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西天取经与泛项目管理
张权中 马克和 王跃飞 吴雄虎
项目与泛项目
项目和项目管理与人类文明相伴相随如生,自从有了人类,就有组织的活动,就一直执行着各种规模的项目和项目管理。随着社会的发展,有组织的活动逐步分化为两种类型:一类是连续不断、周而复始的活动,人们称之为“运作”(Operations),如企业日常的生产产品的活动;另一类是临时性、一次性的活动,人们称之为“项目”(Projects),如企业的技术改造活动、一项环保工程、产品的研发等。纵观人类历史,一些特大型工程项目一直深刻地影响着人们的生产和生活,至今仍然造福于社会,如中国的万里长
城、埃及金字塔、古罗马的供水渠。只是当时项目管理尚未成为一门科学,处于一种潜意识状态。
美国项目管理协会PMI给项目的定义已经越来越得到世界上其它国家的认可,定义如下:项目是一系列特殊的将被完成的任务,它是在一定条件(时间、成本、质量、范围)限制下,满足特定目标的多项相关工作的总称。此定义实际包含三层含义:①项目是一项有待完成的任务,且有特定的环境与要求;②在一定的组织机构内,利用有限资源(人力、物力、财力等)在规定的时间内完成任务;③任务要满足一定性能、质量、数量、技术指标等要求。因此,工期、费用和质量标准常常被认为是项目目标的铁三角。调查结果显示,项目失败的原因中平均有 2 1 % 在于未能清晰定义项目目标。 然而,现实中的项目却大多没有清晰定义的项目目标,真正能够理想化地将工期、费用和质量目标在启动前就定义清楚的项目,能够完全按照商业合同来规范启动的项目只是少数,更多的是我们可以称之“泛项目”的项目,即不能预先将项目目标、范围等定义清晰,只能大致明确其目的的项目。 举例来说,伊拉克战争就是一个“泛项目”——美国在发动前只能确定它的开始时间,不能确定其结束时间,也不能确定其费用;同样,新产品研发(如抗SARS 药物的研制)也是“泛项目”——人们无法预知该项目将遇到何种技术难题以及它们究竟需要多长时间才能攻克。“泛项目”占了各类组织项目中的大多数,真正能够规范定义的项目在数量上只是少数。通常“泛项目”不像大型的、正规的商业项目那样引人关注,但由于其数量极多,如果不加注意,它们就会将组织的资源消耗殆尽。
西天取经是一个泛项目
《西游记》述说的西天取经的故事就是一个“泛项目”。它并没有一个良好的开始:项目虽然有一个交付物的标准(三藏真经),但质量标准很含糊(师徒四人到达西天后,如来只是吩咐阿傩、伽叶“将我那三藏经中三十五部之内,各拣几卷与他,教他传流东土,永注洪恩”);它并没有限定时间和费用指标(就连观音菩萨也认为取经时间是“未定,约莫二三年间,或可至此”,唐僧更是认为“或三二年,或五七年”);它没有限定项目范围;此外,这个项目既没有周密计划,又没有考虑风险等。然而,这个项目又无疑是成功的:它的利益相关者均对该项目的结局表示满意。 下面让我们看一看这个泛项目的各个相关方的表现: 项目发起人 如来佛无疑是项目的发起人。《西游记》是一个佛界故事,如来佛是其中最高层的管理人员,他提出了该项目的目的,负责提供项目关键资源和协调利益相关者,并最终决定项目是否结束和对项目团队的奖惩。作为项目发起人,如来佛尽到了对项目的责任。首先,他明确提出了项目的目的“到西天取得三藏真经,永传东土,劝人为善”);其次,他 提供了项目经理的条件(项目经理需要是“东土善信”,并且“肯坚心来此”),为其提供了必要的资源(袈裟、锡杖可以使取经人“免堕轮回”、“不遭毒害”、“金紧禁三道箍儿” 可以给取经人收服徒弟,“管教他入我门来”);第三,他帮助协调职能部门经理们,让他们更好地支持项目(吩咐太上老君等支持除妖降魔);第四,他提供了项目的管理原则(必 须历经九九八十一难);第五,他在取经的全过程关注项目,但并不多干预,只在关键时候施以援手(例如只有在处理真假悟空这样的难题时才出手);第六,他签发了项目的正式 结束,并给予了绩效评价(给予项目团队评价和封赏)。 职能部门经理 在《西游记》中,观世音菩萨、太上老君等诸神可看作是职能部门经理,大多数项目需要的资源都掌握在他们手里,这些资源包括各种法宝,就连项目经理和项目团队 成员也是他们提供的。天上诸神乃是职能部门经理,其中又以观世音菩萨为代表(她的职能类似于人力资源部经理或项目管理办公室主任)。这些部门经理们为项目提供资 源,规范项目的运行,并记录项目的过程。当取经团队碰到困难时,他们总是及时施以援手,必要时会亲自出马。 项目经理 唐僧无疑为项目经理,他将对实现项目成果负责。作为项目经理,唐僧虽不杰出,但无疑是称职的。第一,他懂得业务(会念经,也知道真经与假经);第二,他熟悉佛 家规则,能够坚持原则,十分明了项目的使命而且信念坚定;第三,他与项目发起人、客户与职能部门经理们有良好的关系。