Premium Essay

Acute Myocardial Infarction

In: Science

Submitted By anastasiak27
Words 1624
Pages 7
Cardiac – Coronary Artery Disease/Acute Myocardial Infarction

Topic: Cardiac – Coronary Artery Disease/Acute Myocardial Infarction

1

Cardiac – Coronary Artery Disease/Acute Myocardial Infarction

Table of Contents
Introduction...................................................................................................................3 Patient’s profile..............................................................................................................4 Pathophysiology...............................................................................................................................5 Clinical manifestations...................................................................................................................6
Short of breath and ‘light headed’...................................................................................................6 Nauseous and uncomfortable feeling...............................................................................................6 Crushing substernal chest pain .......................................................................................................6

Modifiable and Non-modifiable risk factors.................................................................7 Laboratory tests results and ECG findings................................................................................7
ECG (Electrocardiogram)................................................................................................................7 Troponin...........................................................................................................................................8 Cholesterol.......................................................................................................................................8 High density lipoprotein…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Myocardial Infarction

...Myocardial Infarction Mr. X., aged 55 years, arrives at the emergency department with severe chest pain. He appears very anxious, and his facial skin is cool and clammy. His blood pressure is 90/60, and his pulse around 90, weak, and irregular. He is given oxygen, and intravenous line is opened, and leads for ECG are attached. Blood is taken for determination of serum enzymes and electrolytes. Tentative diagnosis is myocardial infarction involving the left ventricle. His wife arrives and, in response to questions, indicates that her husband is a heavy cigarette smoker, prefers a diet of fried foods and meat (he is obese), and had complained periodically of indigestion, with brief episodes of epigastric pain. He also seemed to be more fatigued at night recently but was very busy at work. He was fearful of heart disease because his father had died of a heart attack. He had also noticed more fatigue and intermittent leg pain when playing golf recently. Generalized atherosclerosis is suspected. 1. List the high-risk factors for atherosclerosis in this patient’s history. The high-risk factors for the atherosclerosis in the patient’s history include smoking, obesity, and a diet high in cholesterol and animal fat. Other factors include past history of heart disease and heart attack 2. Describe how atherosclerosis caused myocardial infarction. Atherosclerosis caused myocardial infarction by causing a build up of plaque occurring in five different phases......

Words: 906 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Myocardial Infarction

...ACMS 6001 Introduction to Applied Critical Evaluation Module Plan Semester One, January 2012 (On-line delivery) Week | Topic (Discussion Thread) | Closing Date for Posting Response | Date of Feedback by Tutor | Assignment Dates | Wk 1. Mon 16th January | Skills Audit self assessment | Not posted. Used for first part of assignment | | Assignment A 10th FebruaryAssignment B 27th February | Wk 2. Mon 23rd January | Reflection | By 29th January | By 3rd February | | Wk 3. Monday 30th January | Critical Reading / Critical Thinking. Referencing Technique | By 5th February | By 7th February | | Wk 4. Monday 6th February | Information and How to Search for it | By 12th February | By 15th February | | Wk 5. Monday 13th February | Evaluating the Quality of Information | By 19th February | By 21st February | | Wk 6. Monday 20th February | | | | | N.B. Feedback to threads will be given as group feedback and will be posted within the announcements page of the module Blackboard site. Where necessary students will be emailed individually if specific issues need to be addressed. Week 1. Attend classroom workshop, 10 – 4pm: 16 January in Carlisle, 17 January Lancaster Activity – Skills audit self assessment. To be discussed with Personal Tutor by 30th January Week 2. Activity – Read resources on reflection within learning resources for the module. Thread - In a maximum of 300 words, prepare a reflective account of experience of undertaking the......

