, understanding, ability, skills and desirable attitudes which are needed in everyday living (Salandanan, 1998). In this study, it refers to the component of TLE which was assessed to come up with the output of the study. Evaluation. It is a term used to determine the value of thing, and to assess performance (Universal Thesaurus and Dictionary). In this study, it is a term used on how the respondents foresee the subject Agricultural Arts and it is one of components which were assessed by the respondents. Horticulture is the branch of agriculture that deals with the art, science, technology, and business of growing plants. It includes the cultivation of medicinal plants, fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, herbs, sprouts, mushrooms, algae, flowers, seaweeds and non-food crops such as grass and ornamental trees and plants. It also includes plant conservation, landscape restoration, landscape and garden design, construction, and maintenance, and arboriculture. Inside agriculture, horticulture contrasts with extensive field farming as well as animal husbandry. Teaching Competencies. In this study, this term refers to the capability and skills of the......

Words: 337 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Agriculture

...African and East African Asian Entrepreneurs ESRF Study on Globalisation and East Africa Economies ARGICULTURAL MARKETING AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN TANZANIA: A CASE STUDY Elina Eskola12 ABSTRACT This study describes the prevailing marketing arrangements in Tanzania at local, regional, national and export markets using Dar es Salaam, Ifakara, and Mtwara as case study examples. The major impediments for trade in Tanzania has been categorised into three groups: 1) Physical infrastructure, 2) know-how and capital, and 3) institutional framework. Insufficient physical infrastructure in terms of roads increases the cost of transportation, works as an informal market barrier, forms a wedge between the supplier price and consumer price, and increases the loss of perishable products. Lack of know-how shows in poor market orientation and business skills, and leads to difficulties in managing and obtaining loans. Furthermore, the current institutional framework is unable to support the formation of strong traders and producers’ associations and other representative bodies to enhance capacity building and to bargain for fairer terms of trade. In addition, the lack of market information and the weak legal framework lead to difficulties in negotiating trade agreements and enforcing the existing contracts. Currently the necessary institutional framework has been substituted for by long supply chains of middlemen, and relying on personal relationships between producers, traders......

Words: 27148 - Pages: 109

Premium Essay

How Airline Markets Work...or Do They? Regulatory Reform in the Airline Industry

...Chapter 2: How Airline Markets Work...Or Do They? Regulatory Reform in the Airline Industry Severin Borenstein and Nancy L. Rose October 2008 Severin Borenstein is E.T. Grether Professor of Business Administration and Public Policy at the Haas School of Business, U.C. Berkeley (www.haas.berkeley.edu), Director of the University of California Energy Institute (www.ucei.org), and a Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research (www.nber.org). Address: Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1900. Email: borenste@haas.berkeley.edu. Nancy Rose is Professor of Economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (econwww.mit.edu) and a Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research. Address: MIT Department of Economics, E52-280b, 50 Memorial Drive, Cambridge MA 02142-1347. Email: nrose@mit.edu. Nancy Rose gratefully acknowledges fellowship support from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation and MIT. We thank Andrea Martens, Jen-Jen L’ao, Yao Lu and Michael Bryant for research assistance on this project. For helpful comments and discussions, we thank Jim Dana, Joe Farrell, Michael Levine, Steven Berry, participants in the NBER conference on regulatory reform, September 2005, and seminars at University of Toronto, Northwestern University, University of Michigan, UC Berkeley, and UC Davis. This paper is forthcoming as Chapter 2 of Economic Regulation and Its Reform: What Have We Learned?, N.L....

Words: 29903 - Pages: 120