他与如来是师徒关系,与项目客户唐太宗是结 义兄弟。这两种关系使他在神、凡两界游刃有余:在神界,诸神仙看在如来的份上对其照顾有加,使其免受妖魔侵害,西天取经”是一个“一把手工程”;在凡界,大唐天子的 威信使他在各沿途小国被当作“上僧”(获得食宿、签证等方便);第四,他对项目团队的管理颇有艺术。有人说,唐僧太无能了,其实无为而治是唐僧最大法宝。西天取经的 一个直接目标就是到达雷音寺,然而,即使像唐僧这样的佛学老手也有误认雷音寺的情况发生。如果将项目经理换成孙悟空之辈,取经项目极可能会以失败而告终。 项目团队成员 团队成员有孙悟空、猪八戒、沙和尚、白龙马。在项目团队成员中,孙悟空无疑是技术人员的代表,或者说他是一个“技术牛仔”,他热爱自己的专业(降妖除魔)并且专业水平高超。九九八十一难中的妖魔鬼怪则是项目障碍了。在处理这些项目障碍的时候,孙悟空表现出非凡的专业才能和本领,虽然都经过了一番艰苦,但最终还是一步步地解决了问题和困难。沙僧是一个最好的项目秘书,他勤恳,做事认真,能力一般。白龙马是一个项目辅助人员,他帮助调拨项目所需要的设备。八戒技术水平中等,既自私又胆小,有许多弱点,但他却是团队的凝聚剂,缺少了八戒西天取经的项目就无法以成功。由于八戒的存在使孙悟空有情绪发泄的地方。在悟空闹意见、有情绪、搞辞职时,他是最佳的思想工作者。 项目客户 项目客户是唐太宗,他将使用项目成果。作为使用取经项目成果的项目客户,唐太宗在《西游记》中出现的很少,而且他不是佛学行家,并不懂得项目交付物的质量标准。这一点与现实中的泛项目很相似,客户都不是行家,他们不能用规范的术语定义客户需求。然而唐太宗的作用却非同小可。由于东土大唐的威望,使项目团队一路获得了许多方便,他们很容易得到批准,进入项目的下一个阶段。 西天取经的管理经验 1.强有力的项目发起人对泛项目极为重要。很多“泛项目”是在没有明确的项目发起人情况下发起的,政府项目、非营利机构的项目常常如此。这些仅靠一个公章来代替项目发起人的“泛项目”往往会造成失败的结局;可行性研究会成为真正的以“可行”为预设研究结论的工作;项目失败后一般是由项目承担者对后果负责,参与可行性论证的人员则毫无责任,由于没有明确的项目发起人,更谈不上让项目发起人承担责任。项目发起人要落实到人,没有明确项目发起人的项目不能称为“泛项目”,它们只能称之为有残疾的项目。 2.泛项目需要职能部门的经理们给予更多的关注和支持。一般而言,因为项目需要的支持难以预先明晰,并在项目章程等文件中规定,“泛项目”需要职能部门的经理给予更多的关注和支持。在西天取经项目中,职能部门的经理们从不与项目经理争夺资源,仅这一点,就比现实中众多组织的职能经理们要强。在未来的社会环境中,项目是各类组织业绩的主要来源,是各类组织成长的驱动力,因此,未来的组织形态应该是这样的:创新性任务通过动态的项目团队来完成,职能部门作为项目团队资源(人、财、物、信息、工具、规范等)的机构而存在。职能部门的大力支持能够为“泛项目”的项目经理和项目团队成员注入信心,这种信心是“泛项目”成功完成的重要保障。 有意思的是,西天取经项目中碰到的诸多障碍正是职能经理们和项目发起人造成的:虽然有其他的妖魔鬼怪,但给项目造成真正麻烦的是职能经理们的徒弟、坐骑等,而它们的出现恰恰是项目发起人如来刻意安排的,是为了考察项目团队的虔诚。这与现实中的项目是何其相似! 正因为“泛项目”比规范项目面临更多的不确定性,它们的项目团队更需要得到项目发起人和职能经理的信任,请千万记住这一点。 3.人——技术——流程之间的和谐对泛项目极为关键。“泛项目”的目标是难以一下子准确定义的,它需要在项目进行的过程中不断修正和明晰,监控、集权等管理方法用在“泛项目”上往往会无的放矢,不仅不能有助于项目的进行,还可能挫伤项目团队的积极性。对于项目管理而言,“外行领导内行”是十分正常的,下属在某些方面比上司知道得多,这正是他们的价值所在。因此,项目经理必须既能调动项目团队成员的积极性,又能规范项目团队成员的行为,使他们有能力向着项目成功需要的方面发挥。在这两个方面唐僧做得很好,一方面他满足了几个徒弟在专业方面的虚荣心,让他们勤奋工作,另一方面,他用紧箍咒控制悟空,用悟空控制八戒……真正做到了“放手与放心”管理。 值得注意的是,无论是唐僧还是悟空、八戒等,所有的取经团队成员均是戴罪之人,然而,这些戴罪之人却组成了一个极佳的团队并完成了任务。对于“泛项目”而言,人——技术——流程之间的和谐才是极为关键的,只看重英雄的项目组会毁了项目团队的建设。 4.缺乏明确的客户使项目变成了泛项目。对于“泛项目”来说,还很有可能没有明确的客户或存在广义的客户,或者说,缺乏明确的客户是使该项目变成“泛项目”的一个重要原因。特别是对于政府发起的“泛项目”(如公共投资项目、纵向科研项目等)来说,在项目需求的提出、项目验收以及项目管理过程中没有明确的客户责任,在此情况下,项目发起人应当承担起这些责任。