Words: 423 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Beta Blockers After Myocardial Infarction

...Beta Blockers After Myocardial Infarction Clinical Scenario The acute care nurse practitioner on the cardiology service treats a 67 year-old-male admitted after recovering from an acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI). His risk factors include obesity, Type II diabetes mellitus, and family history. Upon exam the patient asks why he has not been started on a beta blocker yet. He explains further that when his brother had a “heart attack” in 2005, he was immediately placed on a beta blocker because the cardiologist reported how beta blockers reduce mortality after myocardial infarction (MI). The patient wants to know if a beta blocker would reduce his chance of mortality? Using the Patient-Intervention-Comparator-Outcome (PICO) format we formulated the following question. In a 67-year-old male with multiple co-morbidities with MI (P), does treatment with a beta blocker (I), compared with no beta blocker or placebo (O), reduce mortality rate (O)? Risk Factors, Incidence and Prevalence of Disease * US incidence rates of cardiovascular disease, including MI, are seen in men more than women (Alexander et al., 2007). This trend is also true in Utah ("Impact of heart," 2007). * The incidence rates of cardiovascular disease increase with age (Alexander et al., 2007). * Risk factors for cardiovascular disease include not eating enough fruits and vegetables, lack of physical exercise, smoking cigarettes and the co-morbidities of diabetes, hypertension,......

Words: 3414 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Acute Glomerulonephritis Disclosed

...ACUTE GLOMERULONEPHRITIS DISCLOSED _________________________ A Case Study Presented to The Clinical Instructors AUP College of Nursing Adventist University of the Philippines __________________________ In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course NMCN 244, Care of Mother, Child, Family and Population at Risk ___________________________ TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Introduction Significance of the Study II. Patient DataBase A. Demographic Data B. Nursing History 1. Developmental Tasks 2. Health History 3. Medical Diagnosis & Chief Complaints III. The Disease Entity A. Review of Normal Physiology B. Theoretical Background C. Statistical Report D. Risk/Aggravating Factors E. Pathophysiology Narrative w/ Documentation F. Pathophysiology Diagram G. Prognosis of Disease IV. Assessment A. Gordon’s or Head to Toe Assessment B. Book Picture vs Patient’s Manifestations V. The Management A. Diagnostic Test Result and Significant B. Therapeutic/Medical Interventions 1. Surgeries/Treatment 2. Drugs C. Nursing Initiated Interventions 1. Nursing Care Plan 2. Discharge Plan VI. General Evaluation of the Study A. Summary B. Recommendation VII. Bibliography I. Introduction Acute glomerulonephritis is a disease that affects glomerular capillaries. Etiologic factors are many and varied; they include immunologic reactions, vascular injury,......

Words: 11884 - Pages: 48

Premium Essay

Myocardial Infarction

...com/content/12/2/R36 Research Vol 12 No 2 Open Access Detecting myocardial infarction in critical illness using screening troponin measurements and ECG recordings Wendy Lim1, Paula Holinski1, PJ Devereaux1,2, Andrea Tkaczyk2, Ellen McDonald2, France Clarke2, Ismael Qushmaq3, Irene Terrenato4, Holger Schunemann2,4, Mark Crowther1 and Deborah Cook1,2 1Department 2Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Canada of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Canada 3Department of Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia 4Department of Epidemiology, Italian National Cancer Institute Regina Elena, Rome, Italy Corresponding author: Deborah Cook, debcook@mcmaster.ca Received: 6 Dec 2007 Revisions received: 22 Jan 2008 Accepted: 4 Mar 2008 Published: 4 Mar 2008 Critical Care 2008, 12:R36 (doi:10.1186/cc6815) This article is online at: http://ccforum.com/content/12/2/R36 © 2008 Lim et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Introduction To use screening cardiac troponin (cTn) measurements and electrocardiograms (ECGs) to determine the incidence of elevated cTn and of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients admitted to the intensive......

