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Product Costing and Cost Accumulation in a Batch Production Environment


3-1 (a) Use in financial accounting: In financial accounting, product costs are needed to determine the value of inventory on the balance sheet and to compute the cost-of-goods-sold expense on the income statement.

b) Use in managerial accounting: In managerial accounting, product costs are needed for planning, for cost control, and for decision making.

c) Use in cost management: In order to manage, control, or reduce the costs of manufacturing products or providing services, management needs a clear idea of what those costs are.

(d) Use in reporting to interested organizations: Product cost information is used in reporting on relationships between firms and various outside organizations. For example, public utilities such as electric and gas companies record product costs to justify rate increases that must be approved by state regulatory agencies.

3-2 In a job-order costing system, costs are assigned to batches or job orders of production. Job-order costing systems are used by firms that produce relatively small numbers of dissimilar products. In a process-costing system, production costs are averaged over a large number of product units. Process-costing systems are used by firms that produce large numbers of nearly identical products.

3-3 Concepts of product costing are applied in service industry firms to inform management of the costs of producing services. For example, banks record the costs of producing financial services for the purposes of planning, cost control, and decision making.

3-4 a. Material requisition form: A document upon which the production department supervisor requests the release of raw materials for production.

b. Labor time record: A document upon which employees…...

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