主要参考书目: 1.Project Management Institute of American,a Guide to the project management Body of knowledge2000[M],2001 2.戴维·克利兰,项目经理便携手册[M],机械工业出版社, 2002 3.中国项目管理学术委员会,中国项目管理知识体系纲要[M],电子工业出版社,2002…...

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...NT1310 : Project Page 1 PROJECT DESCRIPTION As the project manager for the Cable Planning team, you will manage the creation of the cable plan for the new building that will be built, with construction set to begin in six weeks. The deliverables for the entire Cable Plan will consist of an Executive Summary, a PowerPoint Presentation and an Excel Spreadsheet. You will develop different parts of each of these in three parts. The final organization should contain these elements: The Executive Summary: o Project Introduction o Standa rds and Codes  Cable Standards and Codes  Building Standards and Codes o Project Materials o Copper Cable, Tools, and Test Equipment o Fiber - Optic Cable, Tools, and Test Equipment o Fiber - Optic Design Considerations o Basement Server Complex Design o First Floor Design o Security and Safety o Component Cost, Picture, and source The Excel Spreadsheet: Component Names Component Descriptions Component Costs Total Project Costs The PowerPoint Presentation: Introductory Slide Component Slides with Component Name, Quantity Needed, Description, Price, Picture, and Reference (where to buy the component) Description of the Basement Telecommunications and Network Server Space Network Equipment Required for the Server Farm Cable Plant Design for the Basement NT1310 : Project Page 2 Standard Floor Desig n for Computers and Network Equipment Cable Plant for the Standard Floor Course Objectives......