Words: 2698 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Pathophysiology of a Myocardial Infarction

...For the purpose of this assignment the author will discuss the pathophysiology of a myocardial infarction and will give an in-depth discussion of one central aspect of care and in this assignment the author has chosen the management of anxiety. Due to word restrictions a brief mention will be given to the other aspects of care. Ischaemia is a term which is used to describe the deficiency in blood supply to any part of the body. In ischaemic heart disease there is a deficiency in the blood supply to the heart muscle which can be caused by an obstruction to, or even a narrowing of the coronary arteries. This in turn reduces the supply of nutrients and oxygen to the heart muscle. Without an optimum oxygen supply the heart muscle is unable to function efficiently.(Boersma et al 2003) There are three ways in which an infarction may develop. 1) The narrowing and hardening of arteries is caused by degenerative changes and also the build up of cholesterol and other fatty deposits which occur in the vessel wall. Plaques which then develop and subsequently become ‘calcified or fibrotic’ is through a process known as atherosclerosis. The atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery. The presence of the plaques causes the linings of the artery walls to become roughened and this in turn reduces the size of the lumen and eventually occludes it. As circulation slows down there is a strong possibility of thrombus formation. Should a coronary artery......

Words: 2492 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Myocardial Infaraction

...after acute myocardial infarction. Three-drug-resistant hypertension has also been found to respond to spironolactone in modest dosages. The combination of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) with spironolactone to treat such resistant hypertension may be more effective than adding an angiotensin receptor blocker to an ACEI. The role of spironolactone has also been shown to decrease albuminuria in chronic kidney disease including diabetic nephropathy in the presence of maximal dosages of ACEI. The effect of aldosterone in metabolic syndrome is also discussed in this review. PMID: 20448074 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] 2010 May 10;170(9):759-64. Rethinking the epidemiology of acute myocardial infarction: challenges and opportunities. Yeh RW, Go AS. Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Abstract BACKGROUND: During the previous decade, many strategies for preventing acute myocardial infarction found to be efficacious in randomized controlled trials have been adopted by physicians in the community. Although evaluations of quality improvement typically focus on process measures at the hospital, practice, or clinician level, assessment of improvements in health outcomes remains the true test for the successful translation of evidence into practice. METHODS: We performed a review of the current literature examining trends in the incidence of myocardial infarction in......

Words: 6201 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Acute Care

...ACUTE CARE ASSIGNMENT Introduction For this assignment I have chosen to use a patient on a Medical Rehab Ward that became acutely unwell very suddenly and was eventually diagnosed with Urinary Sepsis before being transferred to an Acute Medical Ward for further treatment. The purpose of this assignment is to show how I as the nurse, managed the situation in the assessing of the patient from the onset of their symptoms using the Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability framework. The planning and implementing of the care required and evalutaing constantly to ensure that the care provided is working and how I communicated with the relevent medical staff using the ISBAR tool of communication. The timeframe is over a 36 hour period from onset of symptoms to transfer. I will begin by giving a definition of Sepsis, discuss the ABCDE method of assessment and a brief background as to why the patient is in hospital as well as a brief past medical history. Sepsis, a potentially life-threatening complication of a localised infection, can rapidly lead to acute deterioration risking multi-organ failure and death. (Dellinger et al 2008) Sepsis is quite common and it is therefor imperative that every nurse on every ward be aware of the signs and symptoms of Sepsis and the appropriate measures to take to manage it should their patient become Spetic. Having an effective and proven assessment tool such as the ABCDE approach can help assess, treat and therefore improve the outcome......

Words: 3114 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Myocardial Infarction

...Myocardial Infarction Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States; approximately 500,000-700,000 deaths related to the coronary artery occur each year. Approximately 1.5 million cases of myocardial infarction occur annually in the United States. Myocardial infarction, commonly known as a heart attack, is the irreversible necrosis of heart muscle secondary to prolonged ischemia. This usually results from an imbalance in oxygen supply and demand, which is most often caused by plaque rupture with thrombus formation in a coronary vessel, resulting in an acute reduction of blood supply to a portion of the myocardium. Patients with typical myocardial infarction may have the following prodromal symptoms: Intense sharp chest pain, radiation of chest pain up to neck, shoulder, jaw and down left arm, ventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation or flutter, Coughing, wheezing, Fever, Fatigue, chest discomfort, and Malaise. Atherosclerosis is the disease primarily responsible almost 90% of myocardial infarctions that result from an acute thrombus that obstructs an atherosclerotic coronary artery. Plaque rupture and erosion are considered to be the major triggers for coronary thrombosis. Following plaque erosion or rupture, platelet activation and aggregation, coagulation pathway activation, and endothelial vasoconstriction occur, leading to coronary thrombosis and occlusion. The damage in the myocardium is essentially the result of a tissue response......

Words: 913 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Acute Stress Disorder

...Acute Stress Disorder Brett D. Klawitter Liberty University Abstract Acute Stress Disorder or ASD is a phenomenon that happens during or shortly after a traumatic event. It can affect people in many different ways but it is usually debilitating for up to one month. There has been controversy and stigma attached to the diagnosis of ASD since it was first added to the DSM-IV. This paper will illustrate the definition of ASD, the diagnostic guidelines, the difference between ASD and Acute Stress Reaction (ASR), symptoms and effective treatments, the impact of ASD and the coping skills needed to successfully get through it, and a biblical story and perspective about stress disorders. What is ASD and is it an appropriate response to trauma? Key words: Acute Stress Disorder, Acute Stress Response, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, DSM-IV, DSM-V, Symptoms, Treatment, God Acute Stress Disorder Introduction Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) was introduced in the DSM-IV as a way to describe reactions a short time after a traumatic event, usually within the first month and possible precursor to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). ASD is the official diagnosis to evaluate the Acute Stress Response (ASR) but there are some differences. ASD is defined as symptoms that manifest during the time period of two days to four weeks after a traumatic event. There has been some changes to ASD as the DSM has been updated in the past year to DSM-V. Also it is important to mention that ASD......

Words: 3183 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Acute Care

...and recommend what specific changes to an organization’s acute care model would benefit this patient. Acute care is crucial in treating specific episodes of a medical event but does not prove effective in combating chronic diseases. Hypertension, diabetes, and back pain are prevalent chronic conditions that we discussed in our group. mentioned that adding a routine screening process for common chronic conditions, such as hypertension, would be an excellent way to identify illness that typically do not get routine preventative care. stated that when treating chronic conditions, hospitals should only be reimbursed for the procedure or acute treatment with a minimal stay. Patients who require rehab or treatment post-procedure should be transferred to an outpatient facility specializing in post-acute care. Post-acute care settings like skilled nursing facilities and home health agencies can help patients with chronic conditions by reducing re-admissions and decreasing acute care length of stay. Acquiring these patients earlier will be greatly beneficial in reducing costs. Additionally, patient education that focuses on lifestyle changes and self-management are important for long term survival. Improved communication and care coordination between the physicians and other providers within the acute care settings can greatly impact patient outcomes. Since provider reimbursement is predominantly structured to reward acute services, what changes or mandates would need to be......

Words: 544 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Acute Pyelonephritis

... Acute Pyelonephritis Andrea Gonzales NUR351 NCLEX RN review Ms. Ashcraft March 19, 2013 Definition Pyelonephritis is defined as inflammation of the renal parenchyma and the collecting system. It usually begins with an infection and colonization in the lower urinary tract through the ascending urethra. The types of patients at risk are patients who require frequent catheterization or the use of an indwelling catheter. This could potentially expose the patient to the different bacteria that are likely to cause pyelonephritis. Those bacteria types are E. coli, Proteus, Klebsiella, or Enterobacter. If the patient experiences recurrent episodes it can lead to the kidneys being scarred and becoming dysfunctional, it will have progressed from acute to chronic pyelonephritis. (Lewis, Ruff Dirksen, Mclean Heitkemper, Bucher, & Camera, 2011, pp. 1127,1128) Assessment The patient is a 70 year old female who is a resident of a local nursing home. She has been complaining of unilateral flank pain, which she states gets more intense in the evenings. There at also been times when observed by staff at the nursing home when she seemed increasingly confused or disoriented. During the assessment she stated her flank pain was 8 out of 10, a fever was also noted at 38.9 degrees Celsius. As the assessment furthered she also stated that she has had a decrease of appetite and some GI discomfort. She stated this has been going on for about 4 days, she does require in and......