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...Project Plan Outline 1.0 Goals and Objectives This section presents a general description of the project along with any general or technical constraints and/or considerations. Please include the sub-sections below. 1. Project name 2. Business goals and project goals 3. Scope 4. Time and budget constraints 5. General and technical requirements 6. Training and documentation 7. Installation 2.0 Project Estimates This section presents a set of estimates for the completion of the project, including people, hardware and software. Please include the following sub-sections. 1. People costs a. Historical or researched data used for estimates (Requires annotation listing where you got this information) b. Salary requirements 2. Equipment costs (Requires costs for all hardware and software used. It is assumed that all hardware and software will be new). a. Hardware b. Software 3. Estimation techniques and results a. Process-based (use the format shown in section 1.2.1 of the lecture) b. Second method c. Triangulation results 3.0 Project Schedule This section presents an overview of project tasks and the output of a project scheduling tool. The following sub-sections should be included: 3.1 Project task list The tasks that have been selected for the project are presented in this section. 3.2 Task network Project tasks and their dependencies are noted in this diagrammatic form. 3.3 Timeline chart A project timeline chart (Gantt chart) is......

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...seek a Project Manager in their Washington DC offices. Provides program support to team members as needed related to projects and program activities. Tasks include task tracking, program change management support, administrative support and project and program reporting. Helps with the preparation of project and program schedules and coordinates the necessary internal and external resources to fulfill the project and program activities within the prescribed time frames and funding parameters to ensure project and program objectives and stakeholders expectations are met. Specific responsibilities include: * Coordinates activities within the project life-cycle including initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and control phases. * * Helps with the preparation of Project and Program Weekly Status report as necessary and upload to the Project Server in a timely fashion. * Generates various other Project, Program and department related status reports as needed. * Helps prepare responses for anticipated questions during the weekly ITIL meeting (in case of a Red project). * Helps Identify and schedules project deliverables, milestones, and required tasks. * Prepares change management documentation in support of the change management process and supports the Change Management meeting. * Documents all change management decisions according to the change management process * Coordinates selection and assignment of SMEs to the......

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...Strategy & Project Management: Project orientated organisations Finnland 2005 Prof. (FH) Peter J. Mirski Prof.(FH) Mag. Peter J. Mirski Tel.: +43-512-2070-3510 E-Mail: peter.mirski@mci.edu http://www.mci.edu Current Position MCI, University of Applied Sciences: Director of studies „Management & IT“, Head of IT-Services Academical Profile Research projectmangement, knowledgemanagement strategic information management, e-learning Education process, project, information management Publications and articles in journals Practice Profile Management, R&D Project Management, CEO, CIO Consulting & Training Agenda 10:00 – 14:00 Brief project management overview Project orientated organisations Project scorecard Discussion Literature De Marco T., „The Deadline“, Dorset House Publishing Co ,1997 Goldratt E., “The Critical Chain“, North River Press, 1997 Heerkins G., „project management“, briefcase books 2002 PMBOK Guide, „A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge“, PM Institute, 2000 Links •www.p-m-a.at (pm baseline english, german) •www.pmi.com (pm information) project management overview Importance of Project Management • Projects represent change and allow organizations to effectively introduce new products, new processes, new programs • Project management offers a means for dealing with dramatically reduced product cycle times • Projects are becoming globalised, making them more difficult to manage without a formal methodology –...