Words: 500 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Acute Myocardial Infarction

...angioplasty is a procedure to open an area of the arterial blockage in the heart that has become narrowed. This allows better blood flow through the artery and to the heart muscle. It is often done with a catheter that has an inflatable small sausage-shaped balloon at its tip. Coronary angioplasty is being increasingly used as a treatment for coronary artery disease; the proper evaluation and management of patients after the procedure are important issues. Although coronary angioplasty is a complex technical procedure, the methods routinely used to evaluate its results have many limitations. The management of the patient during the first 24 hours after angioplasty should focus on the prevention, detection, and if necessary treatment of acute vessel closure. Assessment: When the patient returns from the cardiac catheterization laboratory, the stability of the patient should be established initially. This will include, but is not limited to, EKG, vital signs, oxygenation level, urine output, cardiac, respiratory, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and gentle urinary assessment. Particular attention must be paid to the peripheral vascular assessment of the lower extremities. Often the patient may return from the cardiac catheterization laboratory with a sheath in place. If this is the case, the institutional procedures for caring for sheaths should be applied. Some institutions, may allow the nurse to remove that sheath. Other institutions require that the physician removes the......

Words: 2162 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Women Experiencing Acute Coronary Syndromes: Do They Differ from Men?

...Symptom Presentation and Treatment for Women Experiencing Acute Coronary Syndromes: Do They Differ from Men? Symptom Presentation and Treatment for Women Experiencing Acute Coronary Syndromes: Do They Differ from Men? There is an overwhelming cultural perception in the United States that coronary artery disease and heart attacks are a disease affecting men and that they are most deadly to the male species. In fact, Acute Myocardial Infarctions, or heart attacks, kill more women then all cancers combined and a female experiencing a heart attack is more likely to die from it than a man (Shirato & Swan 2010). Is there a difference between the way women and men experience an Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) whether it is Unstable Angina or a true Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)? Numerous studies have identified the symptoms females experience when they are suffering from a cardiac event and compared them to males resulting in noteworthy trends identified in the female symptoms. It is also noted that the perception of female cardiac symptoms by the lay community, the health care community and the patients themselves, contribute to the increased death rate in women with AMI. With improved public health education focused on what we’ve learned about the prevalence and seriousness of women experiencing an ischemic cardiac event and their unique symptoms, along with improved training for health care providers that promotes early recognition and aggressive medical...

Words: 2738 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Acute Nursing

...Nursing Practice: Acute NURS7113 Nursing Practice: Acute NURS7113 Due Date: 2nd May 2016 by 0900hours Due Date: 2nd May 2016 by 0900hours Paper Coordinator: Paper Coordinator: | Faculty of HealthAssignment Cover Sheet | Please complete this sheet and attach to your assignment, ensuring that you print clearly. Student ID: | 21303376 | | | Student Name: | KrishnitaSen | | | Programme Name: | Bachelor of Nursing (Pacific) - Year 3 | | | Paper Name: | NURS7113: Nursing Practice- Acute | | | Assignment Name: | Summative Case Study and Reflection | | | Tutor Name: | | | | Date Submitted: | 2nd May, 2016 | | By submitting this assignment, I certify that the work presented follows the guidelines set out in the Programme Handbook and is my own original work. We reserve the right to withhold marks or request further information if we are not satisfied that the work presented is the student’s own, or has been referenced appropriately. Introduction A nurse has a crucial responsibility to make accurate and appropriate clinical decisions in an acute setting working in partnership with health consumers across varies lifespan (Crisp, Taylor, Douglas, Rebeiro, 2013). The assignment aims to help develop the clinical skills of a nurse by demonstrating key aspects of client-centered nursing care in an acute setting during the placement. This assignment is based on a health consumer; that was encountered during clinical placement who is......

Words: 4540 - Pages: 19