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...SECOND YEAR FINAL PROJECT COURSE CODE: 227 NAME: MUIGUA STEPHEN GITAU ADM NO: P15/54335/2012 SUPERVISOR: ERIC AYIENGA   DECLARATION I, Muigua Stephen Gitau, do declare that this project is my own work, and as per my knowledge, it has not been submitted to any other institution of higher learning. Student’s Name: MUIGUA STEPHEN GITAU Registration No: P15/54335/2012 Signature: _________________________________________________________ Date: _________________________________________________________ This project has been submitted as a partial fulfillment of requirements for the Diploma in Computer Science of the University of Nairobi with my approval as the University Supervisor. Supervisor’s Name: Mr. ERIC AYIENGA Signature: ___________________________________________________________ Date: _______________________________________________________________   ACKNWOLEDGEMENT I thank almighty God; I thank Nairobi University of Kenya in Conjunction with the School of Computing and Informatics for facilities and resources they availed during execution of this project. I take this opportunity to express my sincere appreciation to my supervisor Mr. Ayienga and the entire Faculty of Computer Science for the exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant encouragement throughout the course. Lastly, I thank my parents, for their constant support even as I worked over the night and throughout the week towards school and this......

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...THE CONTRIBUTION OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF GHANA INTRODUCTION Project management as a management discipline underpins much economic activity. In industries as diverse as pharmaceuticals, software and aerospace, projects drive business. And in the public sector, it is effective project management that translates politicians' promises of new roads, schools and hospitals into gleaming new constructions that improve everyday life. The development of Ghana Successive Ghanaian governments pursued various models of economic development throughout the 1960s, 70s and 80s. In the immediate post independent era of the early 1960s, Ghana’s economic development objectives were geared towards the ‘Big Push’ primary economic policies. These revolved around: a major investment effort; an industrialization drive; increased import substitution; processing of commodities and minerals previously exported in their raw form; and direct state participation in leading areas of the economy. The 1970s ushered in a policy of increased ‘Ghanaianisation’ or indigenisation with specified industrial activities reserved for state participation, Ghana-foreign ownership, and exclusive Ghana ownership, among others. The early 1980s saw the liberalization of the Ghanaian economy and the encouragement of foreign investments. All these approaches, however, fell far short of expectations and the failures were exacerbated by adverse terms of trade, falling commodity prices, and crippling debt......

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...Project Kick-Off Meeting Dwayne A. Blanchette BUS 611: Project Planning and Management Dr.: Donald McKay April 25, 2016 Recently the project charter for transitioning the Quick Drop 100 (QD100) from New York to Florida received final authorization. I was awarded the project and assigned as project manager (PM) to lead a team of qualified individuals and complete the task of relocating the QD100 program to the state of Florida. The next step in the preparation phase is to hold a project kickoff meeting. This meeting will be used to acclimate team members, clients, and other attendants to ensure everyone understands the key players and their respective roles. As the PM I plan to generate enthusiasm, motivation, and excitement while maintaining a guided discussion regarding the content, schedule, and duration of the project from start to finish. To prepare for the meeting I will accomplish several preliminary tasks. The most important areas to consider during preparation include identifying stakeholders, communication methods, team building, accountability and code of conduct. Once the tone has been set and key points discussed the meeting will conclude by first reiterating member expectations and responsibilities followed by a summary of all pertinent information. The bottom line is this kickoff meeting will be presented as such to ensure all relevant attendants and stakeholders are provided a transparent achievable list of goals. Stakeholders A......

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